How to write APA style Citation

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by University of Malaya Library (UML) Source: Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2010). (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Title Content Page Content 1-3 General Rules 4-5 Single Author Two Authors Three to Seven Authors More Than Seven Authors Author – Malay Names (Without family names) Author – Chinese Names Author – Chinese Names with English Names Author – Indian & Sikh Names (without family names) Inherited Names Conferred Titles Local Government Institution as Author Foreign Government Institute as Author Unique Corporate Body Names Organization as Author Conference Names with Numbers Unknown Author Reference List: Book 6 Basic Format for Books Edited Book, No Author Edited Book with an Author or Authors A Translation Edition Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Multivolume Work Reference List: Articles in Periodicals 7 Basic Form Article in Journal Paginated by Volume Article in Journal Paginated by Issue 1 Article in a Magazine Article in a Newspaper Letter to the Editor Review Reference List: Other Print Sources 8-9 An Entry in an Encyclopedia Work Discussed in a Secondary Source Government Document Report from a Private Organization Published Conference Paper in Book Form Proceedings Published Regularly Online Unpublished Conference Paper Academic Exercise/Thesis (Unpublished) Doctoral Dissertation, abstracted in DAI Master’s Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation from a Commercial Database Master’s Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation from an Institutional Database (sometimes referred to as commons Master’s Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation from the Web Doctoral thesis, from a university outside the United States Reference List: Electronic Sources 10-12 Article From an Online Periodical/Databases Online Scholarly Journal Article Online Scholarly Article with Printed Version Available Online Newspaper Article Online Magazine Article Non periodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report Chapter or Section of a Web Document Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting Computer Software E-books 2 Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources 13-14 Interview, Email, and Other Personal Communications Motion Picture A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability Television Series Episode (Broadcast) Single Episode of a Television Series Television Broadcast A Television Series Music Recording Suggested Reading Materials Appendix 3 General Rules Single Author Last name first, followed by author Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological initials. Science, 11, 7-10. Two Authors List by their last names and initials. Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood Use the ampersand (&) instead of management across affective states: The hedonic "and." contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048. Three to Seven List by last names and initials; Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Authors commas separate author names, White, A., Ganster, D. C., & Harlow, T. (1993). while the last author name is There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high preceded again by ampersand (&). or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204. APA 6th ed. uses “. . .” instead, More Than Seven Harris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro, replacing all authors between the Authors R., Cruz, P., … Berry, A. (2001). Writing labs and sixth author and the last author. the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing, 44(3), 213-245. Author - Malay Omit bin/binti Asmah Binti Omar Names Cite as (without family names) Asmah Omar. (1991). Kemahiran berbahasa. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Penerbitan Pustaka Antara. Author - Chinese First name first, followed by author Chu Chin Ning Names initials. Cite as Chu, C. N. (1995). Simulated counter-current adsorption processes: A comparison of modeling strategies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 56, 59-65. Author - Chinese Family names followed by the Vincent Foo Hiap Khian Names with initials of the English name and the English Names author initials. Cite as Foo, V. H. K. (1983). Sarawak: Mini episodes of the past. Selangor, Malaysia: Fajar Bakti. 4 Author-Indian & Omit d/o, s/o, a/l, a/p Narrayani a/p Jeganathan. Sikh Names Cite as (without family names) Narrayani Jeganathan. Inherited Names Cite as it is Raja Ahmad Niza. Cite as Raja Ahmad Niza. Conferred titles Omit title Tun Mahathir Mohamad Cite as Mahathir Mohamad. Local Cite under state and followed by Pahang, Jabatan Alam Sekitar. Government the name of department in Malay. Institution as Author Foreign Cite under state or country and New Zealand, Department of External Affairs. Government followed by the name of Institution as department in English. Author Unique If the name starts with Foundation Yayasan Sabah. Corporate Body (Yayasan), Board (Lembaga), cite Names as it is given. Organization as Cite as it is. American Psychological Association. Author Conference Do not include the numbers. Fifth Asia-Pacific Physics Conference Names with Numbers Cite as Asia-Pacific Physics Conference Unknown Author Don‟t use „Anonymous‟. Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. 5 Reference List : Books Basic Format for Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to Title of work: Capital letter also for preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Books subtitle. Location: Publisher. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Note: For place of publication cite Neftci, S. N. (2009). Principles of financial engineering includes a country. (2nd ed.). London, England: Academic. Lawford, C. K. (2009). Moments of clarity: Voices from the front lines of addiction and recovery. New York, NY: William Morrow. Edited Book Unknown author. Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Edited Book With author / authors. Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor. A Translation Note: When you cite a republished Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on work in your text, it should appear probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). with both dates. New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814). nd Edition Only for 2 edition onwards. Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, NY: University of Chicago Press. Article or Chapter Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year Rogoff, B., & Mistry, J. (1985). Memory development in in an Edited Book of publication). Title of chapter. In cultural context. In M. Pressley & C.J. Brainerd A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of (Eds.), Cognitive learning and memory in children book (pages of chapter). Location: (pp. 117-142). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. Publisher. Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers. Use Vol. for a single volume and Levinson, D. & Ember, M. (Eds.). (1996). Encyclopedia Multivolume Work Vols. for multiple volumes. of cultural anthropology (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Henry Holt. 6 Reference List : Articles in Periodicals Basic Form The APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. Article in Journal Continuous pagination throughout Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing Paginated by psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative volume. Volume and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896. Article in Journal Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Journals paginated by issue begin Paginated by with page one in every issue. Criterion, 15(30), 5-13. Issue Therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. Article in a Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in Magazine today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31. Article in a Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Newspaper precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Today, pp. 1A, 2A. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4. Letter to the Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles Editor Letter to the editor. Scientific American, 287(2), 12. Review Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466- 467. 7 Reference List : Other Print Sources An Entry in an Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Encyclopedia Chicago, NA: Encyclopedia Britannica. Work Discussed List the source the work was In the text, use the following citation: in a Secondary discussed in: Source In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), ... & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Reference list: Review, 100, 589-608. Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). NOTE: Give the secondary source Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel- in the references list. In the text, distributed-processing approaches. Psychological name the original work, and give a Review, 100, 589-608. citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work, list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. Government National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical Document training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Report from a Author & publisher same American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice Private guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating Organization disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Published Hasmah Zanuddin, & Azizah Hamzah. (2007). Conference International trade agreement of intellectual property Paper in Book rights (TRIPS), copyright issues & burden to enforce in Malaysia. In K.Y. Choi (Ed.), Korean studies in Form Southeast Asia: Strategic cooperation and development in research and education: nd Proceedings of the 2 International Conference of the Korean Studies Association of Southeast Asia University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (pp. 121-138). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University of Malaya. Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., & Lent, R. (2008). Proceedings To cite proceedings that are published published regularly, use the same The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences regularly online format as periodical. 105, 245-249. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805417105 8 Unpublished Nadaraja Kannan. (2006, Nov). The economic depression of the 1930s: Its impact on race relations Conference Paper in the Federated Malay State. Paper presented at the International Association of Historians of Asia Conference, Manila, Philippines. Academic Eg: Santini, S. N. (2008). Research methods for business: A (Unpublished academic exercise); skill building approach. (Unpublished master‟s Exercise / Thesis (Unpublished) (Unpublished master‟s thesis); thesis). University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Malaysia. Yoshida, Y. (2001). Essays in urban transportation. Doctoral Dissertation, Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A. abstracted in DAI Eg: Saarivirta-Kolpack, M. (2006). A history of early teacher Master's Thesis / Doctoral (Master‟s thesis); training practices at Northern (Michigan University), 1899-1953 (Master's thesis). Available from Dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). from a ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 1439820) commercial database Master’s Thesis / Eg: Harper, E. B. (2007). The role of terrestrial habitat in the (Master‟s thesis); population dynamics and conservation of pond- Doctoral Dissertation from (Doctoral dissertation). breeding amphibians (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://edt.missouri.edu an institutional database – Institutional thesis from US (sometimes referred to as a Commons) Eg: Bartel, T. M. C. (2005). Factors associated with Master’s Thesis / Doctoral (Master‟s thesis); attachment in international adoption (Doctoral (Doctoral dissertation). dissertation, Kansas State University). Retrieved Dissertation from the web from http://hdl.handle.net/2097/131 Doctoral thesis, Carlborn, P. (2000). Carbody and passengers in rail vehicle dynamics (Doctoral thesis, Royal Institute of from a university outside the Technology, Stockholm, Sweden). Retrieved from United States http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva- 3029 9 Reference List : Electronic Sources Article From an Online articles follow the same Article without DOI: Online Periodical / guidelines for printed articles. Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A Databases Include all information the online List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. host makes available, including Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/cite an issue number in parentheses. living Article without DOI: Article with DOI: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of Gelkopf, M., Ryan, P., Cotton, S., & Berger, R. (2008). article. Title of Online Periodical, The impact of “training the trainers” for helping volume number(issue number if tsunami-survivor children on Sri Lankan disaster available). Retrieved from volunteer workers. International Journal of Stress http://www.someaddress.com/full Management,15(2), 117-135. doi:10.1037/1072- /url/ 5245.15.2.117 Article with DOI: OR Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of Wooldridge, M. B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with article. Title of Journal, volume technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower number, page range. during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied doi:0000000/000000000000 or Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2012.05.005 APA 6th ed. does not include the retrieval date unless the source is likely to change often (for example, a Wiki). Instead, “Retrieved from” is used. APA 6th ed. does not include database information; instead, the home page URL of the journal is used. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): Many online journal entries include a DOI, either with the copyright information or in the online citation. If a DOI is present, it should be used instead of other retrieval information. Note: If a DOI is available it should be used instead of the URL. If both the journal's URL and the DOI are unavailable, the best course is to treat the source as you would an offline journal. 10 Online Scholarly Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature Journal Article (Date of publication). Title of of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. article. Title of Journal, volume Retrieved from number. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html http://www.someaddress.com/full /url/ Online Scholarly If the article appears as a printed Whitmeyer, J. M. (2000). Power through appointment Journal Article with version as well, the URL is not Electronic version. Social Science Research, 29, Printed Version required. Use "Electronic 535-555. Available version" in brackets after the article's title. Online Newspaper Author, A. A. (Date of Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep article publication). Title of article. Title brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com http://www.someaddress.com/full url NOTE: Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available to avoid nonworking URLs. Online Magazine Author, A. A. (Date of Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists Article publication). Title of article. Title fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on of Magazine. Retrieved from Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full http://www.apa.org/monitor/ url Nonperiodical Web List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to Document, Web find the information. If there is a page such as http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and Page, or Report somepage.htm does not carry the information you are looking for, move up the URL to http://www.somesite.com/) Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address. Title of document (Date of publication). Retrieved day, month, year, from http://Web address NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. Chapter or Section Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL rewriting engine. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1.3 of a Web Document (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger Documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from document (chapter or section http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite. number). Retrieved from html http://www.someaddress.com/full /url/. 11 NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the Web site. Online Forum or For a message posted to an Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the Discussion Board online newsgroup, forum, or cyberworld of toylandia Msg 25. Message posted to Posting discussion group, include the http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.ht title of the message, and the ml URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. NOTE: If only the screen name is available for the author, then use the screen name. However, if the author provides a real name, use their real name instead. Be sure to provide the exact date of the posting. Follow the date with the subject line, the thread of the message (not in italics). Provide any identifiers in brackets after the title, as in other types of references. Computer Software Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry computer software. New York, NY: Worth. E-Books Statistics New Zealand. (2000). Agricultural production statistics 1999. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/methods_and_services/acces s-data/tables/agriculture-stats-1999.aspx 12 Reference List : Other Non-Print Sources Interview, Email, No personal communication is (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001). and Other Personal included in your reference list; Communications instead, parenthetically cite the A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had communicators name and the difficulties with APA style (personal communication, date of the communication in November 3, 2002). your main text only. Motion Picture Basic reference list format: Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture Motion picture. Country of origin: Studio or distributor. Note: If a movie or video tape is unavailable in wide distribution, add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code). A Motion Picture or Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). Video Tape with (2001). Really big disaster movie Motion picture. International or United States: Paramount Pictures National availability A Motion Picture or Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Video Tape with Writing labs: A history Motion picture. (Available from Limited Availability Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907) Television Series Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Brixius, L., & Wallen, L. (Writers), & Feig, P. (Director). Episode Director, D. D. (Director). (Year (2010). Years of service Television series episode. In (Broadcast) of broadcast). Title of Episode B. Carpenter (Producer), Nurse Jackie. Santa Monica, Type of Work. In Name of CA: Lionsgate Television. Producer (Function), Title of Television series. City of production: Name of Studio. Single Episode of a Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I. R. (Director). (1986). Television Series Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of The rising angel and the falling ape Television series publication). Title of episode episode. In D. Dude (Producer), Creatures and Television series episode. In P. monsters. Los Angeles, CA: Belarus Studios. Producer (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Studio or distributor. Television Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour Television broadcast. New York, Broadcast NY: Central Broadcasting Service. A Television Series Bellisario, D. L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting action show Television series. Hollywood: American Broadcasting 13 Company. Music Recording Songwriter, W. W. (Date of Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight copyright). Title of song Recorded by Elton John. On Captain fantastic and Recorded by artist if different the brown dirt cowboy CD. London, England: Big Pig from song writer. On Title of Music Limited. album Medium of recording. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date). Note: The DOI can be looked up via http://www.crossref.org/ University of Malaya Library (UML) Updated 9 May 2014/BKM 14 Appendix Suggested Reading Materials Allison, B. (2004). The student’s guide to preparing dissertations and theses (2nd ed.). London, England: Routledge Falmer. Amato, C. J. (1998). The world’s easiest guide to using the APA: A user-friendly manual for formatting research papers according to the American Psychological Association style guide (2nd ed.). Westminster, CA: Stargazer Pub. Azirah Hashim. (2005). How to write a thesis: The thesis writing journey from start to finish. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University of Malaya Press. Biagioli, M. (2003). Scientific authorship: Credit and intellectual property in science (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Creme, P. (2008). Writing at university: A guide for students. Buckingham, England: Open University Press. Gibaldi, J. (2003). MLA handbook for writers of research papers (6th ed.). New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America. Holloway, B. R. (2008). Technical writing basics: A guide to style and form (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Holtom, D. (1999). Enjoy writing your science thesis or dissertation: A step-by-step guide to planning and writing dissertations and theses for undergraduate and graduate science students. London, England: Imperial College Press. Huckin, T. N. (1991). Technical writing and professional communication: For nonnative speakers of English. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Jariah Mohd Jan. (2003). Guide to the preparation of research reports: Dissertations and theses. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: IPS. Kirkman, A. J. (2006). Punctuation matters: Advice on punctuation for scientific and technical writing (4th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis. Li, X., & Crane, N. B. (1996). Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information. Medford, NJ: Information Today. Lindsay, D. (1993). Panduan penulisan saintifik: Manual untuk pelajar dan penyelidik. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Lunenberg, F. C. (2008). Writing a successful theses or dissertation: Tips and strategies for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 15 Locke, L. F. (2007). Proposals that work: A guide for planning dissertations and grant proposal (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub. Matthews, J. R. (2000). Successful scientific writing: A step-by-step guide for the biological and medical sciences (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Mohd. Yusof Hj. Othman. (1996). Panduan penyelidikan sains dan penulisan saintifik. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. O‟Connor, M. (1991). Writing successfully in science. London, England: E & FN Spon. Rubens, P. (2001). Science and technical writing: A manual of style (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Rugg, G. (2004). The unwritten rules of PhD research. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Russey, W. E. (2006). How to write a successful science thesis: The concise guide for students. Berlin, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.KGaA. Trimmer, J. (1998). The essentials of MLA style: A guide to documentation for writers of research papers, with an Appendix on APA style. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Turabian, K. L. (2007). A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations: Chicago style for students and researchers (7th ed.). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Turk, C. (1989). Effective writing: Improving scientific, technical and business communication (2nd ed.). London, England: E. & F.N. Spon. Winkler, A. C. (1999). Writing the research paper: A handbook with both the MLA and APA documentation styles (5th ed.). Forth Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Yang, J. T. (1995). An outline of scientific writing: For researchers with English as a foreign language. Singapore: World Scientific. 16