How to write synopsis of a Thesis

how to write synopsis for phd thesis and how to write synopsis of project report and how to write synopsis for dissertation and how to write synopsis for research paper
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Published Date:04-07-2017
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Guidelines for Synopsis and Thesis Preparation (Examinations branch) National Defence University Islamabad- PakistanCHAPTER 1 THESIS WRITING OVERVIEW 1. Definition of a Thesis Thesis in this guidebook refers to a documented report of the process followed by and the results of original research conducted by the students to fulfill the requirements for a Post-Graduate degree. The thesis should be presented in a manner that will reflect credit on the student, the faculty, and the University. 2. Organization of the Thesis A thesis is made up of three main parts namely preliminary pages, text and references. 3. Declaration Supervisor’s Declaration A thesis is to be submitted for the purpose of examination. It must obtain prior declaration by the supervisor on the standard and quality of the thesis. 4. Declaration Page Student’s Declaration This page should contain declaration by the student on originality of the thesis. The declaration should be signed. 5. Dedication Page (optional) The dedication must be brief, not more than one paragraph, and must not contain any number, chart or photograph. 6. Acknowledgement (optional) The student may acknowledge the assistance of various individuals or organizations in successfully producing the thesis. This should be written in one page.7. Abstracts The abstract should be brief, written in one paragraph and not exceed 300 words. An abstract is different from synopsis or summary of a thesis. It should states the field of study, problem definition, methodology adopted, research process, results obtained and conclusion of the research. The abstract can be written using single or one and a half spacing. 7. Abstracts 8. Introduction Set the scene and problem statement. Introduce structure of thesis. 9. Background Demonstrate wider appreciation (context). Provide motivation. 10. Related Work Survey and critical assessment. Relation to own work. 11-13. Analysis, design, implementation and interpretation of results 14. Critical assessment of own work State hypothesis, and demonstrate precision, thoroughness, contribution, and comparison with closest rival. 15. Table of Contents Page The Table of Contents page must start on a new page. It should list all sections, chapters and sub-headings. The titles must be written using the same words as those written in the text. 16. List of Tables This page should list all the tables found in the thesis. The page number of the table must also be included. The table numbers should be arranged according to the chapters. 17. List of Figures Diagrams, photographs, drawings, graphs, charts and maps are included as figures. The list should be written similar as the List of Tables 18. List of Symbols/Abbreviations/Notations/Terminology All symbols or abbreviations or notations or terminology found in the text should be listed on this page. They are listed in the following order:  Roman letters - alphabetical order  Greek letters - alphabetical order  Superscripts - alphabetical order Subscripts - alphabetical order 19. List of Appendices All appendices should be listed on this page. 20. Text A thesis must be divided into chapters. A title must be given and it should reflect its content. A new chapter must begin on a new page. A chapter must be divided into sections. These sections must be given appropriate titles and numbered. Texts must be written in paragraphs. Long paragraphs should be avoided. Each paragraph must describe an issue or subject. There must be continuity between paragraphs. The text should contain: (i) an introduction and background on the study or research; (ii) a detailed description of the study or research which include theories, models, and materials and methods used; (iii) the data collection and analysis techniques. (iv) the main results and discussions; and (iv) the conclusions and significance of the findings. 21. Citation in the Text Citation is a means of formally recognizing within the text, the resources from which the information or idea were obtained. The purpose is to acknowledge the work of others, to demonstrate the body of knowledge in which the work is based on and to lead others. 22. Quotations in the Text A quotation must be written in a separate paragraph. If the quotation is in a different language, it must be written in italic. 23. Tables in the Text All tables must be numbered using Arabic numeric. A caption should be positioned at the top of the table. If the caption is written in a single line, it should be centered. If the caption is written more than one line, it should be align to the left. Tables must be numbered with respect to the chapter. 24. Figures in the Text Illustrations such as maps, charts, graphs, drawings, diagrams, and photographs are referred as figures. All figures must be clear and of high quality. Figures must be numbered using Arabic numeric. A caption should be located at the bottom of the figure. If the caption is written in a single line, it should be centered. If thecaption is written in more than one line, it should be align to the left. Figures are numbered with respect to the chapter. A figure should be positioned after it has being cited for the first time in the text. All figures in the chapter can also be grouped together and positioned at an appropriate location. All figures must be listed in the List of Figures page. Illustrations in the form of CD’s, slides, and others should be placed in specially made pockets glued to the inner side of the back cover. Oversized illustrations in the form of plans, maps, charts, graphs, and others should be reduced to fit a single page unless the oversized materials are absolutely necessary for clarity and understanding. For illustrations other than above, please refer to the following guidelines; (i) Photographs Photographs should be digitally embedded in the text unless absolutely impossible. (ii) Newspaper Cuttings or Similar Materials Copies of newspaper cuttings or similar materials should be of high quality. 25. References References are detailed description of items from which information were obtained in preparing the thesis. All references must be listed at the end of the text. 26. Further Work 27. Summary & Conclusion 28. Appendix Appendices are supplementary materials to the text. These include tables, charts, computer program listings, and others. 29. Bibliography The bibliography should contain entries of all references used in the preparation of the paper including all references cited in footnotes and every work relevant to the author’s formulation and solution of problemChapter 2 WRITING SYNOPSIS FOR A M.Phil or Ph.D. RESEARCH PROJECT In order to encourage and expand M.Phil or Ph.D. research, there is need to make it an active part of the academic life of the National Defence University. As a prestigious University of Pakistan, we have to ensure that a reasonable standard of research is maintained at NDU. The University regulates through its bodies like the Advanced Studies and Research Board that the M.,Phil and Ph.D. research programs are properly planned and executed to maintain the standards. A research proposal for MSc/M.Phil/ Ph.D. registration purely for social sciences should include certain basic components, in which a number of questions need to be addressed. Why research on the proposed topic should be undertaken and what gains are likely to be achieved? What has been done previously in this or related areas? What are the objectives of this study and how these will be achieved? Are the facilities required for doing the proposed research available? An extensive initial exercise should help in designing a sound research project, which is likely to make a significant contribution in successful completion of MSc/M.Phil/Ph.D. research. Components of a Synopsis The following components should be provided in a synopsis of M.Phil and Ph.D. research project. The details may, however, vary according to the field of study. 1. Title Page TITLE OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL Time New Roman Font size = 20 Capital Letters Bold M.PHIL Time New Roman Font size = 18 Capital Letters Bold STUDENT NAME Time New Roman Font size = 14 Bold REGISTRATION NO. Time New Roman SUPERVISOR: Font size = 14 Bold NAME OF SUPERVISOR DEPARTMENT NAME Time New Roman Font size = 14 Capital Letters FACULTY OF CONTEMPORARY STUDIES Bold NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN DATE OF SUBMISSION 2. Topic The topic for research should be selected carefully. It should be specific and about the general issues at national or international level. 3. Introduction It should provide a brief description to explain the area of the proposed research work by the researcher. 4. Review of Literature A review of the relevant literature is another very important part of the synopsis, showing the work done previously in the area of proposed research is essential to plan further research effectively and in a proper way. The information given in the review should be supported by references. 5. Justification and Likely Benefits It is important to provide justification for undertaking the proposed research, perhaps in the light of previous work done. It should be possible in most cases to predict the specific and general benefits likely to be achieved as a result of completion of the proposed research. 6. Main Objectives of the Study Broad objectives to be achieved should be clearly mentioned and these should be itemized. These objectives will indicate the major aspects of the study to be undertaken. 7. Hypothesis of Study Hypothesis is statement which is to be tested for possible acceptance or rejection. Hypothesis are of two types i.e. Null (Ho) and Alternative (H1). Null hypothesis is tested for possible rejection, where as alternative hypothesis is tested for possible acceptance. 8. Significance of Study It emphasized on the significance/ importance of the research work/study i.e. why we selected the topic under discussion. 9. Statement of Problem The researcher has to clearly identify the problem/issue selected for thesis.10. Plan of Work and Methodology A plan of work describing the various aspects of the study in a logical sequence along with the methodologies to be employed, are the most important crucks of any research plan. It helps to demonstrate that the researcher has a fairly good idea about the nature of work likely to be involved. In the case of social sciences what resource materials will be used; whether the required information will be obtained from primary or secondary sources, etc. A time schedule for the various aspects of the proposed research may be provided wherever possible. Methodology includes the following:-  Sources of data (Primary or Secondary) Survey, questionnaires, Interviews, focus group interviews, observation, case-studies, diaries, critical incidents, portfolios, books, journals, periodicals, abstracts, indexes, directories, research reports, conference papers, market reports, annual reports, internal records of organizations, newspapers & magazines, CD-ROMs, on-line databases, Internet, videos & broadcasts.  Sample size: Sample size should be normal neither too small nor too large.  Data Collection Techniques (Registration, Questionnaires, interviews, Direct Observations)  Analysis of Data Data is to be analyzed according to the requirement of topic. After collecting the data, it is to be tabulated. The total variables used are to be included in the study and then the relationship between variable will be analyzed. 11. Place of Work and Facilities Available In order to complete the proposed research some specialized facilities may be required. For example in case of experimental sciences different equipments may be involved or in the case of, may be, a study on a scholar, the relevant literature may be available in a foreign country. Therefore it is important to identify the place where the research work will be undertaken and whether the resources and facilities required for doing the research are available like easy access to the external academic markets via internet. 12. References and Bibliography Synopsis should contain at the end a list of references, and a bibliography if required. These should be written on a standard pattern. 13. Length of a synopsis It will be difficult to define an overall length for a synopsis for MSc/M.Phil/Ph.D. research in such varied fields of study. Whereas it should be concise as far as possible and avoid repetitions, it should also provide sufficient details on the various aspects mentioned above to show that the research involved has been well understood and planned, and it is of an acceptable academic merit. The total length of a synopsis may run from 1,500 to a few thousand words.Chapter 3 MSc / M.Phil/Ph.D. THESIS PATTERN All theses presented in typescript for the degree of MSc/M.Phil/ Ph.D should comply with the following specifications unless permission to do otherwise is obtained from the relevant authority / body  SIZE OF PAPER A4 size be used.  PAPER SPECIFICATION Five copies on good quality paper (minimum 80 gsm) be submitted.  METHOD OF PRODUCTION The text must be typewritten in acceptable type face (readable) and the original typescript (or copy of equal quality) must normally be submitted to Exam branch.  LAYOUT OF SCRIPT Typescript should appear on one side only, lines; at least one-and-a-half spaced. Footnotes, quotations, references and photographic captions may be single spaced. Where appropriate, these should contain lists giving the locations of figures and illustrations. FONT SIZE Title Page 18-22 Headings / subheadings 14-16 Text 10-12 Footnotes 8-10 Footnotes be given on the same page where reference is quoted  TYPE STYLE Times New Roman  MARGINS. At least 1¼ -1½ inches (3.17-3.81cm) on the left-hand side, 3/4 - 1 inch (2 - 2.54cm) at the top and bottom of the page, and about ½ - 0.75 inches (1.27 - 1.90cm) at the outer edge. The best position for the page number is at top-centre or top right ½ inch (1.27 cm) below the edge. Pages containing figures and illustration should be suitable paginated.TITLE OF THESIS Time New Roman Font size = 20 Capital Letters Bold M.PHIL THESIS Time New Roman Font size = 18 Capital Letters Bold STUDENT NAME Time New Roman Font size = 14 Bold REGISTRATION NO. Time New Roman SUPERVISOR: Font size = 14 Bold NAME OF SUPERVISOR DEPARTMENT NAME Time New Roman Font size = 14 Capital Letters FACULTY OF CONTEMPORARY STUDIES Bold NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN YEAR OF SUBMISSION 1. Abstract / Summary 2. Acknowledgements 3. Abbreviations not described in the text 4. Contents 5. List of Tables (where applicable) 6. List of Figures (where applicable) 7. Introduction (including literature review) or a. Introduction It should provide a brief description to introduce the area of the proposed research work. b. Review of Literature A review of the relevant literature showing the work done previously in the area of proposed research is essential to plan further research effectively. The information given in the review should be supported by references. As separate chapters as per requisite of the subject 8. Main Objectives 9. Hypothesis of Study 10. Significance of Study 11. Statement of Problem 12. Material and Methods 13. Results May comprised of one chapter or a number of chapters depending upon the subject matter/ requirements 14. Discussion (including Conclusion/s, Recommendation/s where applicable) 15. References / Bibliography / Literature Cited 16. Appendices (where applicable) 17. Any other information specific to the respective discipline LENGTH OF THESIS Whilst the regulations do not contain a clause relating to the maximum length of theses, it is expected that work presented for the degree of MSc should normally between 40,000 - 120,000 words of text. Candidates wishing to greatly exceed these sizes should discuss the matter with their supervisors  PUBLISH WORK Published work from the theses be included as appendix (Reprints/ proof / preprint).  BINDING All final theses and published work presented for higher degrees must be bound in a permanent form or in a temporary (hard binding will be provided after defense of the thesis) form approved by the Advanced Studies and Research Board; where printed pamphlets or off-prints are submitted in support of a thesis, they must be bound in with the thesis, or bound in such manner as Binderies may advise. Front cover should give title of the thesis, name of the candidate and the name of the Institute/ Department/ Centre/ College through which submitted, in the same order from top to bottom. The lettering may be in boldface and properly spaced. Their sizes should be: title 24 pt., name of the candidate 18 pt. and the name of the department/ institute/ centre/ college 18 pt. The colour of binding for different degrees in the Science subjects and Social Sciences is as follows: SOCIAL SCIENCES Ph.D. Sky Blue with Golden Lettering M.Phil Black with Golden Lettering MSc Black with Golden LetteringSpine of the thesis should show "Ph.D thesis" on top across the width of spine, name of the candidate in the middle and the year of submission across the width at the bottom. Chapter 4 Research Facilities for students at NDU Library 1. Library. The University has a well-stocked library for reading and reference material. It subscribes to a variety of magazines of international repute and standing, which can serve as a useful tool for your research. 2. MERLN Database. Military Education Research Library Network (MERLN) data base has also been provided at the Library. The system has vast database and considered by many a useful resource for pursuing quality research work. DD Library may be approached for necessary guidance to consult the site. 3. HEC – National Digital Library. NDU library has acquired access to HEC National Digital Library. It provides access to international scholarly literature based on electronic delivery. The resources are high quality peer reviewed journals, databases, articles and e-books across a wide range of disciplines. 4. Internet. The University has provided quality internet connections at the following places:- a. All residences at the campus. b. Main library. c. Computer laboratory. 5. Archives. Research papers produced by the participants of the previous courses can also be consulted for guidance with the prior permission of Thesis Supervisor. Plagiarism Policy Note: The Plagiarism Policy in detail is available at NDU Exam branch as well as on NDU Website: www.ndu.edu.pkChapter 5 FLOW DIAGRAM Selection of Topic in consultation MSc Thesis - steps to be taken with Supervisor allocated Allocation of Supervisor on prescribed form Submission & Approval of Synopsis to the Supervisor Submission of Thesis to HoD Evaluation of thesis by through Supervisor in spiral External Examiners binding Revision of Thesis within If Rejected one month If approved (only one chance) Conduct of Viva Voce After Declaration of Result the distribution of hard copies as If follows: approved •HoD Submission of five hard bounded •Exam branch copies to the dept for onward •NDU Main Library distribution to Exam branch for Declaration of Result •Supervisor •Student concernedFLOW DIAGRAM - M.PHIL THESIS Chapter 6  Appointment of  Selection of Topic for dissertation  Approval of topic by ASRB within 30 days rd supervisors by ASRB recommended by Supervisor & HoD from the commencement of 3 Semester nd rd  (2 week of 3 Sem)  In addition to satisfactory report  If both reports unsatisfactory, he/ she  Submission of 2 progress reports by supervisor a student should maintain GPA rd ceases to be student of the university during the6th week of 3 sem to Controller of of 2.5 on the basis of course Examinations work  In case a student fails to complete M.Phil/MS  No further extension - if failed to Submission of 5 copies of dissertation requirement within normal period of 4 submit his/ her dissertation by the approved by the supervisor to semester, ASRB allow him/her an extension end of 6 semester shall cease to be Controller of Exams before final exams for maximum period of 02 semester on the nd th a student of the university  (2 week of 4 sem) recommendation of supervisor duly endorsed by HoD  Intimation about date of Viva Voce  Appointment of External Examiner by  Submission of application on prescribed Exams by supervisor to Controller of President NDU from the approved form to Controller of Examinations for Examination through HoD th th panel of examiner by ASRB admission to final exams for M.Phil/MS (6 week of 4 sem) nd th  (2 week of 4 sem)  Evaluation of thesis within  Viva Voce exam conducted at  Submission of detailed report with time indicated by Controller of university campus on scheduled date regard to evaluation of dissertation notified by Controller of Examinations Examinations by external examiner th th  (9 week of 4 Sem) th th (8 week of 4 Sem)  Viva Voce in defence of dissertation be conducted by a committee consisting of HoD, Supervisor & External Examiner  Award of Degree to Successful studentsFLOW DIAGRAM - PhD THESIS Chapter 7 Approval of Standing list of foreign External Examiners by Critical Examination of thesis by the External ASRB in respect of technologically advanced countries for Examiners for the award of Ph.D. degree. each Department consisting of persons of eminence in the respective field of research Approval of Standing list of Local Examiners by the ASRB to conduct viva-voce examination of thesis for Submission of six unbound copies of completed thesis along each department consisting of eminent persons engaged with an application on prescribed form for the evaluation of in research in the respective area. thesis, duly forwarded by supervisor and the HoD Appointment of three out of six External Examiners Appointment of External Examiners for Evaluation of by the President NDU from suggested panel Thesis (approved list) to evaluate the thesis. Submission of detailed evaluation report of the The reports of the examiners/supervisor shall be placed thesis by supervisor before the ASRB for consideration If the thesis is adjudged as adequate by two of the three If two of the external examiners find that the thesis external examiners, ASRB shall allow the candidate to is wholly inadequate it may be rejected by ASRB . appear in the viva-voce (Thesis Defence) examination. If any of the examiners finds the thesis adequate but suggests In case of major modification/revision of the thesis, the minor modifications/revision, this may be incorporated without candidate shall be required to resubmit a revised referring again to the examiner(s). version, duly certified by the supervisor, within a period as specified by ASRB . The revised version of the thesis shall be approved by the same external examiners who suggested modification/revision of the thesis. Viva-voce exam is to be conducted by the two Viva-Voce Examination- PhD examiners appointed by the President NDU from If the candidate fails to satisfy the examiners in the the approved panel of local examiners, the viva-voce examination he/she may be given a chance Supervisor and HoD. to defend the thesis for the second and final time within a suitable period but not exceeding six Viva-voce exam may be open to the public but the months. evaluation be done only by the panel of examiners. Publication of at least one research paper in an A candidate who successfully completes all the HEC’s approved journal is essential for the award requirements shall be awarded, with the approval of Ph.D. degree. of the ASRB and the Senate, the degree of Ph.D. The President NDU may approve the recommendations of the Advanced Studies & Research Board on behalf of the Senate regarding the award of Ph.D. degree to the candidate. Note:- A copy of thesis is to be submitted to the HEC for record as per requirement.