How to write Vancouver style Reference

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Citing & Referencing: Vancouver StyleContents 1. What is referencing? 01 5.10 Citing an image / illustration / table / diagram / 06 photograph / figure / picture 2. Why should I reference? 01 5.11 Citing from multimedia works 06 3. What should I reference? 02 5.12 Citing from an interview or personal communication 07 5.13 Tips on good quotation practice 07 4. What is a citation? 02 5. How do I write citations using the 03 6. How do I write a reference? 09 Vancouver style? 7. How do I write a reference list? 12 03 5.1 Citing one author 8. Example of a reference list 12 03 5.2 Citing more than one piece of work at the same time 9. What is a bibliography? 13 03 5.3 Citing the author’s name in your text 10. How to write references for your 14 04 5.4 Citing more than one author’s name in your text reference list and bibliography 04 5.5 Citing works by the same author written in the same year 11. Sources of further help 21 04 5.6 Citing from works with no obvious author 05 5.7 Citing from chapters written by different authors 05 5.8 Secondary referencing 05 5.9 Citing a direct quotationThere are many styles that can be used for referencing. When you are given coursework or dissertation guidelines, check which style of referencing your lecturer or department asks you to use. If you don’t check, and you use a style that is not the one stated in your guidelines, you could find you lose marks. This guide introduces you to the Vancouver referencing style, which uses a ‘numerical- endnote’ approach. If your lecturer or department does not ask you to use any particular style, we would recommend using Harvard. It’s easy to learn, simple to use, and when you get stuck, there is lots of advice available to help you out. When you begin your research for any piece of work, it is important that you record the details of all the information you find. You will need these details to provide accurate references, and to enable you to locate the information again at a later date, should it be necessary to do so. Section 6 of this guide will help you identify what information you need, regardless of which referencing style you choose to use. 1. WHAT IS REFERENCING? It is a method used to demonstrate to your readers that you have conducted a thorough and appropriate literature search, and reading. Equally, referencing is an acknowledgement that you have used the ideas and written material belonging to other authors in your own work. As with all referencing styles, there are two parts: citing, and the reference list. 2. WHY SHOULD I REFERENCE? Referencing is crucial to you to carry out successful research, and crucial to your readers so they can see how you did your research. Knowing why you need to reference means you will understand why it is important that you know how to reference. W Wha hat is t is r ref efer erenc encing? ing? 4 011. Accurate referencing is a key component of good academic practice and enhances the presentation of your work: it shows that your writing is based on knowledge and informed by appropriate academic reading. 2. You will ensure that anyone reading your work can trace the sources you have used in the development of your work, and give you credit for your research efforts and quality. 3. If you do not acknowledge another person’s work or ideas, you could be accused of plagiarism. Plus your lecturers are very keen to see good reference lists. Impress them with the quality of the information you use, and your references, and you will get even better marks. 3. WHAT SHOULD I REFERENCE? You should include a reference for all the sources of information that you use when writing or creating a piece of your own work. 4. WHAT IS A CITATION? When you use another person’s work in your own work, either by referring to their ideas, or by including a direct quotation, you must acknowledge this in the text of your work. This acknowledgement is called a citation. What is referencing? 025. HOW DO I WRITE CITATIONS USING THE VANCOUVER STYLE? Each piece of work which is cited in your text should have a unique number, assigned in the order of citation. If, in your text, you cite a piece of work more than once, the same citation number should be used. You can write the number in brackets or as superscript. 5.1 Citing one author Recent research (1) indicates that the number of duplicate papers being published is increasing. or 1 Recent research indicates that the number of duplicate papers being published is increasing. 5.2 Citing more than one piece of work at the same time If you want to cite several pieces of work in the same sentence, you will need to include the citation number for each piece of work. A hyphen should be used to link numbers which are inclusive, and a comma used where numbers are not consecutive. The following is an example where works 6, 7, 8, 9, 13 and 15 have been cited in the same place in the text. Several studies (6–9,13,15) have examined the effect of congestion charging in urban areas. 5.3 Citing the author’s name in your text You can use the author’s name in your text, but you must insert the citation number as well. As emphasised by Watkins (2) carers of diabetes sufferers ‘require perseverance Using the and an understanding of humanity’ (p.1). Vancouver style 035.4 Citing more than one author’s name in your text If a work has more than one author and you want to cite author names in your text, use ‘et al.’ after the first author. Simons et al. (3) state that the principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (p.4). 5.5 Citing works by the same author written in the same year If you cite a new work which has the same author and was written in the same year as an earlier citation, each work will have a different number. Communication of science in the media has increasingly come under focus, particularly where reporting of facts and research is inaccurate (4,5). 5.6 Citing from works with no obvious author If you need to cite a piece of work which does not have an obvious author, you should use what is called a ‘corporate’ author. For example, many online works will not have individually named authors, and in many cases the author will bean organisation or company. Using the Vancouver style you don’t have to include the author in your citation in the text of your work, but you still need to include an author in the full reference at the end of your work (see section 9). The citation to a work written by a ‘corporate’ author could appear in your text as: The Department of Health (6) advocates a national strategy for creating a framework to drive improvements in dementia services. or A national strategy is creating a framework to drive improvements in dementia services (6). Using the Vancouver style 04If you are unable to find either a named or corporate author, you should use ‘Anon’ as the author name. Be careful: if you cannot find an author for online work, it is not a good idea to use this work as part of your research. It is essential that you know where a piece of work has originated, because you need to be sure of the quality and reliability of any information you use. 5.7 Citing from chapters written by different authors Some books may contain chapters written by different authors. When citing work from such a book, the author who wrote the chapter should be cited, not the editor of the book. 5.8 Secondary referencing Secondary references are when an author refers to another author’s work and the primary source is not available. When citing such work the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in should be used. According to Colluzzi and Pappagallo as cited by Holding et al. (7) most patients given opiates do not become addicted to such drugs. You are advised that secondary referencing should be avoided wherever possible and you should always try to find the original work. If it is not possible to obtain the original work please note that you reference the secondary source not the primary source. Only reference the source that you have used. 5.9 Citing a direct quotation If a direct quote from a book, article, etc., is used you must: • Use single quotation marks (double quotation marks are usually used for quoting direct speech) Using the • State the page number Vancouver style 05Simons et al. (3) state that the principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (p.4). 5.10 Citing an image / illustration / table / diagram / photograph / figure / picture You should provide an in-text citation for any images, illustrations, photographs, diagrams, tables, figures or pictures that you reproduce in your work, and provide a full reference as with any other type of work. They should be treated as direct quotes in that the author(s) should be acknowledged and page numbers shown; both in your text where the diagram is discussed or introduced, and in the caption you write for it. In-text citation: Table illustrating checklist of information for common sources (8: p.22). or ‘Geological map of the easternmost region of São Nicolau’ (9: p.532). 5.11 Citing from multimedia works If you need to cite a multimedia work, you would usually use the title of the TV programme (including online broadcasts) or video recording, or title of the film (whether on DVD, online, or video) as the author. If a video is posted on YouTube or other video-streaming web services then you should reference the person that uploaded the video (note this might be a username). Using the Vancouver style, you don’t have to include the author in your citation in the text of your work, but you still need to include the author of the work in your reference list at the end of your work. U Ws ha ing the t is r V ef anc erenc ouving? er style 6 065.12 Citing from an interview or personal communication Always use the surname of the interviewee / practitioner as the author. 5.13 Tips on good quotation practice Quotations longer than two lines should be inserted as a separate, indented paragraph. Smith (7) summarises the importance of mathematics to society and the knowledge economy, stating that: ‘Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technology. It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11) or A recent UK report (7) summarised the importance of mathematics to society and the knowledge economy, stating that: ‘Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technology. It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11) If you want to insert a long quotation (over two lines) but do not to want include all of the text, you can remove the unnecessary text and replace with ‘...’. Using the Vancouver style 07As summarised by Smith (7): ‘Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis ... It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11) You should only do this when you use a quotation taken from one paragraph. When you use quotations within your text, sometimes you may want to insert one or two words in the quotation so that your complete sentence is grammatically correct. To indicate that you have inserted words into a quotation, these have to be enclosed in square brackets. Smith (7) provides a number of reasons as to why mathematics is important, stating that it is ‘a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and  synthesis ... and enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11) Writing skills: at your academic level you will be expected to develop your writing skills, and this includes being able to discuss and demonstrate an understanding of other people’s work and ideas in your own words. This is called paraphrasing. It is much better to paraphrase than to use many quotations when you write. Using the Vancouver style 086. HOW DO I WRITE A REFERENCE? To write your own references you need different bits of information about each item that you read when you are researching a piece of work. These bits of information are called ‘bibliographic’ information. For all types of references the key bits of information you need to start with are: 1. Author or editor 2. Date of publication / broadcast / recording 3. Title of the item This will form the basis of each reference you have to write. You may find that some items are not as straightforward as others, so be aware of the following: 1. Author or editor: This means the primary (main) person who produced the item you are using. If you are using a website or web page, and there isn’t an author, you can use what is called a ‘corporate author’. This will usually be the name of the organisation or company to whom the website or web page belongs. 2. Date of publication / broadcast / recording: This means the date the item was produced. It is usually a year, but if you are using a newspaper article, an email, or a television recording, you will have to include a full date (day / month / year) in your reference. 3. Title of the item: This means the primary (main) title of the item you are using. That sounds very obvious, but have a look at a web page and try to work out what the main title is. We would advise common sense in this situation – you have to identify the key piece of information that describes what you have used, and will allow the reader How to of your work to identify that information. reference 09The following table tells you about some of the variations you should look for when you are collecting your reference information. 1. Primary author / editor 2. Date of publication 3. Primary title of item Name of the person who The full date the email Subject of the email. This Email wrote the email was sent: day / month / year may include RE: or FWD: Name of the person or persons The year the journal issue was Title of the article (not the title Journal article who wrote the article published of the journal) Name of the journalist, or The full date on which the Title of the article (not the if there is no journalist name, article was published: day / title of the newspaper) Newspaper article the name of the newspaper month / year This can be tricky. Use an Usually the current year, the Title of the website individual name if you can year when the website was find one, or the name of the last updated, or the latest Website organisation or company to date next to the copyright whom the website belongs statement / symbol This can be tricky. Use an Usually the current year, but Title of the web page. You will individual name if you can if the web page has a full date need to use the title of the Web page find one, or the name of the of publication, you may also website if the web page doesn’t organisation or company to need that: day / month / year have an individual title whom the website belongs Title of the programme, or if the The year the programme Title of the programme (it programme is part of a series, was broadcast does not need to be written TV broadcast use the series title twice if you used it as the author information) Name of the person being The full date on which No title needed interviewed the interview took place: Personal interview day / month / year How to Name of the author of The year the book was Title of the book chapter Book chapter reference the chapter published (not the title of the book) 10Depending on the type of material you want to reference you will also need other bits of information, such as: • Name of publisher • Place of publication • Page numbers • Volume number • Issue number • URL (website or web page address) • DOI (link for journal articles) • Title of conference proceedings • Report number • Book or conference editor (if not your primary author) • Book or conference title (if not your primary title) • Journal title (the journal article title will be your primary title) • Date of access (for online material) The more references you have to write, the more familiar you will be with what you need to know. But the best advice we can give is to check our guides, ask us, or check with your lecturers. How to reference 117. HOW DO I WRITE A REFERENCE LIST? This is your list of all the sources that have been cited in the text of your work. The list is inclusive showing books, journals etc. listed in one list, not in separate lists according to source type. • When using the Vancouver style, the reference list should be in numerical order and each number matches and refers to the one in the text. • The list should be at the end of your work. • Books, paper or electronic journal articles, etc., are written in a particular format that must be followed. 8. EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE LIST (1) Arrami M, Garner H. A tale of two citations. Nature. 2008;451(7177): 397–399. (2) Watkins PJ. ABC of Diabetes. 5th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing; 2003. (3) Simons NE, Menzies B, Matthews M. A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London: Thomas Telford Publishing; 2001. (4) Goldacre B. Dore – the media’s miracle cure for dyslexia. Bad Science. Weblog. Available from: http://www.badscience.net/2008/05/dore-the-medias-miracle-cure-for-dyslexia/more-705 Accessed 19th June 2015. (5) Goldacre B. Trivial Disputes. Bad Science. Weblog. Available from: http://www.badscience.net/2008/02/trivial-disputes-2/ Accessed 19th June 2015. Writing a reference list 12(6) Department of Health. Living well with dementia: a national dementia strategy. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/living-well-with-dementia-strategy Accessed 4th June 2015. (7) Smith A. Making mathematics count: the report of Professor Adrian Smith’s inquiry into post‑14 mathematics education. London: The Stationery Office; 2004. (8) Pears R, Shields G. Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 3rd ed. Durham: Pear Tree Books; 2008. (9) Ramalho R, Helffrich G, Schmidt DN, Vance D. Tracers of uplift and subsidence in the Cape Verde archipelago. Journal of the Geological Society. 2010;167(3): 519–538. Available from: doi:10.1144/0016-76492009-056 Accessed: 14th June 2015. The layout for each type of publication can be found on the following pages. If you are using the bibliographic software RefWorks, you should use the ‘Imperial College Vancouver’ style to format your reference list and citations correctly. 9. WHAT IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY? There may be items which you have consulted for your work, but not cited. These can be listed at the end of your assignment in a ‘bibliography’. These items should be listed in alphabetical order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your reference list. If you can cite from every work you consulted, you will only need a reference list. If you wish to show to your reader (examiner) the unused research you carried out, the bibliography will show your extra effort. You will not need to number each work listed in your bibliography. Always check the guidance you are given for coursework, dissertations, etc., to find out if you are expected to submit work with a reference list and a bibliography. What is a If in doubt, ask your lecturer or supervisor. bibliography? 1310. HOW TO WRITE REFERENCES FOR YOUR REFERENCE LIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY: VANCOUVER STYLE Your lecturers consider accurate and consistent referencing to be an important part of your academic work. Check your course guidelines so you know which style of referencing to use. The following examples are in two parts: • the information you should collect about each piece of work you use; and • how this information is presented when you write a full reference. If the work you need to reference has more than six authors, you should list the first six authors, followed by ‘et al.’ Example: Petrie KJ, Muller JT, Schirmbeck F, Donkin L, Broadbent E, Ellis CJ, et al. Effect of providing information about normal test results on patients’ reassurance: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal. 2007;334(7589): 352–254. Available from: doi:10.1136/ bmj.39093.464190.55 Accessed 27 August 2015. If you cannot find the type of work you need to provide a reference for, please contact your librarian for more help (see section 11). Book: print Author / Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) Title (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Layouts for your Publisher reference list and Year of publication bibliography 14Simons NE, Menzies B, Matthews M. A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London: Thomas Telford Publishing; 2001. Book: online / electronic Author / Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) Title (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Year of publication Available from: URL Date of access Simons NE, Menzies B, Matthews M. A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London: Thomas Telford Publishing; 2001. Available from: http://www.myilibrary.com?ID=93941 Accessed 18th June 2015. Book: chapter in an edited book Author of the chapter Title of chapter followed by, In: Editor (always put (ed.) after the name) Title of book (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Layouts for your Year of publication reference list and Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before single and multiple page numbers) bibliography 15Partridge H, Hallam G. Evidence-based practice and information literacy. In: Lipu S, Williamson K, Lloyd A. (eds.) Exploring methods in information literacy research. Wagga Wagga, Australia: Centre for Information Studies; 2007. p. 149–170. Journal article: print Author Title of journal article Title of journal (this should be in italics) Year of publication Volume number (Issue number) Page numbers of the article Chhibber PK, Majumdar SK. Foreign ownership and profitability: Property rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry. Journal of Law & Economics. 1999;42(1): 209–238. Journal article: online / electronic Most online articles will have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and you should use this in your reference. The DOI is a permanent identifier provided by publishers so that the article can always be found. If there is no DOI then you should use the URL. Some lecturers will ask you to reference an online journal article as a print article, so always check your coursework guidance. To find the DOI, when you read an article online, check the article details as you will usually find the DOI at the start of the article. For more help, contact your librarian. Layouts for your If you read the article in a full-text database service, such as Factiva or EBSCO, reference list and and do not have a DOI or direct URL to the article you should use the database URL. bibliography 16Author Title of journal article Title of journal (this should be in italics) Year of publication Volume number (Issue number) Page numbers of the article Available from: URL or DOI Date of access Arrami M, Garner H. A tale of two citations. Nature. 2008;451(7177): 397–399. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v451/n7177/full/451397a.html Accessed 20th January 2015. or Wang F, Maidment G, Missenden J, Tozer R. The novel use of phase change materials in refrigeration plant. Part 1: Experimental investigation. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2007;27(17–18): 2893–2901. Available from: doi:10.1016/j. applthermaleng.2005.06.011 Accessed 14th July 2015. or Read B. Anti-cheating crusader vexes some professors. Chronicle of Higher Education. 2008;54(25). Available from: http://global.factiva.com/ Accessed 18th June 2015. Note: articles published online may not have page numbers. Pre-print journal articles It is likely you will find articles available online prior to being submitted to the peer review procedure and published in a journal. These articles are preprints and may be placed in an online repository or on a publisher’s website (but not in a specific journal issue). Layouts for your reference list and bibliography 17Author/s Title of journal article Submitted to / To be published in (if this information is with the article) Title of journal (in italics) Name of repository (in italics) Preprint Year of writing Available from: URL (if available) Date of access Silas P, Yates JR, Haynes PD. Density-functional investigation of the rhombohedral to simple cubic phase transition of arsenic. To be published in Physical Review B. Arxiv. Preprint 2008. Available from: http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.1692 Accessed: 23rd July 2010. Note: there will not be volume, issue or page numbers assigned to preprint articles. Conference proceeding: individual paper Author Title of conference paper followed by, In: Editor / Organisation (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) Title (this should be in italics) Place of publication Publisher Year of publication Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before single and multiple page numbers) Wittke M. Design, construction, supervision and long-term behaviour of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Van Cotthem A, Charlier R, Thimus J-F, Tshibangu J-P. (eds.) Eurock 2006: multiphysics Layouts for your coupling and long term behaviour in rock mechanics: Proceedings of the International reference list and Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, EUROCK 2006, 9–12 May 2006, bibliography Liège, Belgium. London: Taylor & Francis; 2006. p. 211–216. 18