How are living things classified virtual lab

how to keep a living lab alive and what is an innovation lab and innovation center and how to extract dna from anything living lab report | free pdf download
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DrKateBesant,United States,Researcher
Published Date:06-07-2017
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The Living Lab Methodology Handbookthe huge shift There has been a huge shift from a product based economy to a service economy, especially with digital services. Innovative services can take many different forms: it can be to wrap a service around a product or reimagine a product as a service, such a software-as-a-service firms have done; it can also be to rescope the business area from products to services to feed future growth. Creating innovative services that have market impact is not a straightfor- ward process and for SMEs, the innovation process can be even harder to accomplish. Some SMEs might not have the resources, or all the needed competencies, to carry out the innovation activities. Living Labs strive to sup- port the innovation process for all involved stakeholders, from manufacturers 1 to end-users, with special attention to SMEs and a focus on potential users. Living Lab research is emerging as a potentially important stream in inno- vation research. Until now, it has mainly been concerned with issues such as defining Living Labs, explaining how Living Lab supports the innovation process, presenting the outcome of Living Lab projects and suggesting how to effectively involve users in the Living Lab context. For innovation professionals, Living Lab research can contribute to their innovation practices, since it offers an avenue to promote open service innovation. This book strives to raise awareness of the potential of Living Lab research and to increase its legitimacy in the innovation research area, by presenting the Living Lab methodology. What is an innovation? Most innovations come from gaps between an existing product and custo- mers’ expectations. The technological factor is only one element of the innovation. Other elements can be better working conditions or methods of service delivery that may, or may not, have a technological component. To innovate means to create something new and different, and to be creative. One of the aims, when dealing with innovations, is to learn from mistakes so that these can be avoided in future innovation processes. In ad- dition, when dealing with innovations, to learn means to seek, use and share information about what went wrong. Besides, innovation involves encoura- ging idea generation and to put promising concepts into the test. 2 An innovation can be an “outside-in” innovation that happens when custo- mers’ unmet needs are analysed in a new manner, or the innovation can be a “customer-pulled” innovation that might crop up when customers are gathered in a focus-group, in which the aim is to determine unmet needs. Working with innovation is expensive, risky and time consuming. Additionally, the work with innovation is unpredictable. Hence, it is important to decrease these factors and to create opportunities for success for the innovations. One way to accomplish this is to have good market contact, meaning to know what the user actually wants and needs. What is a Service? Services cannot be seen, tasted, touched, or smelled, before they are purchased. A service can be an activity, a performance, or an object. A product may include a service, and a service is produced and consumed at the same time. The difference between products and services is recognizable, but can be difficult to grasp. If we think of a service as a servant, the difference beco- mes more obvious. A service is always available; it is on-line, intelligent and cooperative. When a service is used, it is interactive and offers possibilities to correct and influence the performance of it. In addition, a good service is mobile, always in the background and ready to be activated when it is needed. 3Living Lab is a concept to support the processes of user-driven ICT sys- tems. One precondition in Living Lab activities is that they are situated in real-world contexts, not constructed laboratory settings. Living Lab is an answer to many contemporary trends such as, for instance: • users changed r oles fr om passive consumers to active pr osumers of content, • shortened time to market for innovators, • a globalized market through internet and IT’s entrance into peoples every- day activities. A network was established in 2006, European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL). At this moment (2012), 320 Living Labs are members of ENoLL and the network is continuously growing. The members are operating all around the world, but their main residence is in Europe. 5 A Living Lab has the endeavour to support the innovation process for all in- volved stakeholders, from manufacturers to end-users with special attention to SMEs, with the potential users in the centre in their real world context. To date there exists no agreed upon definition of the concept. It has been defined as a methodology, an organization, a system, an arena, an environ- ment, and/or a systemic innovation approach. Based on our interpretation of the concept as well as our experiences of Living Lab practices, we define Living Labs as both an environment (milieu, arena) and an approach (methodology, innovation approach).Living Lab as an Environment Many different types of Living Lab environments exists such as: 1 Research Living Labs focusing on performing research on different aspects of the innovation process. 2 Corporate Living Labs that focus on having a physical place where they invite stakeholders (e.g. citizens) to co-create innovations. 3 Organizational Living Lab where the members of an organization co-creatively develop innovations. 4 Intermediary Living Labs in which different partners are invited to collaboratively innovate in a neutral arena. 5 A time limited Living Lab as a support for the innovation process in a project. The Living Lab closes when the project ends. Due to the constant development of the concept other types of Living Labs 6 certainly exists. In a Living Lab, the aim is to accomplish quattro helix by harmonizing the innovation process among four main stakeholders: companies, users, public organisations and researchers. These stakeholders can benefit from the Living COMPANIES Lab approach in many different ways, for instance companies can get new RESEARCHERS and innovative ideas, users can get the PUBLIC innovation they want, researchers can ORGANISATIONS get study cases and public organisations can get increased return on investment USERS on innovation research. R E S E A R C H E R U T C U R T S A N R F N I O & T I C P I A T R T N A E R The components of a Living Lab are ICT and Infrastructure, Management, Partners and Users, Research and Approach. At the centre you always find innovation. • ICT & Infrastructure outlines the role that ICT technology can play to facilitate new ways of cooperating and co-creating new innovations among stakeholders. • Management represent the ownership, organization, and policy aspects, a Living Lab can be managed by e.g. consultants, companies or researchers. • Partners & Users bring their own specific wealth of knowledge and expertise to the collective, helping to achieve boundary spanning knowledge transfer. • Research symbolizes the col- lective learning and reflection 7 that take place in the Living Lab. Technological research partners can also provide direct access to research that can benefit the outcome of a technological innovation. • Approach. Represents the methods and techniques for Living Lab practices which are nesessary for professional and successful Living Lab operations. S V & U S O E R S N H C N A O R I P P A M A N A G E M E N THence, a Living Lab environment should have a good relation with, and access to, users willing to be involved in innovation processes. Any Living Lab should also have access to multi-contextual environments, as well as high-end technology and infrastructure that can support both the proces- ses of user involvement and technology development and tests. Each Living Lab environment also needs organisation and methodologies suitable for its specific circumstances. Finally, a Living Lab needs access to a diversity of expertise in terms of different partners that can contribute to the current activities. Equally important are the Key Principles of the approaches applied in Living Lab activities. 8Living Lab Key Principles In Living Lab activities there are five Key Principles that should permeate all operations: vaLue infLuence sustainaBiLitY oPenness reaLisM 10 10 These Key Principles are valuable since they provide the foundation for design of Living Lab operations. They also define what counts as a Living Lab and how the value of Living Lab operations can be assessed.Key Principle: vaLue Why is value important and what does it stand for? Providing a superior value for customers and users is a key aspect for business success. To be able to create value for 11 customers and users, it is important to understand their needs and motivations as well as how these needs can be met by an innovation. This focus gives organisa- tions an opportunity to increase the level of innovation and to decrease the risk of developing something that customers do not want. Consumer value can be defined in terms of the monetary sacrifice people are willing to make for a product. Money is seen as one index of value. The assumption is that at the moment of purchase, the consumer makes a calculation and evaluation of what is given (value) in respect to what is taken in terms of money. What is the value of value in Living Lab? Living Lab processes support value creation in at least two different ways: for their partners (e.g. SMEs) in terms of business value and for the presump- tive customer or user of the developed innovation in terms of user value. Business value includes aspects such as employee value, customer value, supplier value, managerial value and societal value. One way to mitigate competition and open up entirely new markets is by focusing on creating advances in customer value. How can it be implemented in Living Labs? Living Lab processes support the process of understanding if the customer or user has a need for a service and how intense their attraction or repul- sion for that service is in the real-world context. Living Labs can support processes by allowing users to elaborate with the service in their context to determine if it provides a value for them. In addition, a Living Lab can also 12 provide insights about how users perceive value. These insights can guide the innovation process to deliver innovations that are perceived as valuable from a business and a customer perspective. Benefits -SacrificesKey Principle: infLuence Why is influence important and what does it stand for? One key aspect of the influ- ence principle is to view users as active, competent partners and domain experts. Their 13 involvement and influence in innovation and development processes shaping society is essential. Equally important is to base these innovations on the needs and desires of potential users and to realise that these users often represent a heterogeneous group. This means utilising the creative power of Living Lab partners while facilitating their right to influence these innovations. By stress- sing the decision making power this principle differs from related concepts such as participation, involvement, and engagement. What is the value of influence in Living Lab? Some of the most lucrative and novel innovations have been developed by users aiming to adapt existing product to fit their needs more appropria- tely. Involving more stakeholders in the innovation process can improve the quality of the service being developed. Hence, many commercially attractive products that is at the forefront come from user innovations. In addition, the amount of ideas that users render as well as the heights of the innovative ideas are greater than those rendered by developers. Users can also be involved and have influence on innovation processes for democracy reasons, learning reasons or economical reasons. Adding to that is the emerging trend of customers and users who want the opportunity to influence products and services. For instance, Nike involves customers in developing and designing shoes. The trend of letting customers and users influence companies’ services can be expected to grow. Based on the reason for participation, the value to be achieved from partici- pation is obviously varying. It is prudent to define and explain the concept as clearly as possible when applying a Living Lab approach. 14 How can it be implemented in Living Labs? To take the step from participation or involvement to influence, domain experts’ and users’ needs and ideas should be clearly traceable in concepts, prototypes, and the finished product. One important issue that Living Labs need to manage is how to assure that participation, influence, and responsibility among different partners are balanced and harmonised with Realisation each other and with the ideology of the user of feedback influence of the project.Key Principle: sustainaBiLitY Why is sustainability important and what does it stand for? Creating a sustainable envi- ronment includes economical, ecological and social aspects, 15 which makes it a complex and multifaceted task. Sustainability can be defined as development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability for future generations to meet their needs. Many organisations have potential to contribute to sustainable growth while improving productivity, lowering costs and strengthening revenue. The environmental activities taken today in many organisations are not adequate and can lead to different types of waste such as unused resources, inefficient energy use, and emissions which decrease energy efficiency. What is the value of sustainability in Living Lab? An important aspect of a Living Lab is the partnership and its related net- works since good cross-border collaboration builds on trust, and this takes time to build up. In order to succeed with new innovations, it is important to inspire usage, meet personal desires, and fit and contribute to societal and social needs. However, in line with the general sustainability and environ- mental trends in society it is of equal importance that Living Labs also take responsibility of its environmental, social, and economic effects. There is a need to develop methods that help labs to take care of the lear- ning generated and to transform this learning into scientifically sound models and methods. Different Living Labs have different constellations, often with a weight on either public or private organizations. It is important to learn more about how this affects the development and viability of a Living Lab. How can it be implemented in Living Labs? Focusing on the sustainability of the Living Lab highlights aspects such as continuous learning and development over time. Here, the research compo- 16 nent of each Lab plays a vital role in transforming the generated knowledge from Living Lab operations into models, methods and theories. It is important that Living Labs take responsibility for their ecological, social, and economic effects. The innovation processes supported by a Living Lab must address sustainability issues, for instance, by choosing the right materials, implementing environmentally-friendly processes, and consi- dering the social and economical impact that the innovation might have once implemented. Meet the needs of both present and futureKey Principle: oPenness Why is openness important and what does it stand for? The current innovation lands- cape has changed. Many companies have thus identi- fied a need to open up their 17 innovation processes since innovation stakeholders have become more mobile, venture capital more abundant, and knowledge more widely dispersed across different types of organisations. In Living Labs, several stakeholders are invited to participate in the innova- tion process. Digital innovations are created and validated in collaborative multi-contextual empirical real-world environments. Openness is essential to gather a variety of perspectives that might lead to faster and more successful development, new ideas and unexpected business openings in markets. What is the value of openness in Living Lab? To stimulate creativity and create new ideas, Eriksson et al. (2005) suggest open collaboration between people of different backgrounds, with different perspectives that have different knowledge and experiences. Living Labs and similar innovation environments can strengthen innovation capacity due to cross-fertilization and open collaboration between different actors. The Living Lab may also provide an arena where different stakehol- ders can meet to support the innovation process. One way to strengthen smaller enterprises’ innovation capacity is by col- laborating with other actors such as academia, the public sector and other enterprises. Living Lab and similar innovation milieus might thereby strengthen the innovation capacity and may also provide an arena where different stakeholders are needed to either support existing relations between business stakeholders or create a milieu where partners get the chance to meet and collaborate. How can it be implemented in Living Labs? The key principle openness emphasises creating an innovation process 18 that is as open as possible with the stakeholders since multiple perspectives bring power to the development process. Openness is crucial for innova- tion processes in Living Labs to gather a multitude of perspectives in order to develop as attractive an innovation as possible. Opening up innovation processes also offers potential to decrease the time to market and to better utilise collective creativity. However, to be able to cooperate and share in a multi-stakeholder milieu, different levels of openness between stakeholders seems to be a requirement. Bidirectional flows of knowledgeKey Principle: reaLisM Why is realism important and what does it stand for? One of the cornerstones of the Living Lab approach is that innovation activities should be carried out in a 19 realistic, natural, real-life set- ting. This is important, since people cannot experience anything independent of the experience they get from being embodied in the world. To increase understanding of how a digital artefact influences and fits into the actors’ activities and goals, it is important to study them in their context. What is the value of realism in Living Lab? Since all stakeholders have their individual local reality, everyone have a potential useful view of how the current situation can be improved. Including more people in the process will ideally increase the possibility of keeping up with the ever more rapidly changing environment of the organization. Orchestrating realistic use situation and understanding users’ behaviour is one way to generate results that are valid for real markets.This principle does not distinguish between physical and online contexts. Instead, it is argued that activities carried out in both contexts are real and realistic to actors. Inspired by online reality, we argue that IT based tools and methodologies can function as twin-world mediators that facilitate the inter- connection between real-world devices and their virtual counterparts. How can it be implemented in Living Labs? When it comes to facilitating realistic use situations, two different approaches can be observed in relation to Living Labs. In the first approach, environme- nts for testing and evaluating products or services are created in ways that are similar to the real world, while in the second approach, products and ser- vices are tested and evaluated in users’ real-world environments. It is crucial to involve users as well as other stakeholders in the innovation process. The reality aspect is also considered by involving real users rather than relying on personas or other user representative theories. 20 Based on the description above, we argue that striving to create and facilitate realism is a task that needs to be grappled with on different levels and in correlation to different elements such as contexts, users, use-situations, technologies, and partners. All these elements necessitate different approaches to understand and mirror the users’ diverse reality and realism. Experiences in and from different situations21

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