How to reference Oxford style

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UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD STYLE GUIDE Michaelmas term 2014UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD STYLE GUIDE Contents 1 Introduction Objectives of the style guide 1 17 Names and titles General titles 17 How the guide is arranged 1 Oxford-specific titles 17 How to use the guide 1 Other titles 18 What is/is not included in the style guide 1 Combining titles 19 Quick reference guide 1 Postnominals 20 2 Abbreviations, contractions Abbreviations 2 21 Highlighting/emphasising Bold 21 and acronyms Contractions 2 text Italic 21 Acronyms 2 Underlining 21 Specific abbreviations 3 22 Word usage and spelling Common confusions in word usage 22 4 Capitalisation Spelling 23 7 Numbers How to write numbers 7 25 Miscellaneous Personal pronouns 25 Times 7 Plural or singular? 25 Dates 8 Addresses, phone numbers, websites etc 25 Spans of numbers and years 8 9 Punctuation Apostrophe 9 Brackets 10 Bullet points 11 Colon and semicolon 11 Comma 12 Dashes and hyphens 13 Ellipsis 15 Full stop, exclamation mark and question mark 15 Quotation marks 16 Introduction The Oxford University Style Guide aims to provide a guide to writing and What is/is not included in the style guide formatting documents written by staff on behalf of the University (or one The guide does not tell you how to write. We aim to help you write correctly, of its constituent departments etc). It is part of the University’s branding and to encourage consistency across the University’s written communications. toolkit ( which enables the University’s formal documentation to be presented consistently across Quick reference guide all communications. The general rule The style guide is not intended for public or external use, and does not If there are multiple (correct) ways of doing something, choose the one which purport to compete with OUP’s professional writing guides and dictionaries. uses the least space and the least ink. For instance: • close up spaces and don’t use full stops in abbreviations (eg 6pm) Objectives of the style guide • use lower case wherever possible We have three main objectives in writing this style guide: • only write out numbers up to ten and use figures for 11 onwards. • to provide an all-purpose guide to consistent presentation for University staff in written communications University of Oxford or Oxford University? • to review the guide at least once a year, ensuring that it properly reflects These terms are interchangeable and can either be alternated for variety or modern usage and is fit for purpose, and to update it as required kept the same for consistency. • as part of the review process, to invite proposals from members of the University who disagree with any existing guidance, and to act as an University branding information arbiter on those cases. Other information on University branding, including the use of the logo, can be found online at How the guide is arranged The style guide is intended to be read as an interactive PDF, where it can Queries be cross-referenced. However, the PDF can be printed if preferred for ease If you have any queries about using this guide, please contact: of reference. Public Affairs Directorate If we update the style guide we will highlight on the main webpage University of Oxford ( whether anything has changed as well as Wellington Square changing the term listed on the front cover. Oxford OX1 2JD How to use the guide • search for a specific term (such as semicolon) • browse through a section (such as Punctuation) Return to Contents 1Abbreviations, contractions and acronyms General rule Acronyms Don’t use full stops after any abbreviations, contractions or acronyms and These are formed from the initial letters of words (whether the result is close up space between letters. pronounceable as a word or as a series of letters) and should be written as a single string of upper-case letters. British Broadcasting Corporation BBC Abbreviations  Ž  These are formed by omitting letters from the end of a word. Master of Arts MA  Ž  Medical Sciences Med Sci  Ž  Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS  Ž  Doctorate of Philosophy DPhil  Ž  Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences MPLS  Ž  ante meridiem am  Ž  Planning and Resource Allocation Committee PRAC  Ž  post meridiem pm  Ž  Pro-Vice-Chancellor PVC  Ž  Portable Document Format PDF Contractions  Ž  These are formed by omitting letters from the middle of a word. When using an acronym that may be unfamiliar to your readers, spell it out Mister Mr  Ž  in full the first time it is mentioned, with the acronym following in brackets; thereafter, use the acronym alone. Doctor Dr  Ž  The decision was made by the Planning and Resource Allocation The Reverend The Revd  Ž  Committee (PRAC). There are several meetings of PRAC every term. Saint St  Ž  Street St  Ž  Return to Contents 2Specic a fi bbreviations Latin abbreviations If you are using Latin abbreviations, make sure you know what they mean and ampersands when to use them. Do not use full stops after them and don't italicise them – Ampersands should only be used if they are part of official titles or names. see the Highlighting/emphasising text section for when to italicise. Otherwise, spell out ‘and’. etc et cetera – means ‘and the rest’; use to indicate the continuation of a list Johnson & Johnson Oxford offers many language courses: Russian, French, Spanish etc Uehiro Foundation on Ethics and Education the list could continue with the other language courses offered. eg exempli gratia – means ‘for example’ or ‘such as’; use with examples which people’s initials are not exhaustive (and do not follow with a comma) Use a space to separate each initial. Oxford offers many language courses, eg Russian, French, Spanish J R R Tolkien those are some, but not all, of the language courses offered. C S Lewis ie id est – means ‘that is’; use with definitions or lists which are exhaustive (and do not follow with a comma) measurements Catch a Blackbird Leys bus, ie numbers 1, 5 or 12 When discussing large numbers in text, it is fine to use k/m/bn as shorter those are the only buses which go to Blackbird Leys. ways of spelling out 1,000/1,000,000/1,000,000,000 (or writing out ‘one thousand’/‘one million’/‘one billion’), as long as you are consistent throughout ibid ibidem – means ‘in the same place’; use when making a subsequent the document. For multiple millions/billions you can use a mixture of words and reference/citation to a publication or other source mentioned in the numbers (eg 7 million, 8bn); again, ensure you are consistent throughout. immediately preceding note (ie no references to anything else have appeared in between) names of universities, degrees etc For a fuller explanation of telepathy, see Brown Speaking with the See Names and titles for details. Mind, Chicago (1945) p125; Brown also gives further information on cats and telepathy ibid, p229. Return to Contents 3department Capitalisation Capitalise only when used as part of the title of a department, not when referring to a department without using its full name. The Department of Computer Science was previously known as the General rule Oxford University Computing Laboratory. Both undergraduates and Do not use a capital letter unless it is absolutely required. postgraduates study in this department. The Department for Work and Pensions has to make significant cuts Specic w fi ords this year, as do many government departments. academic terms at Oxford division Capitalise the name but not the word ‘term’. Capitalise only when used as part of the title of a division, not when referring The Michaelmas term begins in October. to a division without using its full name. The coldest part of the year usually falls in Hilary term. There are four academic divisions of the University: Humanities, Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences, Medical Sciences and Social Finals take place in Trinity term. Sciences. If abbreviating term names, use MT, HT and TT. The Medical Sciences Division is based mainly in Headington. The The post is vacant from MT 2014 until TT 2015. division’s head is Alastair Buchan. Chancellor faculty Always capitalise when referring to the Chancellor of the University. Capitalise only when used as part of the title of a faculty, not when referring Chris Patten is the Chancellor of the University. to a faculty without using its full name. The University has had 192 Chancellors since 1224. The Faculty of English is based in Manor Road. The faculty’s phone number is 271055. college Capitalise only when used as part of the title of a college, not when referring fellow to an institution without using its full name. Capitalise only when used as part of an academic’s formal title, not when referring to fellows in general. Exeter College was founded in 1314. The college is one of the oldest in Oxford. There are ten Fifty-Pound Fellows at All Souls. Exeter College was founded in 1314. The College is one of the oldest in At its foundation, provision was made at All Souls for 40 fellows. Oxford. At its foundation, provision was made at All Souls for 40 Fellows. collegiate University Capitalise ‘University’ but not ‘collegiate’. We are seeking opinions from all members of the collegiate University. Return to Contents 4government university Never capitalise, whether referring to a specific country’s government or the Capitalise only when used as part of the title of a university or when referring concept of a government. to the University of Oxford (both when ‘University’ is used as a noun and when it is used as an adjective). The current British government is a coalition. Oxford University is a large employer. The University has 10,000 staff names with prefixes members. Follow the preference of the individual, if known; if not, use lower case for the The University has four academic divisions. prefix. Alphabetise by the prefix. The event is open to all members of the collegiate University. Dick Van Dyke is a star of daytime TV. The largest University division is Medical Sciences. Jan van Eyck painted in the 15th century. Funding for universities has been cut recently. professor She attended the University of Liverpool to study English. It’s a well- Capitalise only when used as part of an academic’s formal title, not when respected university and course. referring to professors in general. It is common for Oxford professors to publish their works in learned Titles journals. People The Omega Solution is the latest contribution to research in the field by See Names and titles for details. Professor Stephanie Archibold. Books/films/songs/games etc Reverend Capitalise the first word of the title, and all words within the title except Capitalise both ‘Reverend’ and ‘The’ (as well as other parts of the title). articles (a/an/the), prepositions (to/on/for etc) and conjunctions My tutor is The Reverend John Smith/The Very Reverend John Smith. (but/and/or etc). See Highlighting/emphasising text for details on italicising and Punctuation for quotation mark advice. small caps The Last Mohican Do not use small caps, even for BC and AD. Far from the Madding Crowd Egypt’s Old Kingdom period began c2700 BC. Gone with the Wind tutor World of Warcraft Capitalise only when used as part of an academic’s formal title, not when Grand Theft Auto V referring to tutors in general. The Oxford tutorial system creates strong ties between students and ‘Always Look on the Bright Side of Life’ their tutors. ‘Always Look On The Bright Side Of Life’ Dr Obadiah Braithwaite is the Tutor in Embroidery at Magdalen. Return to Contents 5Subtitles Capitalise subtitles only if the original title is printed in that way. The Tale of Samuel Whiskers, or The Roly-Poly Pudding Dr Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Headlines, journal articles, chapter titles and lecture titles Only capitalise the first word, any proper nouns and the first word following a full stop/question mark/exclamation mark. ‘Who speaks for climate? Making sense of media reporting on climate change’ Rock rafts could be ‘cradle of life’ ‘Multiplicity of data in trial reports and the reliability of meta-analyses: empirical study’ Webpages See Miscellaneous for advice on capitalisation of URLs, email addresses etc. Return to Contents 6Numbers How to write numbers Always use figures and symbols for percentages, measurements and currency. Spell out whole-number words for one to ten; use figures for numbers Use commas to punctuate large numbers. above ten. Question 12 is worth 10% of the available marks. There were two people in the queue ahead of me, and six behind me. 20 per cent of commuters use their cars. I need to buy Christmas presents for 12 people this year. The average height of a woman in the UK is 1.61m. Use a combination of a figure and a word for very large round numbers The cost, at £5.99, was less than their overall budget of £50. (such as multiple millions/billions etc), or abbreviate it to ‘m’, ‘bn’ etc. The population of New York City is estimated to be 8,008,278. The population of the earth is now 7 billion people. The population of the earth is now 7bn people. Times Use either the 12- or 24-hour clock – not both in the same text. The 12-hour The budget came in at just under £2m. clock uses a full stop between the hours and minutes; the 24-hour clock uses If there are a lot of figures in a paragraph or text, some above ten and some a colon and omits am/pm. below, use figures throughout to allow easy comparison by readers. The lecture starts at 11.30am and ends at 1pm. There were 2 people in the queue ahead of me, and 22 behind me. The lecture starts at 11:30 and ends at 13:00. The queues for other advisors had 10, 3 and 12 people. The lecture starts at 11.30am and ends at 13:00. Spell out words for ‘first’, ‘second’ and so on up to and including ‘tenth’; use The lecture starts at 16:00pm. numbers and ‘st’/ ‘nd’/ ‘rd’/ ‘th’ for larger ordinal numbers. Don’t use superscript (to prevent problems with line spacing). Use ‘noon’ or ‘midnight’ instead of ‘12’, ‘12 noon’ or ‘12 midnight’. She was the first person from her school to get a place at Oxford. The closing date for applications is noon on 12 July. He got an upper second, to his relief. If using the 12-hour clock, don’t use additional ‘.00’ for times on the hour, She got a 3rd class degree. and close up space between the number and the ‘am’ or ‘pm’. The 17th president of the United States was Andrew Johnson. The lecture starts at 9am. The lecture starts at 11.30am and ends at 1pm. The lecture starts at 9.00am. The lecture starts at 9 am. Return to Contents 7Dates Spans of numbers and years Always put the date before the month. Shorten periods where it is not ambiguous to do so and use the shortest text possible. However, do not elide numbers between 11 and 19, which must always Easter this year is on 13 April. be written in full (as they would be spoken). Easter this year is on April 13. The ‘short twentieth century’ refers to the period 1914–91. Don’t use ‘th’ etc with dates – just the number and month – and never precede The First World War (1914–18) was shorter than the Second World War the number with ‘the’. (1939–45). Easter this year is on 13 April. The First World war lasted from 1914–8. 11th November is Armistice Day. The professorship was held 1993–5 by Alice Jenkins. Armistice Day is on the 11 November. Inner-city flats cost £100–£200,000. Price could start at £100 or £100,000. Use days with dates only for emphasis or the avoidance of confusion/ambiguity. The wedding is on 30 December. To refer to an academic or financial year, you can use either the format ‘2011–12’ or ‘2011/12’ – but ensure you are consistent throughout the text. The wedding is on Saturday 20 December. The Proctors for 2013–14 will be elected in the 2011–12 academic year. The Modern Superstitions conference is on Friday 13 April. Profits are up year on year: the company did better in 2011/12 than in 2010/11. If using ‘from’ with a start date/time, always use ‘to’ to indicate the end date/ time rather than an n-dash; alternatively, just use an n-dash without ‘from’. Michaelmas term runs from October to December. Michaelmas term runs October–December. Michaelmas term runs from October–December. Return to Contents 8Punctuation General rule Do not use an apostrophe in its with the meaning ‘belonging to it’ (this is Use as little punctuation as necessary while retaining the meaning of the analogous with his/hers/theirs): note that it’s is a contraction of ‘it is’. sentence. The cat has been out in the rain and its paws are muddy. The cat has been out in the rain and it’s muddy. Apostrophe The cat has been out in the rain and it’s tail is wet. to indicate possession Use ’s after singular nouns, plural nouns which do not end in s and indefinite Some place names have an apostrophe and some don’t – this can’t be pronouns. predicted and must be checked. Frank’s book All Souls College anybody’s guess Earls Court The children’s play area is next to the men’s toilet. St Peter’s College Land’s End Use just ’ after plural nouns ending in s. Strong tea is sometimes called builders’ tea. University of St Andrews If a name already ends in s or z and would be difficult to pronounce if ’s were Some street names have an apostrophe (usually linked to saints’ names from added to the end, consider rearranging the sentence to avoid the difficulty. nearby churches); these are also idiosyncratic. Jesus’s methods were unpopular with the ruling classes. OR There is a famous pub on St Giles’. The methods of Jesus were unpopular with the ruling classes. St Giles’s splits into Woodstock and Banbury Roads. In compound nouns and where multiple nouns are linked to make one concept, Christ Church is on St Aldate’s. place the apostrophe at the end of the final part (and match it to that noun). St Michael’s Street is a through road for bicycles. the Archbishop of Canterbury’s tortoise Use apostrophes with noun phrases denoting periods of time (use an my mother-in-law’s dog apostrophe if you can replace the apostrophe with ‘of’). his step-brothers’ cars He took a week’s holiday holiday of a week. Lee and Herring’s Fist of Fun You must give three months’ notice notice of three months. But do not use an apostrophe in adjectival phrases. She was eight months pregnant when she went into labour. Return to Contents 9Apostrophe (cont) Brackets to indicate that letters have been omitted (contractions) round brackets ( ) Use an apostrophe in the position the omitted letters would have occupied, Use in place of a pair of dashes or commas around a non-defining phrase not where the space was between the original words. (one which adds extra information, a translation, dates, an explanation or I don’t like cheese. =do not a definition). I do’nt like cheese. ≠do not The library (which was built in the seventeenth century) needs to be repaired. He wouldn’t do that. It was (as far as I could tell) the only example of its kind. Do not use an apostrophe before contractions accepted as words in their own Magdalen College (founded in 1458) has a herd of deer. right. He is on the phone. The tactic of Blitzkrieg (which means ‘lightning war’ in German) was used in the invasion of Poland in 1939. He had swine flu. Preheat the oven to 350°F (180°C). There is no vaccine for all types of ‘flu. Do not use an apostrophe to make a plural, even with a word/phrase that is using other punctuation with brackets not usually written in the plural or which appears clunky. All of the following Include full stops/exclamation marks/question marks/quotation marks examples take an s as normal in English to make their plurals. before the closing bracket only if the complete sentence/quote is in brackets; otherwise, punctuate after the closing bracket. Three video’s for a tenner. The last bus today is at 4.45 (which is earlier than usual). I trust all the MP’s. The last bus today is at 4.45. (That’s earlier than usual.) Clothes were colourful in the 1970’s. CD’s will soon be obsolete. square brackets Use to enclose comments, corrections, references or translations made by a This is a list of do’s and don’t’s. subsequent author or editor. To clarify something which will look odd if an s is added, consider italicising An article referring to the restrictions placed by some airlines on it or placing it in single quotation marks. the appearance of female cabin crew stated that even footwear was Subtract all the xs from the ys. proscribed sic. Dot the ‘i’s and cross the ‘t’s. I have been responsible in the real sense, that I have had the blame for everything that has gone wrong. Laughter and cheers. This was quoted by Brown 1940, Chicago. angle brackets and curly brackets These are used for technical purposes – only use them in the correct context. Return to Contents 10Bullet points Colon and semicolon Don’t punctuate the end of bullet points which are a list of items. Use a colon to introduce a subclause which follows logically from the text before it, is not a new concept and depends logically on the preceding main 2014 concert performers: clause. • Slade • The Smiths When I was young, I went on two holidays: to the Lake District and to • Metallica Cornwall. • the Spice Girls A new drink was introduced to Britain: tea. If the bullet points form a complete sentence with preceding text, add a full Do not use a colon if the two parts of the sentence are not logically connected. stop to the end of the last point. I used to be slim: I will try to lose weight. We are holding a concert in 2014, at which the following acts will perform: I would like to be slim: I will try to lose weight. • Slade We were in trouble this time: we’d never been in trouble before. • The Smiths • Metallica We were in trouble this time: the lid had come right off. • the Spice Girls. There are two parts to this sentence: the first part, which precedes the colon, and the second part, which doesn’t. If text inside the bullet point is a complete sentence in its own right, add a semicolon to the end of each point, ‘or’ or ‘and’ (depending on the sense of Use a semicolon to link two related parts of a sentence, neither of which your sentence) to the end of the penultimate point, and a full stop to the end depends logically on the other and each of which could stand alone as a of the last one. grammatically complete sentence. The following will be considered good reasons for missing the final The best job is the one you enjoy; the worst job is the one you hate. meeting of the year: • there was a postal strike. This only applies if the postal strike took It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far, far place before the date of the meeting and if you have not signed up better rest that I go to, than I have ever known. for email alerts; Use semicolons in place of commas in a complicated list or sentence if it will • you are absent as a result of illness; improve clarity, particularly if list items already include commas. • you are unable to attend because of problems with public transport We plan to review the quality of the research of the department, (proof of this will be required); • there is something more interesting happening elsewhere which you including its participation in interdepartmental, interdivisional and interdisciplinary activities; its research profile and strategy; and future would rather attend; or • you have obtained a ticket to see the Spice Girls in concert. challenges and opportunities. I visited the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; and the Pencil Museum, Keswick. Return to Contents 11Comma Do not use a comma where defining information is used at the start Use a pair of commas to surround a non-defining clause (one which adds of a sentence. descriptive information but which can be removed without losing the meaning The prolific playwright Shakespeare might not have existed. of the sentence) – note that only ‘which’ or ‘who’ can be used in this type of The prolific playwright, Shakespeare might not have existed. clause, not ‘that’. The library, which was built in the seventeenth century, needs to be His friend Sam was his second. repaired. His friend, Sam was his second. The man, who climbed the tower without a safety harness, died of old age. Defining vs non-defining information Do not use a comma to join two main clauses, or those linked by adverbs Do not use commas to surround a defining clause (which cannot be removed or adverbial phrases (eg ‘nevertheless’, ‘therefore’, ‘however’). This is sometimes without losing the meaning of the sentence) – note that ‘which’ or ‘who’ can be referred to as ‘comma splicing’. Either use a semicolon or add a coordinating replaced by ‘that’ in this type of clause. conjunction (eg ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘so’). The library which was built in the seventeenth century needs to be Shakespeare was popular, and his plays were all profitable. repaired but the library which was built in the eighteenth century does not. Shakespeare was popular; his plays were all profitable. The man that climbed the tower without a safety harness died of old age Shakespeare was popular, his plays were all profitable. but the other man died in a different way. Use a comma after an introductory adverb, adverbial phrase or subordinate He asked his friend Sam to be his second not any of his other friends. clause; or use a pair of commas surrounding it if it is in the middle of a sentence. However, it was too late for that. Use commas to surround a non-defining word or phrase (which adds information but could be omitted without changing the sense of the sentence), It was, however, too late for that. and follow the non-defining word/phrase with a single comma if it is at the With his possessions in a bundle, Dick Whittington walked to London. start of the sentence. Shakespeare, the prolific playwright, might not have existed. Dick Whittington, with his possessions in a bundle, walked to London. A prolific playwright, Shakespeare might not have existed. Do not use a comma after a time-based adverbial phrase. He asked Sam, his friend, to be his second not the Sam who is his After playing tennis all day she was tired. barber. Whenever she went to the cinema she ate popcorn. The prime minister, David Cameron, is an alumnus of Brasenose. In 2010 the most popular game among children was hopscotch. Use a comma between multiple qualitative adjectives (those which can be used in the comparative/superlative or modified with ‘very’, ‘quite’ etc). He was a big, fat, sweaty man with soft, wet hands. Return to Contents 12Do not use a comma between multiple classifying adjectives: absolutes which Dashes and hyphens — – - either are or are not, such as ‘unique’, ‘English’, ‘black’ etc (although note that stylistically these can be modified). m-dash (—) Do not use; use an n-dash instead. It was an edible German mushroom. The eighteenth-century sandstone tower is lit up at night. n-dash (–) Use in a pair in place of round brackets or commas, surrounded by spaces. Do not use a comma between classifying and qualitative adjectives. It was – as far as I could tell – the only example of its kind. It was a large German mushroom with hard black edges. The library – which was built in the seventeenth century – needs to be It was a large, squishy German mushroom with hard, frilly black edges. repaired. Use a comma between items in a list. Use singly and surrounded by spaces to link two parts of a sentence, in place of I ate fish, bread, ice cream and spaghetti. a colon. I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. The bus was late today – we nearly missed the lecture. Note that there is no comma between the penultimate item in a list and Use to link concepts or ranges of numbers, with no spaces either side. ‘and’/‘or’, unless required to prevent ambiguity – this is sometimes referred to German–Polish non-aggression pact as the ‘Oxford comma’. However, always insert a comma in this position if it The salary for the post is £25,000–£30,000. would help prevent confusion. He took French, Spanish, and Maths A-levels. Radio 1 is aimed at the 18–25 age bracket. I ate fish and chips, bread and jam, and ice cream. Use between names of joint authors/creators/performers etc to distinguish from hyphenated names of a single person. We studied George III, William and Mary, and Henry VIII. Lennon–McCartney compositions She left her money to her parents, Mother Theresa and the pope. Superman–Batman crossover comics Return to Contents 13hyphen (-) In compass points (unless used geographically rather than as directions) They’re heading south-east. When to use a hyphen nor’-nor’-east In an adjectival phrase before a noun the up-to-date list The southwest is a popular holiday destination. The value of a first-class degree is indisputable. When not to use a hyphen a hot-air balloon In noun phrases ‘Rethinking provincialism in mid-nineteenth-century narrative fiction: Labour Party conference Villette from our village’ The 19th century saw much reform. In an adjectival phrase including a verb participle To make a new compound noun – if it is a recognisable concept, make it one The jumper was tight-fitting. word; if it isn’t, use two words Websites are made up of webpages. With prefixes only if required to avoid confusion/mispronunciation, such as where prefixes themselves or letters are repeated Send me an email when you’re ready to proceed. predynastic Egypt Send me an e-mail. gifts of pre-eminent objects and works of art to the nation In an adjectival phrase following a noun The animals are re-released into the wild when recovered. The list was up to date. A protein precursor can also be called a pro-protein. His marks just scraped into the first class. Procapitalists and anticapitalists clashed in the streets. She wasn’t top-drawer. The email address for the webmaster can be found on the website. In an adjectival phrase before a noun where the first element is an adverb With prefixes before a proper name, number or date ending in -ly (but note that any other adverbs in adjectival phrases do take a hyphen) anti-Thatcherism She had a finely tuned ear for off-key music. pre-2000 politics XML documents must be well-formed texts. Hilary term starts in mid-January. She was a highly-respected tutor. In numbers which are spelt out She was a badly paid apprentice. Twenty-seven is the most popular ‘random’ number. The Thirty-Nine Steps Return to Contents 14Ellipsis… Full stop, exclamation mark and question mark Use an ellipsis to show that some text is missing, usually from a quotation – Use one – but only one – of these at the end of every sentence. do not surround it with spaces. What time did you leave last night? …we shall fight on the beaches…we shall never surrender… We went home at 5 o’clock. It is a truth universally acknowledged… Go home now There is no need to add square brackets around an ellipsis. Do not use a full stop at the end of titles, even if they make a sentence, …we shall fight on the beaches… but, if a title ends with an exclamation mark or question mark, do include it. All’s Well that Ends Well is my favourite play. Use an ellipsis to indicate a pause for comic or other effect – follow the ellipsis with a space in this case, as it stands in place of a comma or full stop. ‘Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?’ was a hit for the Shirelles. You don’t have to be mad to work here… but it helps ‘Help’ was covered by Bananarama in 1989. Note that, if used either in place of omitted text at the end of a clause/ Do not use a full stop if it will be followed, or preceded, by an ellipsis. sentence or to indicate a pause for effect, a full stop/comma should not follow Behind him stood a figure. …It was ghostly grey. the ellipsis. However, an exclamation mark or a question mark can and should follow the ellipsis if required. Use a full stop, not a question mark, at the end of a reported question – only Are you…? use a question mark for a direct question (whether in quotation marks or not). Did he say that…? He asked if I wanted to go home that morning. ‘Do you want to go home this morning?’ he asked. Use an ellipsis to indicate a trailing off in speech or thought. We could do this…or maybe that… He asked if I wanted to go home? Use a full stop, not an exclamation mark, at the end of a reported imperative. Wait for me He asked me to wait for him.  Ž  Return to Contents 15Quotation marks Using other punctuation with quotation marks Use single quotation marks for direct speech or a quote, and double quotation If the quote would have required punctuation in its original form, place the marks for direct speech or a quote within that. punctuation inside the quotation marks. (If it is unclear, try writing the whole sentence out without quotation marks and ‘he said’ etc, and replicate the ‘I have never been to Norway,’ he said, ‘but I have heard it described as resulting punctuation.) “the Wales of the North”.’ Bob likes cheese. ‘ Bob’, I said, ‘likes cheese.’ OR Use no quotation marks if the quote is displayed (ie not in line with the rest of  Ž  ‘Bob likes cheese,’ I said. the text). as I noted then, Bob, do you like cheese? ‘Bob,’ I asked, ‘do you like cheese?’  Ž  Those of us who toil in the Groves of Academe Out, damn’d spot ‘ Out,’ said Lady Macbeth, ‘damn’d spot’  Ž  know full well that our research helps inform our teaching… ‘You’re engaged to Florence?’ I yipped, looking at him with a wild surmise. Use single quotation marks and roman (not italic) type for titles that are not whole publications: eg short poems, short stories, songs, chapters in books, Place any punctuation which does not belong to the quote outside the articles in periodicals etc. See also Highlighting/emphasising text. quotation marks (except closing punctuation if the end of the quote is also the end of the sentence). I, Robot contains nine short stories, of which ‘Little Lost Robot’ is my favourite. After all, tomorrow is another day. ‘After all,’ said Scarlett,  Ž  ‘tomorrow is another day.’ OR Queen’s ‘Bohemian Rhapsody’, from the album Night at the Opera, ‘After all, tomorrow’, said reached number one in both 1975 and 1991. Scarlett, ‘is another day.’ ‘The kitchen,’ he said, ‘is the heart of the home’. ‘The kitchen’, he said, ‘is the heart of the home.’ Note that American English has different rules about the use of quotation marks. Return to Contents 16Names and titles General titles Oxford-specic t fi itles Use capitals for titles prefixing names, but not for job descriptions. Note that Use capitals when referring to the specific person holding a specific position some job descriptions are never used with names, such as ‘prime minister’. and to their work in this role, but not when referring to any holder of that role unless it is a statutory position (see Capitalisation and Word Usage Although being president of the United States is stressful, President sections for further information). Obama was glad to be re-elected. Andrew Hamilton became Vice-Chancellor in 2009. The prime minister of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the leader of the party that wins the most seats. The Right Honourable David There are several Pro-Vice-Chancellors without portfolio. Cameron MP is the current prime minister. The Registrar will always have to attend these meetings. The current pope, Pope Francis, is Argentine. He invited Wadham’s Head of House, Lord Macdonald, to attend the event. Other heads of house were not invited. Give people’s title, forename and surname when first mentioned. On subsequent mentions, use either surname only or title and surname (unless I wonder who the Senior Proctor will be next year... further information is required to prevent ambiguity), but be consistent with Candidates will be required to undertake practical work, as specified by whichever usage you choose. the Head of the Department of Experimental Psychology. Dr John Smith was present at the ceremony, as was Professor Susan Jones. Dr Smith had to leave early. Recruiting new academic staff is vital to all departments; heads of department often personally oversee the procedure. Dr John Smith and Professor Susan Jones presented their research paper to a large audience. The results will be published in book form, which Smith says will be available in the spring. Dr John Smith and Professor Susan Jones debated the topic. Smith recently reviewed Professor Jones’s book. Note that it can be helpful to your readers to clarify the sex of the person if it is unclear (eg if they have a name given to men and women, or an unusual name). Return to Contents 17Other titles lords/ladies Check the exact status of anyone verbally addressed as Lord X or Lady Y as members of the peerage these titles may be used by many types of peer (eg earls, barons, viscounts, When referring to or writing to people entitled to call themselves Sir/Dame/ sons of dukes etc) whose titles in writing are different. Lord/Lady etc, make sure that you know the correct form of address for that individual. The examples below are not definitive – i f in doubt, consult Life peers are formally barons/baronesses but are addressed informally as Debrett’s (for general advice and examples: Lord/Lady followed by the name they chose when ennobled. address/titles) or Who’s Who (for specific individuals: www.ukwhoswho. Helena Kennedy (Baroness Kennedy of the Shaws) should be addressed com). as Lady Kennedy of the Shaws. If an individual has expressed a wish to be addressed in a particular way, even Baron Patten of Barnes is Chancellor of the University. Lord Patten if it is technically incorrect, use their preferred style. was formerly Chairman of the BBC Trust. Take particular care with people from countries where family names precede Have you met Lord Chris Patten? given names. Lord Sugar’s full title is Baron Sugar of Clapham. For more advice on addressing people with titles, see the helpful guide Lady Benjamin was the best Playschool presenter. compiled by the University Development Office at: www.advancingoxford. . promotion within an order of chivalry If someone is promoted within an order of chivalry (eg from MBE to OBE), knights/dames the higher honour replaces the lower; don’t list all of them. Always use first names with these titles, whether or not you are using Mrs Tanni Grey-Thompson was appointed MBE in 1993. surnames as well. Mrs Tanni Grey-Thompson was appointed OBE in 2000. ‘Are you going to hear Sir John Smith’s speech? Sir John is always a good public speaker.’ Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson was appointed DBE in 2005. Dame Jane Jones is the chair of this committee. If someone receives an honour in a different order of chivalry, or is made a life peer, they are entitled to use both honours but not both titles. If you are writing to a knight or a dame, use ‘title first name surname’ on Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson, OBE MBE DBE, is a fellow of Hertford. envelopes then just ‘title first name’ in the salutation. To: Dame Jane Jones, 14 Bluebird Way, Oxford OX1 1AB Baroness Grey-Thompson, DBE, was made a life peer in 2010. Dear Sir John... Baroness Dame Grey-Thompson Return to Contents 18

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