How to Conduct Behavioral Research

what is behavioral research and Research Methodology for Behavioral Research
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Dr.ShaneMatts,United States,Teacher
Published Date:23-07-2017
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Research Methodology for Behavioral ResearchResearch Methodology for Behavioral Research • Objective – To introduce RM and multivariate data analysis for behavioral research to new Ph.D. students – To provide new Ph.D. students with hand on experience on structural equation modeling by LISREL. • Topics – Overview – ConceptualizationResearch Methodology for Behavioral Research – Measurement (Reliability and Validity) and Scale Development and Validation – Research Design: Survey Research – Research Design: Experiments – Multivariate Data Analysis – Structural Equation Modeling by LISREL – ConclusionOverviewResearch Methodology Overview • Types of Research – Classification based on Data Collection Method • Primary vs. Secondary Research – Classification based on the Treatment of Data Collected • Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research – Classification based on the Objective of Research • Exploratory vs. Descriptive vs. Conclusive ResearchResearch Secondary research Primary research (Literature review) Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Conclusive/Causal Exploratory Research Descriptive Research ResearchResearch Methodology Overview • Steps in Research Methodology – Step 1: Problem formulation – Step 2: Hypothesis formulation – Step 3: Research design – Step 4: Sample and sampling – Step 5: Data collection – Step 6: Data analysis – Step 7: Manuscript WritingResearch Methodology Overview • Important Concepts – Concepts – Constructs – Variables – Relationships among concepts, constructs, and variables – The role of concepts, constructs, and variables in research methodologyResearch Methodology Overview • Concepts – Concepts are abstractions from partciculars. – Concepts have constitutive definitions. So concepts are rich in meaning but cannot be measured directly. – Many things we want to study in behavioral research are concepts, e.g., quality, satisfaction, attitude, leadership. – In research methodology, concepts are used in the step of problem and hypothesis formulation.Research Methodology Overview • Constructs – Constructs are concepts that are measurable. – Constructs are measurable because they have additional definitions, operational definitions. – Operationalization of concepts into constructs concern with the concept of validity and reliability. – After operationalization, each concept becomes a construct. In the measurement instrument (e.g., questionnaire), each construct becomes a measurement scale.Research Methodology Overview – A measurement scale can be a single-item or multiple-item scale. – In research methodology, constructs are used in the step of designing the measurement instrument (operationalization of concepts). • Variables (or Observed Variables) – After using the measurement scales to collect the responses from the subjects, each response to each measurement of the scales is then coded into ―number‖.Research Methodology Overview – After ―number‖ being assigned to each measurement item of the scales, each item becomes an observed variable. • Relationships among Concepts, Constructs, and Variables – 1 concept  1 construct  1 scale  1 or more observed variablesResearch Methodology Overview • Step 1: Problem Formulation – Qualitative research (e.g., focus group, in-depth interviews) can be used to help formulate problems. – Characteristics of a good problem statement: • It is in interrogative form. • It specifies relations between two or more constructs. • It implies testability.Research Methodology Overview • Step 2: Hypotheses Formulation – Hypotheses are answers to problem statements. – Qualitative research can be used to provide hypotheses. – Characteristics of a good hypothesis: • It is in a conjecture form. • It specifies relations between two or more constructs. • It implies testability.Research Methodology Overview • Step 3: Research Design – Research design is a research plan that will guide the research process. – Three basic research designs for social sciences are sample surveys, experiments, and field studies. – Three desirable characteristics of research design are precision/control, generalizability, and existential realism.Research Methodology Overview – There is no perfect research design; different research designs have different strengths and weaknesses. • Sample surveys are high in generalizability but low in precision/control and realism. • Experiments are high in precision/control but low in generalizability and realism. • Field studies are high in realism but low in precision and control and generalizability.Sample Surveys Experiments Field Studies Generalizability High Low Low Precision & Control Low High Low Existential Realism Low Low HighResearch Methodology Overview – From hypotheses, research design can be derived: • If data are collected by the communication method and if both the dependent and independent constructs are measurable, the research design will be a sample survey. • If the data are collected by communication method and if the dependent constructs are measurable while the independent variables are manipulable, the research design will be an experiment. • If the data are collected by observation in the field, the research design will be a field study.Research Methodology Overview • Step 4: Sample and Sampling – Two types of sampling: probability and non- probability sampling. – Types of probability sampling: • Simple random sampling • Stratified sampling • Cluster sampling • Systematic sampling • Area samplingResearch Methodology Overview – Types of non-probability sampling: • Convenient sampling • Judgmental sampling • Quota sampling • Snowball sampling • Step 5: Data Collection – Two types of data collection method: • Communication method • Observation

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