How to prepare a Thesis statement

guidelines for preparation of thesis and how to prepare thesis proposal and how to prepare thesis presentation and how to prepare thesis for phd
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Published Date:01-07-2017
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Guide for the Preparation of Theses and Dissertations               Revised July, 2012 Introduction   The detailed instructions in this guide are intended to lend a uniform appearance to theses and dissertations at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro and must be followed by all disciplines. While it is recognized that documents from divergent areas of study will exhibit differences, certain requirements of format are necessary. Without exception, no thesis/dissertation is accepted by The Graduate School until it is in compliance with formatting requirements. Students should begin preparing to write the thesis/dissertation early in their graduate program. When students lack adequate word processing skills, it is the responsibility of the student to acquire the necessary skills to produce the thesis/dissertation. The University provides excellent online training programs for Word and numerous other software systems. It is critical that the thesis/dissertation be prepared correctly in order to convert easily to a Portable Document Format, or pdf, for electronic submission. The pdf is a universal file format that allows data saved in one format (including fonts, text, images, etc.) to be converted into a format that can be read on any computer utilizing free Adobe Reader software. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation   The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, like universities around the world, requires electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). The submission of electronic theses/dissertations offers numerous benefits. The ETD process helps to train students in the electronic publishing skills they will need as professionals. On a larger scale, the immediate and wide-spread availability of ETD documents provides world-wide access to scholarship. ETDs allow researchers to build on the work of those before them, even those whose work was completed in recent weeks or months. The world-wide access displays the scholarship of University and the excellent programs offered. ETDs contribute to UNCG’s Mission to be a “…diverse, student-centered research university, linking the Triad and North Carolina to the world through learning, discovery, and service. As a doctorate-granting institution, it is committed to teaching based in scholarship and advancing knowledge through research.” (The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, The Mission of the University, 2003) Electronic submission allows a variety of opportunities for students to display their research/creative work. ETDs can include examples of scholarship and creative ability that are not possible in print. These can include video images, audio clips, and even 3-D models. 4   Word Processing   Understanding that the original document will be converted to a pdf file prior to submission to The Graduate School, it is very important that all students using Microsoft Word software prepare the document using standard Word procedures. Keep in mind the following tips:  Spacing and Pagination—Use tabs to align text instead of a series of spaces. Use line breaks to force a new line instead of starting a new paragraph. Insert page breaks instead of a series of paragraphs or returns to start a new page. Use section breaks to change the format between pages in the document (for example, sections where pagination style differs).  Fonts—It is best to use standard True Type fonts such as Times New Roman, Helvetica or Arial. All fonts should be embedded. For more information on embedding fonts, visit the ProQuest ETD submission website, log-in and click on the “Pdf Conversion” tab.  Graphics-The best method to include graphics is to use the EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) files rather than BMP, GIFs, or JPEG images. Use a high resolution such as 600 dpi. Avoid using graphic editors that are part of a word processor.  Equations—MS Word users should not use Word’s Equation Editor. Instead, use italic Times Roman font and Symbol font, along with superscripts and subscripts to create equations.  Pagination—You may want to use the section break feature (available in MS Word) to separate the three sections of the document that are paginated differently: abstract and title page (no page numbers), other preliminary materials (small Roman numerals centered at the bottom of the page), and the text, references and appendices (Arabic numbers). If you write the document in a series of sections, remember that all sections must be saved as one file. Also, use your word processor’s tool for cross referencing to ensure that pagination is consistent. Page numbering may be altered by conversion to pdf. Be sure to check the table of contents carefully and make the necessary corrections.  Landscape Page Numbers—Remember that page numbers must be placed in a header or footer in portrait orientation even when the text of the page is in landscape orientation. For detailed instructions on how to make this change in Word, visit the Microsoft website:;en-us;265436 and click on Reference 211930-How to add a portrait page number to a landscape page.  Columns—Consider using tables without borders instead of tabs to format text or numbers into neat columns. 5   Use of Copyrighted Material   The law permits the limited use of extracts and quotations for purposes of illustration and criticism. This provision covers most quotations in theses and dissertations. In most instances, it is not necessary for candidates preparing theses/dissertations to obtain permission to quote from professional journals in their fields or from copyrighted books. Copyrighted items, such as photographic copies of pictures and charts, tests, forms, and questionnaires, no matter how short, should never be reproduced without permission. Masters and doctoral students must receive permission, from the author or publisher, to quote any extensive information from copyrighted materials. In most cases, the author or publisher is willing to grant permission with the condition that acknowledgments are included in the document. If you choose to copyright your thesis or dissertation, copies of the written letters of permission must accompany the copyright registration. For additional information on the use of copyrighted material, please utilize the ProQuest/UMI Dissertation Publishing website, and click on “Authors” and in the Dissertation Navigation box, click on “Submitting”. A copy of all permissions to use copyrighted materials must be attached to the ETD Release and Hold Harmless form submitted to The Graduate School. Students who have submitted, had accepted, or published one or more papers which are included in the text of the thesis or dissertation, must format their thesis/dissertation according to the same guidelines that apply to all theses and dissertations. In many cases, independent papers may serve as individual chapters within the thesis or dissertation. An introductory statement explaining any variations of style, acknowledging any instances of multiple authorship, and stating the status of publications should be included. Papers that have already been published and are now being included in a thesis or dissertation should include a letter from the publisher providing written permission for the use of the material. Copyrighting   Students should consult with thesis/dissertation committee chair and members concerning the desirability and the usefulness of copyrighting the document. If thesis/dissertation will be copyrighted, the student may make application and pay the additional copyright fee during the online submission process. University Microfilms International (or PQIL) will file the registration on your behalf with the U.S. Copyright Office. In either case, if copyrighting, the student must include a copyright page in the actual document. It is an unnumbered page bearing the copyright symbol © followed by the year and the full name 6   (or name as it appears on the thesis/dissertation). This information should be centered in one line across the middle of the page. The copyright page is placed after the title page and is not included in the pagination. Publishing Requirement   Publication of the thesis/dissertation by UMI Dissertation Publishing/ProQuest Information and Learning is required by The Graduate School. For more information about PQIL and your rights as the author, visit: Style Guides   The latest edition of any of the following style manuals, if approved by the student’s major department, may be used. However, students may follow the style practices of a principal journal in the field of study—for example, chemistry—at the recommendation of the department or advisor. Practices recommended in the style guides or the selected journal are to be followed except where they may be in conflict with this guide, in which case this guide takes precedence. Do not use another thesis/dissertation as your guide. th  Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7 ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. th  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6 ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2009. th  Slade, Carole and Robert Perrin. Form and Style: Research Papers, Reports, Theses. 13 ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company College Division, 2005. th  Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations. 7 rev. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. University Computing Assistance   Staff members and computing assistants are accessible in a variety of computing labs to help students with problems using Word or other supported software. You may also reach the IT staff by calling 336-256-TECH or via email at 7   Format Requirements   Typeface An appropriate typeface and font size (with a 10 point minimum for the text) should be used consistently throughout the paper. Script type is not permitted. If you are unsure about the acceptability of the typeface, please contact the Graduate School Evaluator. Embed Fonts The Graduate School recommends using TrueType fonts for the text of the document. TrueType fonts include Times New Roman, Helvetica, Ariel, and others. To ensure that your pdf format includes all of the fonts utilized in your original document and to prepare it for publication, you must embed all fonts prior to converting the file to pdf. To embed TrueType fonts in Microsoft Word 2003:  Click on “Tools” then “Options” and select the “Save” tab. Check the box to embed TrueType fonts. To embed TrueType fonts in Microsoft Word 2007:  Click on the “Office” button and then “Word Options” at the bottom of the new display box.  Select “Save” from the left sidebar and check the box to embed fronts in the file. To embed TrueType fonts in Microsoft Word 2010:  Click on the “File” tab and then “Options”.  Select “Save” from the left sidebar and check the box to embed fronts in the file. Margins The entire document should have uniform margins. Top margin: 1½ inches on all pages except:  Title page—2 inch top margin  First page of each chapter—2 inch top margin  First page of the Bibliography—2 inch top margin Bottom margin: 1 inch Left margin: 1½ inches Right margin: 1 inch 8   Spacing The text should be typed double-space. Long quotations, type as block quotes, which should be indented 5 spaces, single-spaced with a triple-space before and after. Table and figure captions as well as descriptions, footnotes, references, and bibliographic information may use single- spacing (although a double-space should appear between each new reference/citation). The chapter header and title on the first page of each chapter also has specific spacing requirements. After the 2 inch top margin, center the chapter header (type in all capital letters using Roman numerals for the chapter numbers), double-space, center the chapter title (type in all capital letters), triple-space, and then begin the text. The triple-space should also be used before and after all tables and figures placed on the same page with text. The additional space helps the item to stand out, making it easier for readers to find and examine. Pagination The pages in the preliminary material must be numbered consecutively with lower-case Roman numerals, centered at the bottom of 1 inch margin. The title page has no page number typed on it, but is understood to be page “i”. If a copyright page is included, it is not counted in the numbering and is not numbered. Arabic numbers should be used for the remainder of the paper, including the reference materials. Begin Arabic numbering with the number 1 on the first page of the text. All pages are numbered in sequence, including the first pages of chapters, full-page tables or figures and appendices. All Arabic numbers should be replaced consistently throughout the document (refer to the style typed guide for preferred page number replacement). On pages, in landscape orientation, the page number must be placed in the portrait position. Page numbers should not be accompanied by the headers (or footers) or followed by a period or enclosed by hyphens or parentheses. Paragraphs Each paragraph should be indented. A new paragraph should not begin at the bottom of a page unless there is adequate space for at least two lines. Block Quotation All quotations exceeding three lines in length must be typed in block format, indented a standard 5-space tab from the left margin and typed single-space. Quotation marks are not used with block quotations, unless used in the original. Block quotations are separated from the text by a triple-space before and after. 9   Multimedia Material In an electronic thesis or dissertation, students include external or internal links to multimedia files. Multimedia components should be identified in the abstract. Acceptable formats include Images Video Audio GIF (.gif) Apple Quick Time (.mov) AIF (.aif) JPEG (.jpeg) Microsoft Audio Video Interleaved CD-DA TIFF (.tif) (.avi) CD-ROM/XA   MPEG (.mpg) MIDI (.midi)   MPEG-2 SND (.snd) WAV (.wav)   Please note that although ProQuest/UMI does not limit file size, UNCG’s institutional repository, NCDOCKS (where digital theses and dissertations are “stored”) has a 500 mb size limit. In rare cases, students may need to submit large supplemental files on CD/DVD. For more information, please contact the Graduate School Evaluator. 10     Organization of the Text   In most cases, a thesis or dissertation consists of four major parts-abstract, the preliminary materials, the text, and the references/bibliography. Some documents may also include appendices. The following table contains a list of all of the major and minor parts, in their usual order of placement. Afterward, each component and its requirements are explained in detail. 1. Abstract Required 2. Preliminary materials: a. Title Page Required b. Copyright Page Required if seeking copyright c. Dedication Optional d. Approval Page Required e. Acknowledgments Optional f. Preface Optional g. Table of Contents Required h. List of Tables Recommended i. List of Figures Recommended 3. Text Required 4. References/Bibliography Required 5. Appendices Optional The parts to be included in any thesis or dissertation should be determined by mutual agreement between the student and his/her committee. Each specific part of the document is described below in detail. Abstract (Required) An abstract must be included with each thesis and dissertation submitted to The Graduate School. The abstract should be a brief summary of the paper, stating only the problem, procedures used, and the most significant results and conclusions. Explanation and opinions are omitted. Remember to include the necessary information regarding any multimedia components included in the document. The abstract must be approved by the student’s advisor/committee chair. The abstract margins are consistent with the text of the paper: 1½ inch top and left; 1 inch bottom and right. The heading of the abstract is structured in a specific format. Please note that the name and title used on the abstract should be the same (ie. use of initials, wording, etc.) as the name and title used on the title page. The abstract heading is typed single-space exactly as follows: 11     STUDENT’S NAME in all capital letters (last name first). Next, type the degree in abbreviated form (ex: Ph.D. or M.S.). Then, add the title with the First Letter of Each Important Word Capitalized. (Finally, the year the degree will be conferred is enclosed in parentheses) Name of thesis/dissertation advisors. Number of pages in the document. For example: DOE, JOHN S., M.S. Measuring Divorce Liberality in First-Generation U.S. Citizens Living in the Southeastern United States. (2004) Directed by Dr. Samuel S. Smith. 142 pp. Begin the text of the abstract here… The text of the abstract is typed double-space in paragraph form with the first paragraph of the text beginning one triple-space beneath the heading. The first word of each paragraph should be indented, consistent with the rest of the paper. Preliminary Materials Title Page (Required) The title page should follow exactly the spacing and use of capitalization shown in the sample at the end of this guide. The top margin is 2 inches and the information is centered, with the exception of the signature line(s) which begins at the center of the page and continues toward the right margin. The title is typed in all capitals and, if it is more than one line in length, it is arranged in an inverted pyramid. The date on the title page should be the year the degree is to be granted. The name of the degree sought, but not the major department or field of study, is included here (for example: Doctor of Philosophy or Master of Fine Arts). Under the words “Approved by,” place a line for the signature of the committee chair. If the committee has co-chairs, include signature lines for both co-chairs. The words, “Committee Chair” or “Committee Co-chair,” should be typed beneath the signature line(s). Notice in the sample that “Approved by,” the start of the signature line, and “Committee Chair” are aligned with each other. The title page has no preliminary page number typed on it, but it is counted as preliminary page “i”. Students must include an unsigned title page in the appropriate location within the document submitted online. The online version can include the Committee Chair’s name typed on the signature line. However, no original signatures should be scanned or in any way included in the 12     online submission. The original title page, with the signatures, should be submitted directly to The Graduate School. Doctoral students must submit the original signed title page and approval page by the approval copy deadline. Masters degree candidates must submit the original signed title page and approval page by the final submission/degree clearance deadline. Dedication (Optional) A dedication gives special tribute to a specific person(s). There is no heading on this page. Most dedications are short, beginning with the word “To…” The dedication is typed alone on the page, usually centered. The page should have a 1½ inch top margin or the dedication may be typed in the middle of the page (top to bottom). The text of the dedication is double-spaced. The preliminary page number ii should be centered at the 1 inch bottom margin. When a dedication is included, the approval page, normally preliminary page ii, will become preliminary page iii. Approval Page (Required) The signatures of the thesis/dissertation committee chair (or co-chair) and committee members attest to the acceptance of the paper. The approval page follows the format shown in the sample at the end of this guide. The heading APPROVAL PAGE is centered at the 1½ inch top margin. A line is provided for the signature of the committee names under the signature lines; do not include titles or degrees. At the bottom, left side of the page, include the lines for the date of acceptance and the date of the final oral examination. For masters students who do not have a final oral examination, (defense of thesis), omit this line. The preliminary page number ii (or iii, if a dedication is included in the document) is centered at the 1 inch bottom margin. Students must include an unsigned approval page in the appropriate location within the document submitted online. The online version can include the committee members’ names typed on or under the signature lines. However, no original signatures should be scanned or in any way included in the online submission. The original approval page, with the signatures, should be submitted directly to The Graduate School. Doctoral students must submit the original signed title page and approval page by the approval copy deadline. Masters degree candidates must submit the original signed title page and approval page by the final submission/degree clearance deadline. Acknowledgments (Optional) When included, acknowledgments should be brief, simple and free of sentimentality or trivia. It is customary to recognize the assistance of the advisor and/or committee chair, all other members of the committee and only those organizations and/or persons who actually aided the research. If financial support was provided to make the study possible, credit for such assistance should be given. 13     The heading ACKNOWLEDGMENTS is typed in the center at the 1½ inch top margin. The text is double spaced with the preliminary page number centered at the bottom margin. Preface (Optional) A preface is a statement that either explains the author’s reasons for pursuing this subject matter or provides a personal comment about the subject that would not otherwise be included in the document. The heading PREFACE is centered at the 1½ inch top margin. The text is double- spaced with the appropriate preliminary page number(s) centered at the bottom margin. Table of Contents (Required) The table of contents is placed immediately after the acknowledgements or preface and contains a listing of all of the items that follow. The table of contents lists only the items that follow it. It does not include the items that precede it. The heading TABLE OF CONTENTS is centered at the 1½ inch top margin. One double-space down from the heading, the word “Page” is typed flush with the right margin. Page numbers for each chapter title/heading and each subtitle/subheading are listed on the table of contents and should be right flush, beneath the word “Page”. The contents begin at the left margin, one double-space below the word “Page”. Preliminary items, such as LIST OF TABLES, are typed flush with the left margin, followed by a series of dots, known as leaders, and the page number typed flush with the right margin. Please note that the abstract, title page, and approval page are not listed on the table of contents. Following the preliminary items, the word CHAPTER stands alone on a line at the left margin. Chapter headings are numbered with Roman numerals, aligned by their decimals. The chapter titles are typed in capitals and are worded exactly as they appear in the text. The indentation of chapter titles, subheadings, and subdivisions follow exactly the form used in the sample table of contents at the end of this guide. It is not required that students list subheadings on the table of contents. However, when subheadings are listed, all subheadings of that level must be included. These are listed using the exact wording and capitalization used in the text. In most cases, the first letter of all words is capitalized except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions of four or fewer letters. Dot leaders extend from the last word of each item to the corresponding page number. When a title or subheading must exceed one line, the subsequent line(s) should be single-spaced and indented two spaces. Double-spacing is used between each chapter title. If there are subheadings included, these should be typed single-space with a double-space separating them from chapter titles above and below. See the sample page in the back of this guide. Consider utilizing bookmarks for the items included on your Table of Contents. 14     Theses that are not structured using chapters should exclude the heading, CHAPTER. For example, M.F.A. students submitting poetry should list each poem, double-spaced, followed by the dot leaders and the corresponding page numbers. Students submitting a two-page paper thesis should list the titles and references/bibliographies of each paper, double-spaced, in all capital letters, followed by the dot leaders and the corresponding page numbers. List of Tables (Recommended if tables are present) The List of Tables follows the table of contents and begins on a separate page. The heading LIST OF TABLES is centered at the 1½ inch top margin. The remainder of the page is set up basically the same as the table of contents, with the column heading “Page” typed at the right margin followed by a double-space, then the list of table numbers and titles. Each table title should be followed by dot leaders and the page number. All table titles must be listed in order using the exact title (as it appears on the actual table) and the appropriate page number. Tables should be numbered in the order they appear in the paper, using the numbering system provided in the style guide selected. Titles of more than one line are single-spaced, with second and succeeding lines indented two spaces. Double-spacing is used between table titles. Only titles, not explanatory notes, should be included on the list of tables. List of Figures (Recommended if figures are present) The list of figures follows the list of tables on a separate page. All illustrations other than tables are designed as figures. These items should be numbered with Arabic numbers consecutively as they appear in the paper, using the numbering system provided by the style guide selected. All figure titles should be listed in order using the exact title (as it appears as on the actual figure) and the appropriate page number. Titles of more than one line are single-spaced, with second and succeeding lines indented two spaces. Double-spacing is used between figure titles. Only titles, not explanatory notes, should be included on the list of figures. Text (Required) Chapters The division of the main text of the paper should be appropriate to the character of the work and in accordance with the practices in the student’s field of study. Normally, the text of the paper includes an introductory chapter, a documentation of previous work in the field, the specific proposition to be investigated, a complete explanation of the methodology used, a discussion of the results and their significance, and a summary. Each major division, usually called a chapter, should begin on a new page. The first page of each chapter has a very specific format: 15      Two inch top margin.  The heading is centered, typed in all capitals, and uses Roman numeral designations (ex: CHAPTER I).  Double-spaced (the equivalent of one single-spaced blank line in between).  The chapter title is centered and typed in all capitals.  Triple-spaced (the equivalent of two single-spaced blank lines in between).  First subheading or begin text. The text of the thesis or dissertation should be double-spaced. Subheadings For complex theses or dissertations, the use of multiple “levels” of subheadings may be necessary. The use and placement of subheadings should be consistent throughout the entire document. Each new “level” should be distinct from the others in placement and/or structure (underlined, italicized, bold, etc). Your style guide should provide a clear pattern for subheading placement and order. Tables and Figures Statistical information is usually set up in tabular form. Tables may be placed on a page with text or on separate pages. If placed in the text, the table should follow the point of first reference as closely as possible and should be separated from the text by a triple-space (both above and below). If this is not practical, the text is continued and the table is inserted on the next page at the first natural break in the text. Tables are numbered consecutively and table captions should be in accordance with the selected style guide. The table is then typed beginning one double- space below the last line of the caption, either single- or double-spaced. Illustrative materials such as graphs, diagrams, photographs, drawings, and maps are referred to as figures. Some of these items may be best included as multimedia files. In these cases, please use the multimedia instructions provided on the submission website or visit: If the illustration is included in the text, it should be inserted as closely as possible to its first reference. Figures are numbered sequentially throughout the text in Arabic numbers. The placement of figure titles, either above or below the figure, must be consistent throughout the paper. In some cases, it may be necessary to reduce a table or figure photographically by using a digital scanner since the title and legends should appear on the same pages as the figures they accompany. If the table or figure is landscape format, the top should be placed at the 1 ½ inch left margin. Please note that the page numbers on landscape pages must appear in the same position and direction as the page numbers on portrait pages. All tables and figures must conform to the specified margin requirements. 16     Reference Materials (Required) The thesis/dissertation should contain the appropriate references to original literature relevant to the research presented in the paper. In the humanities and social sciences, this documentation is achieved through footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography. For specific formatting details, please refer to the style guide recommended by the thesis/dissertation committee. All bibliographical references should clearly show the sources of the writer’s information. When primary sources are not available, reference to a source known only through a secondary reference must be noted so as to provide readers with the means to check original sources. The bibliography must include all references cited. Useful references not cited in the text, but highly relevant to the investigation, may also be listed in the bibliography. The first page of the reference materials should immediately follow the last page of the text. The heading REFERENCES (or BIBLIOGRAPHY, depending on your style guide) is centered at the 2 inch top margin. Double-space after each reference listed. Appendices (Optional, as needed) The appendices may contain tables of data that would interfere with the easy reading of the text, development of mathematical treatments, very long quotations, schedules, forms, interviews, inventories, samples of test items, surveys, illustrative materials and any other supplementary material considered worthy of recording or too detailed to be included in the text. If diverse materials are included, they should be grouped into categories and each category labeled as separate appendix (ex: Appendix A. Tables; Appendix B. Consent Forms; etc.) Each appendix should have lettered heading and a description title typed on the actual appendix item and listed on the table of contents. The appendices follow the reference materials and are paginated continuously, with the page numbers placed in the same position as throughout the text. All items must meet the specified margin requirements. Proofreading and Editing   After final approval by the advisor, the text should be proofread carefully by the student or other interested person for editorial accuracy. Spelling, grammar, punctuation and sentence structure should be consistent with the rules of formal standard English, and the citation method should be consistent with the appropriate style guide. 17     Two Paper Thesis (M.A. in English only) In instances where the body of the thesis is made up of two or more “papers,” the document should be set up to include two abstracts, one for each paper. These theses should have only one title page, listing both titles, separated by the word “AND.” The table of contents should include any preliminary introduction (where applicable), the title of the first paper, the references, the title of the second paper and the references. Each item should be left flush, in all capital letters, followed by the dot leaders and the corresponding page number. The thesis itself should begin with a brief introduction of the two papers, followed by the first paper, its references/bibliography, the second paper and its references/bibliography. M.F.A. in Studio Art Students should include images with their online thesis submission using any of the formats listed on page 6 of this “Guide.” Add these items as “Supplemental files.” See pages 21-24 for details regarding the online submission process. 18     Deadlines: What’s Due & When?   Doctoral Master’s Approval Copy Approval Copy Deadline Final Deadline Deadline Final Deadline 1.Original, signed title 1. Final, corrected 1. Online document 1. Original, signed page, and approval online document submission. The title page, and page submission thesis defense may approval page 2. Online document 2. ETD Original occur after this 2. Final, corrected submission Release & Hold submission. online submission Harmless 3. ETD Original Agreement form Release & Hold 3. Survey of Earned Harmless Doctorates Agreement form Check the University Calendar for the specific deadlines relevant to the semester in which you plan to receive the degree. The Approval Copy deadline is specifically listed for both doctoral and masters candidates. The Final Submission deadline is the final date for the complete clearance of graduate degree candidates. These deadlines are strictly enforced. The ETD Release and Hold Harmless Agreement form can be found on The Graduate School’s website. Click on “Current Students” and then select “About ETD” on the left navigation bar. This item requires an original signature and therefore cannot be submitted electronically. The Survey of Earned Doctorates link will be sent via email to all Ph.D. candidates upon review of the dissertation approval copy. Please complete the Survey. All paper items (original signed pages, and ETD Release and Hold Harmless Agreement form) should be submitted directly to The Graduate School: Attn: Thesis/Dissertation Evaluator The Graduate School UNC Greensboro 241 Mossman Bldg. 1202 Spring Garden Street Greensboro, NC 27412 19     Before You Submit Your Thesis/Dissertation   There are a few specific items which students should consider, and perhaps even discuss with their Committee Chair, prior to beginning their ETD submission. 1. Do you need to copyright? For more information about copyright, visit the U.S. Copyright Office via the Library of Congress website at Keep in mind that if you do choose to copyright, you must include a copyright page in your document. See p. 3 of this “Guide” for more information. There is an additional charge for copyrighting. 2. Do you want to purchase personal copies of the manuscript? This decision must be made prior to submitting your ETD. After you have completed this portion of the submission process, you cannot gO back to it to change you decision. Keep in mind, however, that you can use a local bindery to prepare personal copies instead of ordering from PQIL. 3. Do you need to embargo or restrict access to this document? In most cases, embargoes are needed when a student has a patent pending or other technology transfer issue. However, a few publishers may note concerns about journal articles, creative works, or potential books made available online. In these cases, students may also want to consider placing an embargo/restricting access to the ETD. Please discuss this issue carefully with potential publishers and with your committee chair. Please note that UNCG policy allows a one year or a two year embargo/restricted period. Students selecting an embargo will be required to submit an additional form, the ETD Request to Restrict Access form, which must be signed by both the student’s committee chair and the Dean of the Graduate School. This item requires original signatures and therefore cannot be submitted electronically. Submitting the Approval Copy The approval copy of the thesis or dissertation must be submitted to The Graduate School, via the online submission process, by the posted deadline during the semester in which the student intends to graduate. This date is posted on the University Calendar (and can be found via The Graduate School’s website). Please do not submit a paper copy of the document or email the file to The Graduate School. The online submission system is designed to allow multiple submissions (approval copy and revised/final). Only the final document will go forward for publication. 20     Doctoral Students must also submit the original signed title and approval pages directly to The Graduate School (see address on p.19). For master’s candidates, the thesis defense does not need to occur prior to submission of the approval copy. Though your document will continue to change as you work toward the defense, the approval copy submission allows the thesis evaluator an opportunity to give you formatting comments early enough in the semester for these changes to be incorporated into the final product. Please review the following areas of your document for formatting accuracy prior to submitting your thesis/dissertation:  The wording of the author’s name and the thesis/dissertation title should be the same on the Abstract as on the Title Page.  Page numbers listed on the Table of Contents correspond to the actual page numbers in the text.  The chapter titles and subheadings listed on the Table of Contents are worded exactly the same as in the text. The use of capitalization and punctuation should also be the same.  The specific margin requirements of this “guide” have been followed throughout the document (including tables, figures, and appendices).  The first page of each chapter is set up correctly: 2 inch top margin, chapter heading centered in all CAPITAL letters using Roman numerals (ie. CHAPTER II); DOUBLE- SPACED; chapter title centered in all CAPITAL letters; triple-spaced; begin text.  The order and placement of subheadings, both on the Table of Contents and throughout the text, are clear and consistent. Each new subheading level should have a different indentation on the Table of Contents and a coinciding unique placement or handling in the text. Online Submission Process Converting the Document to a pdf File There are several options for converting a document to a pdf file.  Adobe Acrobat is the most common software used to create pdf files. Acrobat is available on the campus lab computers. It is also a reliable tool for pulling together multiple Word files into one pdf file.  The ETD submission site provides a pdf converter for Word and rtf files. If you use this converter, be certain to look carefully at the pdf document before submitting it to The Graduate School.  Adobe Acrobat also offers an online service, for a small charge. For more information, visit the Adobe website: 21      Although there are many pdf conversion programs available, many of which are free, some of the most common are: o DocMorph o PDF Zone o Ghostscript (capable of converting postscript, TeX and LaTeX files to pdf)  Printing, copying and computing services (such as Kinko’s) can also assist students with the pdf conversion (a fee will be charged). After converting your document to a pdf file, be certain to carefully review the format (preliminary pages, margins, pagination, figures and tables, etc.). You may be able to make the corrections in the pdf file, but it is best to go back to the original document, determine the problem, and make the correction there. Then, convert the corrected document and check it again. If a problem still exists, you may need to consult an IT staff member by calling 256- TECH. If you did not include bookmarks in your Word file, consider adding bookmarks to the Table of Contents. Online Submission of ETD After the pdf file has been created, students should complete the following steps: 1. Go online to The Graduate School’s website, click on “Current Students” along the top tabs, then select “Submit your Electronic Thesis/Dissertation” on the left navigation bar. 2. Review all instructions and guidelines for submission, then click on the “Submit my Dissertation/Thesis” in the Ready to Begin? box. 3. Create an account by entering the requested contact information, including a valid email address, and selecting a personal username and password. An email will immediately be sent to you. Activate your account by following the link included in the email. 4. Once you have activated your account, follow the submission instructions provided on the site. 22   

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