How to cite APA citation

how to reference apa 6th edition style and how to cite apa 6th edition journal article and how to reference a conference paper apa 6th edition how to reference a website apa 6th edition
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Swansea University REFERENCING ACCORDING TO THE th APA 6 STYLE Revised January 2016. 1 WHAT IS REFERENCING? When writing an assignment your own thoughts and ideas build on those of other writers and researchers. It is essential that you acknowledge those sources of information by: Acknowledge the source within the text by citing the author’s last name and date of publication in parentheses, e.g. (Davies, 2011) Give full details of each item in an alphabetical reference list at the end of your assignment. When you find a source that you wish to use in your assignment, write down all the information you need. If you do not do this, you will need to find the source again in future, as you will be penalised if you submit incomplete references in your assignment. This guide will indicate what information you need to record for each different type of source. Why reference? The main reasons are: To enable your lecturer to follow up the references and find the book or journal article in a library. To demonstrate to your lecturer that you have read a wide range of opinions. To enable your lecturer to check the accuracy of the information you’ve given. Good referencing will assist in avoiding accusations of plagiarism. You will lose marks if you do not acknowledge sources. What is a referencing “style”? There are four different styles in use for undergraduates at Swansea University. APA th 6 is an example of an Author-Date style and is used by many but not all colleges at Swansea University. If you are doing additional modules in another College (e.g. Law) you will need to use the approved style of that College. th APA 6 is a well-documented and authoritative style, well suited to many disciplines. The style works well in bibliographic software packages such as Endnote (Desktop) and Endnote Basic (Online, also known as Endnote Web). In Endnote choose the th Bibliographic Style – APA 6 Swansea. Revised January 2016. 4 What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism is using someone’s words or ideas and passing them off as your own, without acknowledging your source. Self-plagiarism is using your own previously published work as new scholarship. How do I present referenced material in my assignment? There are two ways to refer to the works of other authors: Paraphrasing allows you to summarise another author’s ideas in your own words, whilst still acknowledging the original source. Quotation marks are not needed. A concise well-paraphrased account demonstrates your understanding of what you have read. When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text. If you refer to a table or diagram, you must include a page number as the reader may wish to check it. Direct quotes can be used. However, an assignment cannot be a ‘cut and paste’ exercise. Quotations should be used sparingly, as the person reading the assignment wants to see your views and analysis of what you have read. When you use a direct quote always give the page number(s) or paragraph number for non- paginated material and place double quotation marks around the quotation. Example of Paraphrasing Text from the original article: Little is known about whether and how early childhood living arrangements affect adult children's propensity to take aging parents into their homes. Past research on caregiving has focused on the characteristics of current family structure such as sibling composition, the marital status of parent or child, or competing roles (Szinovacz, 1997). Bad paraphrasing: Not much is known about how living arrangements in childhood affect adult children's willingness to take elderly parents into their homes. Past research on looking after elderly parents has focused on the characteristics of current family structure such as brothers and sisters, the marital status of parent or child, or competing roles (Szinovacz, 1997). = only a few words have been changed, not reflecting any understanding or interpretation of the original. Good paraphrasing: Research has tended to focus on the effect of current family structure on adult children’s willingness to look after their elderly parents – in Revised January 2016. 5 consequence, little is known about the effects of childhood living arrangements (Szinovacz, 1997). = the content has been rephrased. Examples of Direct Quotes When quoting always provide the author, year and page number (or paragraph number for non-paginated material). For quotations under 40 words, incorporate it into the text and enclose it with double quotation marks. If the quotation appears in mid-sentence, end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in brackets immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence. For example: Discussing data collection, Matthews and Ross (2010) note that “it is a practical activity, one that has to be carried out with time, spatial and resource constraints” (p. 181), and therefore needs careful consideration. If the quotation appears at the end of the sentence, end the quotation with quotation marks, cite the source in brackets and end with a full stop after the closed bracket. For example: The College Undergraduate Handbook for Undergraduate Students 2011/12 for the College of Human & Health Sciences states “The risk of cheating is immense, ... a student aspiring to become a …nurse might find his/her career path being closed prematurely, if found guilty of cheating” (Swansea University College of Human & Health Sciences, 2012, p. 24). If the quotation is 40 words or more (not something that you should expect to do) then do not use quotation marks, but indent the quotation by half an inch on the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph). Double-space the entire block quotation. The citation should be included using one of the methods described below (In-Text Citations) with the page number, paragraph number or the full citation as the final element in the block of text, after the final punctuation mark. For example: Careful consideration of method is needed with data collection as it ... is a practical activity, one that has to be carried out with time, spatial and resource constraints. It is therefore important to consider how valid social research data can be collected effectively and efficiently within those constraints. The history of social research has included the development of a range of research ‘tools’ to help social researchers to organise and manage the task of data collection (Matthews & Ross, 2010, p. 181). Revised January 2016. 6 Quotation marks Use double quotation marks when the title of an article or chapter in a journal or book is mentioned in the text. For example: Benton’s (2011) chapter, “Diet, Behaviour and Cognition in Children” Capitalise major words in title of books and articles within the text and all words of four letters or more. Capitalise the first word after a colon or a dash in the title. When capitalised word is hyphenated, capitalise both words. For example: In their book, Key Concepts in Social Gerontology In the article, “Are Emergency Admissions in Emergency Cancer Care Always Necessary? Results From a Descriptive Study” Double or single quotation marks Double quotation marks enclose in text quotations, except when quotations are 40 words or longer. Single quotation marks are used within double quotation marks when the original text was enclosed in double quotation marks. For example: Miele (1993) found that “the ‘placebo effect,’ which has been verified” (p. 276). Quotation of online material without page numbers If paragraph numbers are visible, use them instead of page numbers. Use the abbreviation para. For example: Basu and Jones (2007) went so far as to suggest the need for a new “intellectual framework in which we consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace” (para. 4). If the source includes headings and neither paragraph or page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to guide the reader to the quoted text. For example: The World Health Organization (2014) states that “Pneumonia is the `leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years old (Key Facts section, para. 1). In some cases when no page or paragraph number is visible, headings may be too long to cite in full. Instead, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks for the citation. For example: Revised January 2016. 7 “Surprisingly little evidence is available on the effectiveness of psychiatric interventions for people with dementia in general hospital settings” (Sheehan, Stinton, & Mitchell, 2009, “Do psychiatric interventions work,” para. 1). The heading was “Do psychiatric interventions work for people with dementia on general hospital wards?”) Changes in a quotation The first letter of the first word in a quotation may be changed to an uppercase or a lowercase letter. The punctuation marks at the end of a sentence may be changed to fit the syntax. Single quotation marks may be changed to double quotation marks and vice versa. Any other changes must be indicated. Changes when quoting that require explanation Use three spaced ellipsis points (…) within a sentence to indicate that material has been omitted from original source. Use four points to indicate any omission between two sentences. If you want to emphasise a word or words in a quotation, italicise the word or words. Immediately after the italicised words, insert within brackets the words (emphasis added). Italics Use italics for titles of books, journals, videos, TV programmes, and microfilms Critical Social Policy Lifespan Development Appendices If your work has only one appendix, label it Appendix; if your work has more than one appendix, label each one with a capital letter (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) in the order given in the text. Each appendix must have a title. Begin each appendix on a separate page. Centre the work Appendix and the identifying capital letters (A, B, etc., in the order given in the text) at the top of the page. Centre the appendix title and use uppercase and lowercase letters. What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography? A reference list is composed of all the sources that you have referred to in the text of your assignment. A bibliography is composed of all those sources you read, but did not refer to in your assignment. Both reference list and bibliography are arranged in alphabetical order of author’s last name. A bibliography is not always necessary and will never duplicate anything in the reference list. Revised January 2016. 8 IN-TEXT CITATIONS How do I cite authors in my assignment? One author In-text citation requires that the last name of the author and the year of publication be inserted into the text, for example: Marks (2011) states that ... or ...(Marks, 2011) Two authors If there are two authors of a work, both should be cited. Bee and Boyd (2010) state that ... or ...(Bee & Boyd, 2010) Note. Link the two authors’ names with and when cited outside parentheses. Link with an ampersand (&) inside parentheses. Three, four or five authors If there are three, four or five authors of a work all authors should be cited the first time. Subsequently use et al. after the first author. (Rolfe, Jasper, & Freshwater, 2010) first cite (Rolfe et al., 2010) subsequent cites Note. There is a comma after the second-to-last author. Six or more authors If there are six authors or more, only the first author is cited followed by et al. ....Yamada et al. (2003) or ... (Yamada et al., 2003) Note. et al is Latin for “and others”. Revised January 2016. 9 More than one work cited If you cite two or more works within the same parentheses they should be in alphabetical order of author. ....(Phillips, Ajrouch, & Hillcoat-Nalletamby, 2010; Rolfe, Jasper, & Freshwater, 2010). Arrange two or more works by the same authors (in the same order) by year of publication. Place in-press citations last. Give the authors’ last names once; for each subsequent work, give only the date. .... (Davies, 2008, 2010, 2012) Author with two or more cited works in same year Use lower case letters (a, b etc.) to distinguish between works published in the same year by the same author (s). ...Hewitt (2010a) states that... this was supported by Hewitt (2010b) ... The suffixes are assigned in the reference list, where these kind of references are ordered alphabetically by title (of the article, chapter, or complete work). Authors with the same last name If a reference list includes publications by two or more primary authors with the same last name, include the first author’s initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs. Initials help the reader to avoid confusion within the text and to locate the entry in the list of references. Davies, H., Brophy, S., Dennis, M., Cooksey, R., Irvine, E., & Siebert, S. (2013). Patient perspectives of managing fatigue in ankylosing spondylitis, and views on potential interventions: A qualitative study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14, 163-164. doi: 16310.1186/1471-2474-14-163 Davies, P. G., Revell, P. A., & Mayston, V. (1986). Demonstration of antiglobulin activity in the synovial-membrane of patients with rheumatoid-arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis after pepsin treatment - real or artifact. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 45, 821-826. doi: 10.1136/ard.45.10.821 In-text citation Among studies, H. Davies et al. (2013) and P. G. Davies, Revel and Mayston (1986) Revised January 2016. 10 Secondary referencing Secondary referencing is where you need to refer to the work of an author which you have not read in the original, but have learnt about from another author. Whenever possible you should use the original work. If this is not feasible, you must make clear that you have not read the original by referring to the work in which you found the reference. In the reference list only include details of the work that you read. Kleinman (1996) cited in Cunningham-Burley (1998) has argued... or It is the non-professional arena that illness is first defined (Kleinman, 1996, cited in Cunningham-Burley, 1998) Websites It can be difficult to identify the author of a webpage, so decide who is responsible for the page and that person or corporate body can be referenced as the author. Searching the ’About Us’ or ‘Contact Us’ will help to identify the author. If no author can be found use the webpage title. If no title use URL. ...American Psychological Association (2012) Abbreviations (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors Only abbreviate that help you communicate with readers. Abbreviate in the text only if it is conventional and if the reader is more familiar with the abbreviation than with the expanded form or if considerable space can be saved. First citation in text British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC, 2013) Subsequent citations in text BBC (2013) Parenthetical format, first citation in text (British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 2013) Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text (BBC, 2013) Revised January 2016. 11 Works with no identified author or with an anonymous author When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page, and italicise the title of a journal, a book, a brochure, or a report: the book Dictionary of Food Science and Nutrition (2006) the website (“AWMGS (All Wales Genetics Medical Service),” 2013) When a work’s author is designated as “Anonymous“ cite in text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date: (Anonymous, 2012) Revised January 2016. 12 References What will my reference list look like? The rules for APA referencing require that references are accurate, complete and useful to readers. The reference list should be started on a new page. The word References should be centred. The reference list must be in alphabetical order. You alphabetise by the name of the first author, letter by letter. Disregard spaces, capitalisation, hyphens, apostrophes, full stops and accent marks. When alphabetising titles or corporate authors file by the first significant word (ignore a, an, the, etc.). All lines of each reference are double spaced and after the first are indented (to do this: position your cursor at the beginning of the second line and press CTRL and the Tab key simultaneously). If a reference has more than one author add an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name and add a comma before the ampersand. If a reference has 8 or more authors, the first 6 authors are listed followed by ... followed by the final author. Year is year of publication, not printing. Only the first letter of the first word of the title and the first letter of the first word after the colon or dash are capitalised. Any proper nouns are also capitalised, for example: Publication manual of the American Psychological Association Do not capitalise the second word of a hyphenated compound Only enter edition if not the first edition. The first place of publication is used in the reference. Placing a source in your reference list implies that you have read it. What if some publication details are not available? If no date use (n.d.) If no place of publication known use (n.p.) If no publisher known use (n.p.) If the information is not visible in the document, but can be found elsewhere, add the information in square brackets. Use question marks to indicate uncertainty regarding names and dates; use ca. to indicate estimated dates. Revised January 2016. 13 Book with one author Last name, Initial(s). (Year). Title. Place: Publisher. Neville, C. (2007). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Book with two authors or more Last name, Initial(s)., & Last name, initial(s). (Year). Title. Place: Publisher. Care Services Improvement Partnership., Royal College of Psychiatrists., & Social Care Institute for Excellence. (2007). A common purpose: Recovery in future mental health services. London: Social Care Institute for Excellence. Phillips, J., Ajrouch, K., & Hillcoat-Nalletamby, S. (2010). Key concepts in social gerontology. London: Sage. Edited book Last name, Initial(s). (Ed.). (Year). Title (ed.). Place: Publisher.  Use (Ed.) if one editor and (Eds.) if two or more editors. Cash, T. F., & Smolak, L. (Eds.). (2011). Body image: A handbook of science, nd practice, and prevention (2 ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Woodhead, S. (Ed.). (2013). A core care pathway children with life-limiting and life- rd threatening conditions (3 ed.). Bristol: Together for Short Lives. Revised January 2016. 14 Chapter in edited book Last name, Initial(s). (Year). Chapter title. In Initial. Last name (Eds.), Book title (edition, pages of chapter). Place: Publisher.  Note that with the chapter author (Benton) the last name precedes the initial. With the book authors (Kilcast etc.) the initials precede the last names. Benton, D. (2011). Diet, behaviour and cognition in children. In D. Kilcast & F. Angus (Eds.), Developing children’s food products (pp. 62-81). Cambridge: Woodhead. Bowden, J. (2006). Using health promotion models and approaches in midwifery. In nd J. Bowden & V. Manning (Eds.), Health promotion in midwifery (2 ed., pp. 13-24). London: Hodder Arnold. Chapter in an edited E-book Bowden, J. (2006). Using health promotion models and approaches in midwifery. nd In J. Bowden & V. Manning (Eds.), Health promotion in midwifery (2 ed., pp.13-24). Retrieved from https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9781444113310 OR Bowden, J. (2006). Using health promotion models and approaches in midwifery. nd In J. Bowden & V. Manning (Eds.), Health promotion in midwifery (2 ed., pp.13-24). Retrieved from https://www.dawsonera.com Revised January 2016. 15 E-book Last name, Initial(s). (Year). Title (ed.). Retrieved from URL  Reference an e-book as you would a printed book; replace place and publisher with URL of the e-book collection or the e-book. th Ogden, J. (2007). Health psychology: A textbook (4 ed.). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com Journal article Last name, Initial(s)., & Last name, Initial(s). (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume Number(issue or part number if needed), page numbers. Blann, A. (2014). Why do we test for urea and electrolytes? Nursing Times, 110(5), 19-21. Tapper, K., Shaw, C., Ilsley, J., Hill, A. J., Bond, F. W., & Moore, L. (2009). Exploratory randomised controlled trial of a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention for women. Appetite, 52, 396-404.  Issue or part number only required if each issue begins with page 1, if volume has continuous pagination issue or part number is not required. For example, both Nursing Times begin each issue with page 1, so the issue or part number must be included otherwise a reader may look at 51 issues before finding the article. Journal of Advanced Nursing has continuous pagination, so the October 2015 issue (10) begins on page 2221. Online journal article Last name, Initial(s)., & Last name, Initial(s). (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume, page numbers. DOI or Retrieved from URL Revised January 2016. 16 Allen, S. J., Jordan, S., Storey, M., Thornton, C. A., Gravenor, M., Garaiova, I., …Morgan, G. (2010). Dietary supplementation with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria is well tolerated and not associated with adverse events during late pregnancy and early infancy. The Journal of Nutrition,140, 483-488. doi:10.3945/jn.109.117093  If online version is the same as printed version, reference it as a printed journal article. If not then include article Digital Object Identifier (DOI). A DOI is a long unique numeric code. If a DOI is unavailable use a URL instead. NB: If a reference has 8 or more authors, the first 6 authors are listed followed by ... followed by the final author. Example as above. Hjermstad, M. J., Kolflaath, J., Lokken, A., Hanssen, S. B., Normann, A. P., & Aass, N. (2013). Are emergency admissions in emergency cancer care always necessary? Results from a descriptive study. BMJ Open, 3, e002515. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002515 Sheehan, B., Stinton, C., & Mitchell, K. (2009). The care of people with dementia in general hospital. The Journal of Quality Research in Dementia, (8, scientific version). Retrieved from http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?documentID=1 094&pageNumber=5 Not every online journal article will provide page numbers, as in the two examples above. Revised January 2016. 17 Newspaper article Author, A.A. (date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, xx, p. or pp. xx denotes column or section (Useful as many printed newspapers have a number of separately paginated sections) Ruddick, G. (2013, October 3). Tesco suffers sales slump in all global businesses; UK rivals gain ground but boss Clarke confident turnaround plan is working. Daily Telegraph, Business News, p. 1 Online Graham, N. (2013, August 31). A business built on data innovation and clubcard points. Financial Times. Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com/en- US/products/feature01_package.shtml Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid unstable URLs. Magazine Author, A. A. (date). Title of article. Title of Magazine, pp. Unknown author- Time for plan Z: Blackberry. (2013, September 23). The Economist, Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com/en- US/products/feature01_package.shtml Revised January 2016. 18 Book review in a journal Last name of reviewer, Initial(s). (Year). Title of review Review of the book Title of book, by name of book’s author. Journal Title, volume, page numbers. Nagorski, A. (2013).The totalitarian temptation Review of the book The devil in history: communism, fascism and some lessons of the 20th century, by V.Tismaneanu. Foreign Affairs, 92, 172-176.  If the review is untitled, place the material in brackets immediately after the year. Retain the brackets to indicate that this is a description of the form and content, not the review’s title. Website Author. (Year). Title. Retrieved month day, year, from URL American Psychological Association. (2015). APA style blog. Retrieved September 25, 2015, from http://blog.apastyle.org/  Only include the date the information was retrieved if the website is likely to change frequently, as in the case of this example (a blog). If the information is “published” with a static date (year) no date of retrieval is required.  Author of a website is usually a corporate author. However if you’re citing a specific document on a website there may be personal authors.  Some documents have a title that begins with a number, treat the numeral as though it was spelled out (for example, alphabetise “1000” as if it was “one thousand”. In the example below it will be filed as though the entry was “One Thousand Lives Plus”. All Wales midwife-led care guidelines. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sitesplus/861/opendoc/258356 1000 Lives Plus. (2012). Students & person-centred care - Dignity. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www.1000livesplus.wales.nhs.uk/students-person-centred- care-dignity Revised January 2016. 19 Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust. (n.d.). Policies and procedures. Retrieved September 3, 2015, from http://tavistockandportman.uk/about- us/governance/policies-and-procedures Wales Accord on the Sharing of Personal Information. (2015). Retrieved August 10, 2015, from http://www.waspi.org/ World Health Organization. (2014). Pneumonia. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs331/en/ Official publication Corporate author. (Year). Title (Series or reference number). Place: Publisher. Department of Health. (1998). Our healthier nation: A contract for health: Presented to Parliament by the Secretary for State for Health by command of Her Majesty (Cm. 3852). London: The Stationery Office.  An official publication is a publication published by Parliament, a government department (UK or foreign), devolved government or an international organisation such as the European Union or World Health Organization. Sometimes there is no personal author so the organisation is deemed to be the corporate author. Revised January 2016. 20 Online official publication Corporate author. (Year). Title (Series or reference number). Retrieved from URL Care Services Improvement Partnership., Royal College of Psychiatrists., & Social Care Institute for Excellence. (2007). A common purpose: Recovery in future mental health services. Retrieved from http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/positionpapers/pp08.pdf?res=true Department of Health. (2011). Delivering a healthy start for pregnant women, new mums, babies and young children. Retrieved from http://www.healthystart.nhs.uk/wp- content/uploads/2011/07/HS52A_Interactive%20PDF%20for%20Health%20P rofessionals.pdf Health & Care Professions Council. (2014). Standards of proficiency: Paramedics. Retrieved from http://www.hpc- uk.org/assets/documents/1000051CStandards_of_Proficiency_par amedics.pdf Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry. (2013). Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry: Executive summary. Retrieved from http://www.midstaffspublicinquiry.com/sites/default/files/report/Executive%20s ummary.pdf Thesis For a thesis found on a database (ProQuest, EThOS)- Author, A. A. (year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.) Revised January 2016. 21 Macleod, A. K. A. (2013). The role of marine renewable energy structures and biofouling communities in promoting self-sustaining populations of non-native species (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from EThOS database (uk.bl.ethos.577609) Richards, R. A. (1987). A geographical analysis of patterns of mortality and ill-health in Wales (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I. (DX97003) For a Swansea University thesis- Author, A. A. (year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location. Bowler, N. (2010). Prisoners' mental state: A psychosocial perspective (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Swansea University, Swansea. Pope, S. (2013). Parental participation in the child protection process (Unpublished master’s thesis). Swansea University, Swansea. Personal communication Personal communications such as email, personal interviews, telephone conversations do not provide recoverable data and are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in the text as follows: G. P. Mooney (personal communication, June 6, 2013) Use your judgement in citing other electronic forms of personal communication. What you cite should have scholarly relevance. Revised January 2016. 22