How to write a Research strategic Plan

how to develop a strategic research plan and research strategic plan template strategic plan for research & technology in defence and security
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DrLaurenHepburn,United Kingdom,Researcher
Published Date:07-07-2017
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U.S. Department of Transportation Research, Development, and Technology Strategic Plan FISCAL YEAR 2013 – 2018 SEPTEMBER 20132 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN INTRODUCTION (Continued from page 1) Within this document, the v fi e DOT goals are merged with the critical issues as outlined by Congress. The sections on research priorities group similar issues or goals. For instance, the goals titled “State of Good Repair,” “Preserving existing transportation systems,” and “Improving the durability and extending the life of transportation infrastructure” are combined in a section entitled “State of Good Repair – Preserving the Existing and Extending the Life of Future Transportation Systems.” For each research priority area, the RD&T Strategic Plan summarizes expected DOT research outcomes, describes research priority areas for achieving the desired outcomes that are modal-specic fi or cut across all operating administrations, and lists performance measures to determine the effectiveness of the research. This RD&T Strategic Plan is based on input from other operating administrations through the RD&T Planning Team and RD&T Planning Council, and from multiple external stakeholders through a period of public comment prior to the development of the plan. In accordance with 23 USC § 508(c), “National Research Council Review,” a completed draft of this plan was reviewed by the National Research Council/Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee for Review of the U.S. DOT RD&T Strategic Plan. Information and comments from all of these sources have been considered in the development of this plan. Even though the RD&T Strategic Plan will be applied over a v fi e-year period, it is critical that the RD&T Planning Team reviews it annually—in particular the performance measures—and revises the research strategies as needed. Throughout the writing of this plan, the operating administrations have interacted, through the Planning Team and under the auspices of RITA leadership, to share best practices, innovative research practices, and success stories; going forward, the operating administrations will be asked to continue to provide insights to each other that will help them to successfully manage their own research programs. Through such interaction, the Department’s overall research effort will be strengthened. It is also important to recognize that the DOT’s research vision cannot be limited to a five- year term. The transportation systems of future generations will be based on research that is den fi ed and initiated today. The DOT operating administrations will use the RD&T Strategic Plan internally to refine their agency RD&T strategic plans. Externally, the DOT will use it as a critical presentation to Congress when requesting research funding during the annual budgeting process and through various authorization bills. The RD&T Strategic Plan is also expected to initiate a discussion of research priorities among transportation community stakeholders. This discussion will play a key role when selecting specific research projects for achieving the outcomes listed in the RD&T Strategic Plan.INTRODUCTION RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN 3 Introduction Research is an essential part of a robust national transportation system. The development and application of new technologies, designs, processes, and materials are critical to an effectively functioning system. It is through research that the critical issues of the day—transportation injuries and deaths, greenhouse gas (GHG) production, failing infrastructure, accessibility, and economic growth— can be resolved. At this time of limited resources, research can close the investment gap that exists between available funds and the funds needed to improve our transportation system, or even maintain the status quo. Funding research is an investment that pays off through the application of concepts that are proven, via research, to be effective, resulting in a more efc fi ient, durable, and convenient national transportation system. U.S. Department of Transportation Strategic Goals This document is the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Strategic Plan for Research, Development, and Technology (RD&T Strategic Plan) covering s fi cal years (FY) 2013 – 2018. This RD&T Strategic Plan is aligned with, and supports, the DOT’s v fi e strategic goals: Safety: Improve public health and safety by reducing transportation-related fatalities and injuries. State of Good Repair: Ensure the U.S. proactively maintains critical transportation infrastructure in a state of good repair. Economic Competitiveness: Promote transportation policies and investments that bring lasting and equitable economic benet fi s to the Nation and its citizens.4 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN INTRODUCTION Livable Communities: Foster livable communities by U.S. businesses with safe, convenient, efc fi ient, affordable, integrating transportation policies, plans, and investments and environmentally sustainable transportation choices. with coordinated housing and economic development policies to increase transportation choices and access 21st Century Challenges to transportation services for all users. During the 20th century, U.S. highway, transit, maritime, and aviation networks fueled unprecedented economic Environmental Sustainability: Advance environmentally prosperity and individual mobility by connecting our sustainable policies and investments that reduce carbon Nation’s cities, towns, and regions to the rest of the and other harmful emissions from transportation sources. world. The U.S. has been well served by our transporta- tion infrastructure, which includes highway, aviation, and Congressional Priorities railway networks, as well as ports, waterways, pipelines, This RD&T Strategic Plan also incorporates the research, and transit systems. development, and technology priority issues as outlined by Congress in Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st In the 21st century, the U.S. transportation system must Century (MAP-21), sec. 52013: begin to adapt to changing social, environmental, energy, and economic challenges. Federal transportation pro- • P romoting safety grams face unprecedented s fi cal challenges, with current • Reducing congestion and improving mobility dedicated revenue sources no longer adequate to operate and maintain our existing infrastructure or • P reserving the environment to fund future investments. • Preserving existing transportation systems • Improving the durability and extending the life of Strategic, cross-cutting research can result in new transportation infrastructure technologies and practices in materials, designs, • I mproving goods movement operations, and maintenance, etc. When these technologies and practices are properly implemented The five DOT Strategic Plan goals and six congressional and leveraged across the transportation system through research, development, and technology priority issues improved coordination and collaboration, they can have been combined into five RD&T priority areas: help close the funding gap by using dedicated funds more efficiently. • Promoting Safety • S tate of Good Repair – Preserving the Existing and Supporting Cross-Cutting Research Extending the Life of Future Transportation Systems The DOT’s RD&T efforts span all modes of transportation, • E conomic Competitiveness and Improving covering improvements to the Nation’s transportation Goods Movements system and supporting data-driven decision making that • Livable Communities – Reducing Congestion and addresses national priorities. This RD&T Strategic Plan Improving Mobility for FY 2013 – 2018 takes a Department-wide, systems- • E nvironmental Sustainability – Preserving level view of the multimodal transportation system and the Environment presents strategies for each of the research priority areas that go beyond a modal-oriented and modal- The funding and implementation of research based on funded perspective. The priority areas, outcomes, and these five priority research areas must be transparent performance measures described in the RD&T Strategic and accountable to the American public, performance- Plan are designed to guide the investment of RD&T in based, and focused on achieving the desired outcomes ways that will result in measurable improvements to our while maximizing the value of public investment. Nation’s transportation system. As these priorities are met, our Nation’s transportation The DOT’s Research and Innovative Technology Admin- infrastructure will be transformed into a truly multimodal, istration (RITA) supervised the preparation of this RD&T integrated system that provides the traveling public and INTRODUCTION RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN 5 Strategic Plan with input from all of the DOT operating Each operating administration receives funding designated administrations and the Ofc fi e of the Secretary; the RD&T for RD&T. Table 1 shows RD&T funding by operating admin- Planning Council, made up of the heads of the operating istration. The DOT operating administrations receive RD&T administrations, the Under Secretary for Policy, and other funding through annual appropriations or multiyear funding senior DOT leaders; and the RD&T Planning Team, includ- authorizations. Some operating administrations receive ing the operating administrations’ Associate Administra- funding through a combination of annual appropriations tors for RD&T or equivalent. The result is a cross-modal and multiyear authorizations. MARAD and SLSDC do not development of research strategies and collaboration at receive funding for RD&T and are not included. the highest levels of the DOT. The Role of Federal Transportation RD&T The DOT operating administrations are: Transportation RD&T has the potential to unlock • Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) transformative solutions that can lead to dramatic • Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) improvements in our Nation’s transportation systems. • Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Federal investment in transportation RD&T has led to the development of new materials, innovative • Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) production methods, and powerful design and planning • Federal Transit Administration (FTA) tools. It also provides decision makers with information • Maritime Administration (MARAD) and knowledge to make better decisions, and provides • National Highway Trafc fi Safety Administration operators with technologies and tools to solve problems (NHTSA) and enhance system performance. • Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administra- tion (PHMSA) Because the Federal Government owns and operates • Research and Innovative Technology Administration only limited portions of the Nation’s transportation (RITA) system, RD&T investment represents one of the most effective ways the Federal Government can contribute • Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation to the improvement of our transportation system. (SLSDC) Table 1. RD&T FUNDING FY 2010 – 2014 Admin. FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Annual Multi Year Comb. Actual Actual Actual Enacted Pres. Bud App. Auth. (000) (000) (000) (000) (000) FAA 398,535 325,776 357,451 315,891 328,050 X + FHWA 434,315 430,135 410,665 365,352 374,000 X FMCSA 9,391 6,959 6,959 8,526 9,000 X FRA 37,613 35,030 35,000 34,930 90,000 X § FTA 65,770 58,882 44,000 41,694 49,000 X NHTSA 68,432 66,674 65,282 62,832 73,725 X PHMSA 8,584 8,567 8,636 8,639 14,530 X RITA 6,036 1,433 1,407 1,333 2,618 X RD&T administrative expenses are excluded from the table above. + Includes funding for three programs administered by FHWA (Highway Research and Development, Technology and Innovation Deployment, and Training and Education), as well as two programs administered by RITA (Intelligent Transportation Systems and University Transportation Centers). §Includes funding in FY 2010 – 2012 for the University Transportation Centers Program, administrated by RITA.6 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN INTRODUCTION Research Funding by DOT Goal Area Figure 1 shows how RD&T funding is used to achieve the five DOT goals, as well as to achieve “Organizational Organizational Excellence – 4% Excellence.” Economic Competitiveness – 23% Safety – 42% Livable Communities – 5% State of Good Repair – 13% Environmental Sustainability – 13% Does not include administrative expenses. Figure 1. Research Funding by DOT Goal Area Federal RD&T programs have a unique and critical role to • Developing and disseminating tools and techniques play in overcoming the challenges that face our Nation’s that foster greater, more efc fi ient use of technology transportation system. Key responsibilities include: and innovation. • Developing transportation research policy; Collaboration • Creating incentives for collaborative cross-modal The National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue research, focusing on the topics common to Commission recommended that “dedicated funding of multiple modes; RD&T be provided and be subject to careful planning and • Preparing the future transportation workforce 3 review by the transportation industry.” Collaboration, to face the challenges of the 21st century accountability, and effective performance measurement transportation network; are essential to successful research, especially research • Encouraging multidisciplinary research; that cuts across each of the transportation modes. These • Stimulating innovation in transportation services principles are promoted within this RD&T Strategic Plan. and products; They are not specic fi to any one operating administration, • Supporting long-term, exploratory research as well but shape the way the DOT operating administrations as short-term applied research; carry out their research activities. To this end, the DOT is • Identifying, facilitating, and supporting the deployment instituting an enhanced collaborative process for of emerging technologies and best practices; and,INTRODUCTION RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN 7 coordinating and facilitating its research and development industry and academia. The development of cross-modal programs and activities. This process will allow the DOT research projects requires stakeholder discussions, to better: rigorous examination of cross-cutting transportation issues and problems, and incorporating ideas from • Document the alignment of research with national peers and experts within the research, asset owner/ transportation goals; operator, and user communities. • Track performance and net benefits of the DOT The DOT will continue to collaborate with other agencies, RD&T funds invested; such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and • Enhance visibility and transparency for all directed the Departments of Energy (DOE), Housing and Urban and discretionary research funding; Development (HUD), Homeland Security (DHS), and • Reduce redundancies and duplication of effort; Defense (DOD) (including the U.S. Army Corps of • Maximize use of available research resources, includ- Engineers), to provide the most effective transportation ing those within the DOT, at University Transportation system for our Nation. While each agency and DOT Centers (UTCs), at the State level, and with many operating administration has research priorities that other partners; and, are unique to its mission, there are many areas where • Focus on the people managing and conducting the the subject matter is cross-cutting, such as alternative RD&T as well as the products. fuels, human factors, simulation, pavement, and structures. Collaborative work that supports multiple A driving principle of the DOT’s collaborative process is to Federal agencies is the most effective route to set performance-based outcome measures and to conduct successful solutions. retrospective reviews of all RD&T. The DOT will engage in a collaborative process to establish relevant performance In addition to collaborating with its Federal partners, measures for each relevant research area. Research plan- the DOT collaborates and performs joint research ning should include a peer review of likely outcomes and with stakeholders and partners across the entire benet fi s. Early in the process, project plans should also transportation sector, including State and local incorporate how they will identify and reconcile likely fac- agencies, academia, industry, and not-for-profit tors that could affect eventual deployment. The goal is institutions, such as the American Association of to measure the effectiveness of implementing research State Highway and Transportation Ofc fi ials (AASHTO), in the private sector, State DOTs, other system operators, the Transportation Research Board (TRB), and the or other Federal agencies. If implementation is not an American Public Transportation Association (APTA). appropriate measure for the research, researchers The DOT will continue to consult and coordinate with should use an alternative performance outcome. Finally, transportation research partners and the general public all research should include a retrospective look at how to promote an integrated and effective transportation effective it was. For those projects that result in system that takes full advantage of all modal resources. deployment, did the technology actually improve an outcome? For example, after accounting for other The Norman Y. Mineta Research and Special Programs factors that cause accidents, did a technology Improvement Act created RITA and made it responsible deployment improve safety? for coordinating and facilitating collaborative cross-modal 4 RD&T programs and activities within the DOT. The DOT, By including cross-cutting RD&T priority areas, this supported by RITA, is enhancing the transparency of its RD&T Strategic Plan supports an approach to research research programs and creating additional opportunities that encourages collaboration across operating for stakeholder communication and input. By providing administrations and government agencies and promotes greater visibility and transparency into its research consultation and partnership with stakeholders in 8 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN INTRODUCTION programs, the DOT aims to foster greater collaboration and draw funding from separate sources. Many operat- and leveraging of resources with transportation ing administrations must allocate a substantial share of research stakeholders. their RD&T budget to research supporting their internal regulatory rulemaking activities. The RD&T Strategic Plan recognizes the structural limitations to cross-modal Collaboration Tools research and emphasizes strategies that use existing RITA, in partnership with the DOT operating administrations, resources and structures, and that facilitate cross-modal has created an online searchable database of transporta- research cooperation and collaboration. tion RD&T activities: the DOT Research Hub. The tool assimilates RD&T data that are currently stored Informing Transportation Policy among many agencies into one database as recommended Through Research in the Government Accountability Ofc fi e (GAO) report Research projects that support the priorities discussed in Transportation Research: Opportunities for Improving the following chapters can have short- or long-term policy the Oversight of DOT’s Research Programs and User implications. Research results can inform policymakers 5 Satisfaction with Transportation. The database allows about costs and benet fi s of the DOT actions, and can help policymakers, program managers, researchers, partners, shape policy initiatives that last decades and affect millions stakeholders, Congress, and the public to search for of lives. RD&T information by research topic, funding level, research description, contractor or grantee, State, and more. The For example, safety-related research can result in the tool will create an efc fi ient national transportation research development of cost-effective methods of reducing inci- enterprise by encouraging collaboration and reducing dents. In turn, these methods can shape future regula- duplicate research. tions and alter investment decisions. Similarly, research on measuring the benefits of investments that improve RITA has also initiated a refocused technology transfer freight o fl w and reliability can provide the economic program to support using the Technology Transfer justic fi ation to make major investments that improve the Commercialization Act of 2000 and the Stevenson-Wydler Nation’s economic competitiveness. 6 Technology Innovation Act of 1980. Technology transfer can be best described as the process of transferring research As the DOT promotes reducing congestion and improving and scientic fi information to stakeholders and users who mobility, research results can provide insights into the may further develop it for public or private needs. The benefits of transit-oriented development, resulting in technology transfer program supports activities within more livable communities. This can help transform the operating administrations, such as the deployment the way Americans live, work, and spend their leisure of emerging technologies and dissemination of innova- time. Research results can also shed light on different tive tools and techniques. The intent of the program is techniques and models for measuring cost-effective to ensure the full use of the DOT’s investment in research construction and maintenance practices, and better and development and to protect intellectual property by ways of prioritizing investments to preserve and extend securing patents and issuing licenses. the life of future transportation systems. The organization of the DOT into operating administrations, Research results can help the DOT n fi d innovative and each with its own statutory requirements and missions, cost-effective ways of meeting performance measures for requires special interagency agreements to facilitate research priority areas. Given scarce budgetary and staff collaborative cross-modal research. Federal policies for resources, effective research can help policymakers pri- surface transportation, aviation, pipeline, maritime, and oritize resources more effectively. For example, effective rail sectors are established through separate legislation research can result in practical asset management tools INTRODUCTION RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN 9 that help State DOTs and transit agencies allocate their Performance Measures scarce resources where they are most cost benec fi ial. Quantifiable, objective performance measures are necessary to gauge the DOT’s progress in meeting the RD&T Priority Areas for Supporting RD&T strategic outcomes. The data collected through Transportation Policy these performance measures may also identify areas in the RD&T Strategic Plan where the Planning Team needs The RD&T priority areas for supporting transportation to make adjustments during its annual review process. policy are: • Policies to promote a better integrated National Even though quantia fi ble performance measures of RD&T Transportation System; strategic outcomes, such as annual highway fatalities or • Policy decisions regarding future funding injuries, are essential to determine the long-term impact mechanisms for system development of research, it may be difc fi ult to determine how well cur - and maintenance; rent research programs are using these data. Therefore, • N ational transportation energy policies to support it is critical to have performance measures in place that decisions for efc fi ient utilization of domestic energy also determine quantia fi ble milestones for achieving a resources for energy independence, and to foster strategic outcome. For example, the number of times a the growth of the domestic transportation energy specic fi driver-assistance technology is used in vehicles infrastructure; and, would be a milestone toward reducing highway deaths and injuries. Including this type of data as a measure will • National transportation environmental policies be useful in identifying needed adjustments not only to to support decisions that minimize the impact of the RD&T Strategic Plan, but also to research programs transportation on the natural environment. specic fi to individual operating administrations. Research Priorities, Outcomes, Performance measures directly related to strategic and Performance Measures outcomes and to measuring quantia fi ble milestones for achieving a strategic outcome are listed in the following Priorities and Outcomes sections for each of the DOT research priority areas. The DOT priority research areas, research outcomes, and performance measures described in the RD&T Strategic Plan are grouped to combine the DOT’s strategic goals and research priority issues described in MAP-21. Each priority area contains an overview followed by cross-cutting RD&T research and modal-specific research priorities. All priority areas intend to achieve the prescribed outcomes and conclude with performance measures related to the research outcomes.10 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT Research Within the U.S. DOT Federal Aviation Administration The mission of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is to provide the safest, most efc fi ient aerospace system in the world. The FAA’s R&D mission is to conduct, FAA on research and development issues. The committee coordinate, and support domestic and international considers aviation research needs in air trafc fi services, R&D of aviation-related products and services that airport technology, aircraft safety, aviation security, human will ensure a safe, efc fi ient, and environmentally sound factors, and environment and energy. Representatives global air transportation system. The FAA supports a from the airlines and the airline industry are often partici- range of applied research activities, from materials and pating members of the REDAC and the Commercial Space human factors to the development of new products, Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). With their services, and procedures. participation and direct knowledge of their industry, they provide input into the research that contributes to the The FAA’s key research stakeholders include Congress; development of new and future technology, the develop- the Research, Engineering, and Development Advisory ment of rules and regulations, and rule-making activities Committee (REDAC); and the airline industry. REDAC was that affect the industry. established by Congress under the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology in 1989 to advise the The majority of FAA research is used internally by FAA sponsors and lines of business to develop rules, regula- tions, and advisory materials to make aviation systems RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT R D&T STRATEGIC PLAN 11 safer and more efc fi ient. The Technical Strategies and 3. H uman Spaceflight: Ensure human safety of those Integration Division is responsible for transferring on board during space vehicle operation and those technology and information to other government involved with spaceport operations. organizations, academia, and industry through partnership agreements and outreach activities. 4. Space Transportation Industry Viability: Increase industry viability, including economic, legal, legislative, The National Aviation Research Plan (NARP) is the FAA’s regulatory, and market analysis and modeling. performance-based plan to ensure that R&D invest- ments are well managed, deliver results, and sufc fi iently The AST R&D is funded primarily using annual appropria- address national aviation priorities. The NARP integrates tions from the FAA Operations budget. Supplemental the FAA R&D programs into a portfolio that addresses the funding has been received through the utilization of near-, mid-, and far-term research needs of the aviation unspent R&D funds from other lines of business within community. The NARP features R&D principles and goals the FAA. that support the strategic visions laid out by President Research funded by AST is selected based on the level Obama, the Secretary of Transportation, and the FAA of interest to industry and/or AST. All research tasks are Administrator. This approach enables the FAA to address screened to appropriately and accurately identify any the current challenges of operating the safest, most effi - International Trade in Arms Regulations considerations. cient air transportation system in the world, while building The FAA Center of Excellence for Commercial Space a foundation for the future in an environmentally sound Transportation (COE CST) conducts a majority of the manner. In conjunction with the NARP, the FAA’s business research funded by AST. The COE CST Advisory Com- plans address how the FAA performs based on the goals mittee (CESTAC) is an R&D industry advisory group and measurements set forth in FAA’s Strategic Plan to comprised of individuals from the commercial space transform the Nation’s aviation system by the year 2025. transportation industry. The CESTAC attends the annual COE CST technical meeting and provides a written Office of Commercial Space Transportation report with its judgments of the work being conducted The Ofc fi e of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) and recommendations for improvement from the com- within the FAA is responsible for judiciously regulating mitee’s perspective. the commercial space sector and enhancing the viability of a safe and successful commercial space industry. The AST works closely with the COE CST to make Balancing these roles is a complex task. The AST performs research products readily available on the web and pro- research in four areas with distinct objectives: duces annual reports that include detailed information about research tasks and outcomes achieved during the 1. Space Traffic Management & Operations: Ensure the 7 previous year of operation. safe integration of air and space trafc fi management by supporting the development and optimization of The AST follows a Commercial Space Transportation technical and regulatory provisions and processes Research Roadmap that was developed by the COE CST used to oversee, coordinate, regulate, and promote in 2011 and includes contributions from government, safe and responsible commercial space activities industry, and academic members interested in the between space and Earth. research areas. This document will be updated with more detail and further ren fi ed in calendar year 2013 with a 2. S pace Transportation Operations, Technologies, goal to solicit input from more community members and Payloads: Improve vehicle safety and risk than during the initial round. Ultimately, the goal of management, including knowledge of all safety- this activity is to create a National Commercial Space critical components and systems of the space Transportation Research Plan. vehicles and their operations, so as to better identify potential hazards and to better identify, apply, and verify hazard controls.12 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT FAA: Aviation Fire Safety The FAA is conducting applied research into r fi e prevention and mitigation technologies to reduce the risk of r fi es on aircraft. As described below, the FAA is researching a number of issues including lithium battery r fi e safety, the a fl mmability of thermal acoustic insulation used to soundproof aircraft cabins, and the use of nitrogen gas to reduce the risk of r fi es in airplane fuel tanks. Over 50 aviation r fi e incidents have been caused by lithium batteries, which are believed to have been factors in fatal freighter r fi e accidents. Past FAA research on lithium battery r fi e safety resulted in the ban of lithium metal (non-rechargeable) battery shipments in passenger-carrying airplanes (2007), two FAA Safety Alerts for Operators (SAFOs) highlighting the dangers of lith- ium battery r fi es (2010), and effective methods for extinguishing laptop r fi es with lithium batteries in thermal runaway (2009). Most recently, the ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel issued improved Technical Instructions requiring that previously excepted small lithium batteries be declared hazardous materials (2013). Currently, the FAA is conducting unique full-scale r fi e tests in a 727 freighter to characterize the cargo compartment and cockpit environment created by a r fi e involving a large shipment (5,000) of lithium batteries, including both metal and ion (rechargeable) types, in order to pinpoint r fi e safety improvements. Also, the FAA is examining the effect of battery state-of-charge on thermal runaway propagation; improved passive methods for shipping lithium batteries, including incorporating a means of safely venting the pressure build-up in a sealed battery container or package; fire hardened cargo containers or ULDs; and cost-effective fire suppression systems. The FAA developed a practical and cost-effective onboard system that uses nitrogen gas extracted from air to render an airplane’s fuel tanks nona fl mmable. The FAA design was validated by i fl ght testing and led to a n fi al rule in 2008. Boeing has installed over 1,000 of these FAA-designed nitrogen inert systems in commercial transport airplanes. Research by the FAA on the a fl mmability of thermal acoustic insulation used to insulate and soundproof aircraft cabins resulted in (1) an Airworthiness Directive requiring the retrot fi of over 700 airplanes that contained insulation blankets made with polyester l fi m, (2) a Final Rule in 2005 requiring a more stringent a fl mmability test method incorporating radiant heat, and (3) a Final Rule in 2009 requiring thermal acoustic insulation with an order of magnitude greater burn-through resistance in the event of a post-crash r fi e. research, and research on emerging issues of national Federal Highway Administration signic fi ance, as well as to build effective partnerships The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Research, and to maximize the total Federal Government RD&T Technology, and Education (RT&E) Program addresses highway investment. current issues and emerging challenges, and provides information for policy decisions. The program conducts, The primary goal of the RT&E program is to sustain a sponsors, sustains, and guides highway research to research agenda that focuses Federal policymakers and develop and deliver innovation. Through the program, the research community on critical knowledge gaps, FHWA conducts advanced and applied research, facilitates collaboration methods, and accelerated innovation to national and international coordination and collaboration to meet current and future highway transportation needs. leverage knowledge, and develops and delivers solutions The RT&E program seeks to generate new solutions, to address highway transportation needs. provide better decision-making information and tools, and build more effective partnerships that will allow our FHWA is in a unique leadership position to identify and Nation to make optimal investments in the transportation address highway issues that require high-risk, long-term RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT R D&T STRATEGIC PLAN 13 system. The entire innovation life cycle is covered under consequences of change. In cooperation with the National the RT&E program umbrella, including agenda-setting, Highway Trafc fi Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the conduct of research and development, technology testing Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), FHWA and evaluation, and the deployment and evaluation of works to develop tools and technologies to reduce crashes market-ready technologies and innovations. and improve highway and intermodal transportation safety. FHWA strives to be customer and stakeholder driven. Improving the Mobility of People and Goods Staff from FHWA participate on all AASHTO and TRB A growing economy depends on safe and reliable trans- highway-related committees and subcommittees, and portation that gets people and goods where they need on cross-cutting groups. As part of this effort, FHWA has to go, on time, and with a level of reliability. FHWA’s published and sought input on program area R&D road- research programs are providing the tools, informa- maps. A national collaboration website that summarizes tion, and technology to support the Nation through the the entire RT&E program is being developed. The website research, development, and deployment of innovations will inform parties of the FHWA RT&E program and seek that improve mobility, reduce costs, and advance the input from stakeholders. FHWA is committed to working Nation’s economic competitiveness. collaboratively with its partners to define the direction of R&D roadmaps needed to achieve results, especially FHWA conducts research on the application of cutting- since these partners may at times be responsible for edge technologies to move people and goods better, implementing the technologies and innovations that quicker, safer, and more reliably. The primary focus of were developed. these research efforts is on congestion relief solutions. This work will identify ways to mitigate the impacts of recurring congestion and deal more effectively with non- Six National Highway Challenges, Objectives, recurring events that cause congestion. FHWA conducts and Focuses applied research to develop the next generation of traf- These FHWA programs will apply innovative technologies c fi management systems and models. For example, to construct and maintain the Nation’s roads, bridges, through connected vehicle research, conducted through and tunnels, keeping the highway system in a state of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) program in good repair. In addition, these programs will generate collaboration with RITA and NHTSA, FHWA is studying how economic growth by helping deliver transportation technologies such as advanced wireless communications, projects more quickly and encouraging innovation. onboard computer processing, advanced vehicle sensors, global positioning system (GPS) navigation, and smart Advancing Highway Safety infrastructure can be applied to improve trafc fi signal Safety is the DOT’s highest priority. It is the common control, traveler information, and trafc fi modeling. FHWA thread that runs through FHWA’s research areas. is also conducting research on freight management and Research by FHWA is leading the way, providing a operations to increase freight productivity and economic diverse suite of programs and initiatives that address competitiveness by improving freight movement, reduc- the full spectrum of safety-related issues. ing freight-related congestion throughout the network, evaluating impacts of vehicle size and weight, advancing Research and development activities sponsored by FHWA freight operations and technology, and developing freight are designed to support comprehensive and sustainable performance measurement and management systems. safety programs. They emphasize data-driven analysis of roadway-related safety considerations and specic fi Maintaining Infrastructure Integrity improvement in four crash areas: roadway departure, Keeping roadway pavement and structures in good condi- intersection, pedestrian, and speeding. To determine tion requires continual monitoring, periodic maintenance, what safety improvements can be expected with the and effective repairs. FHWA is reducing the cost, time, introduction of countermeasure designs or operations, and frequency of these tasks with new technologies FHWA safety programs conduct rigorous evaluations. All and systems. design or operational changes are assessed from a human factors perspective to eliminate or minimize unexpected 14 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT FHWA sponsors problem-focused research, development, Promoting Environmental Sustainability and communications to preserve the existing investment Environmentally friendly transportation networks have ben- in our Nation’s highway infrastructure and to build for the et fi s that go beyond traditional highway systems. They save future through the application of advanced technologies money through energy efc fi ient practices, support public that improve infrastructure integrity. Infrastructure-related health by improving air quality, and protect natural spaces research focuses on three major areas: pavements, bridges and resources that are critical for the Nation’s wildlife. and structures, and asset management. This work includes (a) development of metrics to assess the performance of Activities in this area include carrying out short- and long- infrastructure over the longer term; (b) research and devel- term livability and sustainability initiatives to improve opment of technologies and techniques to assure that our project delivery and enhance communities that are Nation’s infrastructure is world class from a standpoint of impacted by surface transportation projects; developing longevity, safety, performance, climate-change mitigation, comprehensive strategies to minimize the environmental and sustainability; and (c) leadership to ensure effective impact of transportation investment; developing follow-up and deployment of the improvements developed, capabilities to adjust to changing climate conditions; particularly those that will speed construction and reduce advancing state of the practice for data collection, congestion caused by construction. geographic information systems (GIS) applications, and travel forecasting; and providing technical assistance Enhancing System Performance and forums, best practices, and training to assist States, Improving system performance requires choosing and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), local public measuring key indicators that provide objective, actionable agencies, and other partners and stakeholders in planning information. Across the spectrum of highway research, and delivering surface transportation projects. FHWA is providing the tools needed for effective, standard- Preparing for the Future ized measurement and data-driven decision making. Policy decisions require the collection of data on motor fuels, FHWA’s vision for the Nation’s roadways extends beyond motor vehicles, licensed drivers, roadway characteristics, the horizon of today’s immediate challenges, anticipating pavement conditions, travel trends, and travel behavior. the emerging issues of tomorrow. Changes in technology, Policy data collection and forecasting efforts provide the the economy, demographics, and climate are certain. What foundation on which program administration, policy analy- is not certain is how fast and how much change will occur. sis and implementation, and legislative support all rely. To meet this challenge, FHWA is forecasting future passen- FHWA sponsors research to analyze emerging issues in ger and freight transportation needs for a range of scenarios the transportation community, including climate change, to help visualize the possibilities. In order to track new sci- public-private partnerships, highway revenues, perfor- entic fi discoveries early in their development, and to identify mance management, and a host of other policy issues. their potential for addressing transportation challenges, For example, FHWA is researching methods to improve FHWA develops strong relationships with basic and applied the analysis of innovative n fi ance and program delivery research professionals. The Exploratory Advanced Research strategies. The goal of this research program is to identify (EAR) Program conducts long-term, high-risk research both new possibilities to extend the transportation com- with the potential for dramatic breakthroughs in surface munity’s s fi cal resources and the strategies for turning transportation. Key elements of the EAR Program are to those possibilities into accepted business practices. obtain information from the very large number of basic and Because the successful deployment of these strategies advanced research and development activities outside of requires public sponsors to develop extensive analyti- the highway R&D community for possible exploitation, adap- cal and transactional skills, signic fi ant capacity building tation, and eventual application to the highway industry. and technical assistance efforts occur alongside the How FHWA Does Business research activities. The rigorous and consistent analysis of the benefits and costs of public-private partnerships The FHWA RT&E program is a competitive, peer-reviewed comprises a major focus of this research. program that has a multiyear authorization and funds that are appropriated annually. FHWA’s Ofc fi e of RD&T is RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN 15 located at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC), a federally owned and operated national research facility in McLean, Virginia. The TFHRC houses more than 20 laboratories, data centers, and support facilities, and conducts advanced and applied research. The laboratories at the TFHRC provide a vital resource for advancing the FHWA: Improving Goods Movement body of knowledge that has been created and developed Through an exploratory advanced research project, FHWA by researchers. TFHRC staff administers the vast majority has demonstrated mobility and fuel efc fi iency of vehicles of FHWA’s research and development activities. Research using advanced communications technologies to form is primarily conducted by contractors located at TFHRC well-coordinated platoons of vehicles. The California PATH or off-site. Research in areas of policy, innovative pro- project at the University of California, Berkeley, the cur- gram delivery, planning, and the environment is primarily rent lead University for the Region IX UTC, works with the conducted by FHWA ofc fi es located at DOT Headquarters. California Department of Transportation to: The FHWA RT&E program is closely coordinated with R&D • Improve trafc fi flo w by calculating and communi- conducted through the UTC program, the ITS program, the cating speed guidance directly to individual drivers; National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), • Achieve closer coordination, shorter vehicle separa- and State-based R&D initiatives. In addition, FHWA RT&E tion gaps, and higher effective lane capacities develops joint strategies to address Departmental goals through vehicle-to-vehicle communication, vehicle- with modal stakeholders, including FTA, FRA, NHTSA, FAA, to-infrastructure communication, and cooperative and FMCSA. For example, FHWA, in cooperation with FRA, adaptive cruise control; and, FAA, and RITA’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), • Improve heavy-truck fuel consumption and double is conducting research to measure and model long- the capacity of truck-only lanes by forming and distance passenger traffic using new technology and maneuvering automated three-truck platoons. scientific approaches. A platoon is a group of vehicles traveling together. FHWA has a long history of strong partnerships Platoons form naturally as faster vehicles approach with the States, Federal agencies, academia, slower vehicles. Platoons can also form and travel with and private industry. Examples of active FHWA increased safety, mobility, and fuel efc fi iency through partnerships include: the use of sensor, communication, and control technolo- • National Science Foundation (NSF) support of the gies. Such platoons can signic fi antly reduce conges - EAR Program on cyber physical systems; tion. Field tests showed both the effectiveness of the technology as well as driver acceptance when driving • National Institute of Science & Technology on to work. During e fi ld tests in the State of Nevada, it cement hydration modeling; was demonstrated that when tractor trailer trucks are • DOD on automated vehicles and corrosion prevention; platooned, signic fi ant fuel savings are achieved. • Department of State on design of difc fi ult to build anti-ram barriers for embassy protection; • HUD and EPA for Sustainable Communities and FHWA’s Livability Initiative; from the second Strategic Highway Research • AASHTO support of the State Planning and Research Program (SHRP2); and, Program and the NCHRP; • International agencies, such as the Forum of • RITA to design, review, and implement the European Highway Research Laboratories to “cost UTC program; share” on specic fi projects. • Industry through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements; FHWA leverages these partnerships to identify current and emerging highway transportation challenges, • TRB to fund, coordinate, and implement products 16 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT coordinate and collaborate on the conduct of research, The FMCSA’s research program focuses on safety risk and deploy innovation. factors and safety technology to inform and enhance FMCSA’s programs and priorities by: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration • Expanding research on CMV driver risk factors to The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) support rulemaking and to promote a health, well- was established within the DOT on January 1, 2000, with ness, and safety culture in motor carriers and drivers; the mission of promoting safe commercial motor vehicle • Identifying, testing, and deploying smart roadside (CMV) operations and reducing large truck and bus technologies in partnership with Federal, State, and crashes, injuries, and fatalities. The FMCSA accomplishes local CMV safety agencies; and, its mission through education, regulation, enforcement, • Accelerating the deployment of on-board safety research, and innovative technology, thereby achieving a systems by promoting the benefits to fleets and safer transportation environment. insurance carriers and testing next-generation on-board safety systems in partnership with technology providers and other DOT agencies. The FMCSA’s research program consists of applied research projects that are conducted both in-house and through contractors. The program is congressionally funded under a multiyear authorization with annual appropriations. FMCSA: North American Fatigue FMCSA’s stakeholders include: Management Program • Congress The North American Fatigue Management Program • The motor carrier industry (NAFMP) was developed by a consortium of government, • State CMV agencies, including departments of pub- insurance, and commercial vehicle associations for lic safety, motor vehicles, transportation, taxation the purpose of reducing fatigue in commercial vehicle and revenue, hazardous materials, and public utility drivers, thereby reducing highway collisions related to commissions fatigue. The NAFMP was available to motor carriers, • Safety advocacy groups drivers, government safety administrators, and insur- ance companies for their use effective June 2013. • National, regional, and State-level truck and bus The NAFMP, the culmination of several years of research, industry trade associations development, and e fi ld trials in a live commercial vehicle • Technology providers operating environment, is a proven, feasible, and effec- • Truck and bus manufacturers tive means of managing fatigue in commercial vehicle • The insurance industry drivers. The NAFMP includes 10 learning modules • The medical profession with voice narration, graphics, and a Learning Manage- • The academic research community ment System with interactive tests to support subject understanding. The learning modules contain informa- These stakeholders provide input to the FMCSA’s tion on fatigue recognition, health and wellness, medical RD&T plan and its research agenda through a variety screening for sleep disorders and treatment, scheduling, of activities, including: and fatigue detection technologies. The modules are presented for various audiences, including drivers, • The agency’s statutorily mandated Motor Carrier drivers’ families, dispatchers, safety supervisors and Safety Advisory Committee; managers, and company executives. The materials and • The annual FMCSA Analysis, Research, and guidance are available on free of charge Technology forum at the TRB Annual Meeting; to any individual or organization. RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN 17 • T RB technical committees; and, of American Railroads, individual passenger and freight railroads, States, labor organizations, manufacturers, and • P ublic listening sessions. industry associations. The FMCSA engages its stakeholders during the research agenda planning stages and keeps its focus on the end- user throughout the research to facilitate deployment and implementation. The FMCSA builds relationships with its stakeholders and disseminates its research studies via technical conference presentations, website, research hub, and other means. The FMCSA implements the results of FRA: Track Buckling its research and technology projects through rulemaking, Railroad track can buckle or kink in the summer heat outreach and education, promotion of safety technologies when rail temperatures surpass a critical threshold. to e fl ets, and funding smart roadside technologies at the Through a grant agreement with the University of State level through the Commercial Vehicle Information California at San Diego, FRA’s Office of R&D has devel - Systems and Networks Deployment Grant Program. oped a device that fits to the rail and predicts when An example of current FMCSA research that directly track buckling is likely. This information allows the supports the DOT’s safety goal and requirements under railroad to take corrective action and avoid the buckle MAP-21 is research assessing whether a required before it occurs. Avoiding track buckles in service will have 34-hour rest period impacts driver fatigue. a signic fi ant effect on improving safety by reducing train derailments. It will also improve the industry’s economic competitiveness by reducing service delays. Federal Railroad Administration The Federal Railroad Administration’s (FRA) mission is to enable the safe, reliable, and efficient movement of people and goods for a strong America, now and in the future. FRA’s research objectives are to support FRA’s Federal Transit Administration mission through basic and applied research, and to develop innovations and solutions. Through its research, The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) provides grant FRA ensures the best available scientific and technical funding to State and local governments, public and foundation for its development and regulatory activities. private transit operators, and other recipients to con- struct new public transit systems, purchase and maintain FRA’s R&D program covers basic and applied research, transit vehicles and equipment, subsidize public transit and development of innovations and solutions, taking operations, and support regional transportation planning projects through to prototype demonstration in the railroad efforts. To improve public transportation services, FTA operational environment. FRA focuses on implementation undertakes nationally significant research, development, from the early stages of research projects. End-users are demonstration, deployment, and evaluation projects. typically involved in feasibility studies and proofs of con- cept, and suppliers are identie fi d at the prototype develop - Although many entities such as universities and ment stages for future commercialization. Research work is MPOs participate in transit research, FTA has the almost exclusively performed through grants and contracts unique perspective of addressing the needs of the and is funded through annual appropriations. public transportation industry from a national perspec- tive. FTA supports research activities that improve the FRA’s R&D stakeholders help identify and prioritize safety, reliability, efficiency, and sustainability of public research needs, co-sponsor projects of mutual interest, transportation by investing in the development, testing, and avoid duplication of efforts. Internal stakeholders are and deployment of innovative technologies, materials, FRA’s Ofc fi e of Railroad Safety and Ofc fi e of Passenger and processes. FTA research is focused on applied and Freight. External stakeholders include the Association 18 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT demonstration projects have been completed, FTA assists in the dissemination of these efforts into the transit industry. FTA’s research program is authorized, but not funded, by large, multiyear surface transportation authorization FTA: Transit Track Worker Safety bills. Funding for FTA’s research budget is provided on an Protection Demonstration annual basis by congressional appropriations from the General Fund. This project seeks to improve the safety of rail transit workers through innovative use of advanced technologies While the general public is ultimately the benec fi iary of to reduce the hazards associated with working on or around Federal investments in public transportation, the imme- the right-of-way (ROW). According to FTA’s National Transit diate benec fi iaries of FTA research and demonstration Database, between 2003 and 2008, 53 percent of the rail investments are largely the entities that operate public transit worker fatalities reported were ROW worker incidents. transportation, such as transit agencies and State DOTs. This project will demonstrate an innovative turn-key solution These entities are uniquely positioned to implement the using radio frequency identic fi ation technology to track results of research efforts in order to improve safety, the location of mobile track workers and a series of warning increase operating efc fi iencies, increase transit ridership, lights and horns to notify track workers and train operators address environmental sustainability, and reduce capital, when rail equipment and ROW workers are in proximity. The operating, and maintenance costs. system design makes it effective for both normal operating routes and reverse moves, and it will detect the presence The transit industry’s research interests are represented, of passenger trains and non-revenue work equipment. This in part, by the TRB Transit Research Analysis Commit- technology will greatly increase track worker safety by tee (TRAC), which includes senior staff and management preventing incidents; saving lives; and avoiding injuries, at transit agencies, representatives of organized labor, litigation, insurance losses, and disruptions to revenue researchers from academic institutions, and other such service. This project is an active demonstration of the organizations. This committee provides an independent innovative track worker safety system pioneered by review and assessment of the research needs of the Bombardier in partnership with Georgia’s Metropolitan public transportation industry that could be met through Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) heavy rail system. future investment in a national research and technology It is anticipated that this technology will be made commer- program. TRAC provides useful information to FTA as the cially available by Bombardier to U.S. transit agencies shortly agency develops a strategic agenda for transit research after completion of the demonstration project with MARTA. and assists in identifying the roles that FTA and industry stakeholders can play in carrying out that agenda. research activities due to its limited research budget, Maritime Administration the immediate pressing needs of the transit industry, The Maritime Administration (MARAD) is responsible for the lack of significant research capacity at many transit improving and strengthening the U.S. marine transporta- agencies, and the need to have solid data and recom- tion system—including the ships and mariners of the U.S. mendations for capital and operational decision making. Merchant Marine, shipbuilding, and port operations—to meet the economic, environmental, and security needs of FTA sponsors research that is primarily carried out by the Nation. contractors working closely with transit authorities, not in-house staff. These contractors are typically private MARAD has no formally coordinated program or sector corporations, universities and other educational authorized budget for RD&T activities; nevertheless, institutions, and non-profit organizations. This research it works with other agencies, academia, and industry is overseen by experienced FTA staff with professional partners to initiate and accomplish RD&T activities that backgrounds in engineering, public administration, have a positive benet fi for the maritime industry. MARAD planning, and other related fields. Once research and contributes to the application of technology in the U.S. RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN 19 The majority of research undertaken by MARAD is applied specic fi ally to evaluate the effectiveness of technologies and concepts. The studies performed focus on the identification of problems and potential solutions, and/or forecasting the future direction and demands MARAD: Ballast Water/Aquatic Invasive on the maritime industry. For the most part, research Species Initiative is accomplished through contracts or cooperative agreement with industry partners and academia. MARAD MARAD’s ballast water efforts began several years ago. works closely with industry to identify research needs, The overall goal of this effort has been to assist the formulate research initiatives to address specic fi issues, maritime industry in addressing invasive species in and then transfer n fi dings to the industry. Since MARAD ballast water. The effort began with testing of promis- is primarily a promotional agency, its inu fl ence regarding ing treatment technologies aboard MARAD vessels in regulatory issues is limited. cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. The initiative has grown to become a multistate and mul- National Highway Trafc S fi afety Administration tiagency cooperative effort that includes development The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s of technical and scientic fi protocols for technology (NHTSA) primary mission is to save lives, prevent injuries, testing and veric fi ation; development of indepen- and reduce economic costs due to road trafc fi crashes. dent testing facilities to provide the needed data for Through its vehicle and behavioral safety programs, ultimate certic fi ation of technologies to International NHTSA develops and implements data-driven approaches Maritime Organization and U.S. Coast Guard standards; to address road traffic crashes, the leading cause of and technology testing. 8 death for Americans aged 5–24 years. One of the ways in which NHTSA carries out its safety mandate is to develop, MARAD was asked by Congress to provide technical issue, and enforce Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards assistance regarding the current state of ballast water (FMVSS). Through these standards, NHTSA strives to treatment technology development; what would be reduce the number of crashes and minimize the conse- needed to ensure that the infrastructure was available quences of crashes that do occur. NHTSA’s mission also in the U.S. to provide for independent veric fi ation and includes issuing Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) certic fi ation of ballast water treatment systems to inter - standards under the Energy Independence and Security national and national standards; and ways to speed the Act of 2007. Increasing fuel economy not only contributes approval of treatment systems for use in the U.S. Dis- to energy security, but also addresses climate change by cussions centered on an initial multiyear (approximately reducing tailpipe emissions of carbon dioxide. five-year) effort that would focus r fi st on ballast water, but include other maritime environmental issues, such NHTSA supports the development of workable and self- as air emissions, oily water discharges, and the like. sustaining highway safety programs by providing grants to State and local communities, sponsoring research and demonstration projects, and funding countermeasure programs to prevent motor vehicle crashes and reduce maritime industry by identifying and focusing on specic fi their economic costs. These programs help States and industry research needs. The majority of resources in local communities reduce the threat of drunk drivers, recent years have been in support of environmental promote the use of safety belts, and improve the use of sustainability, but other studies have addressed safety, child safety seats. economic competitiveness, and infrastructures issues. In addition, MARAD staff have built strong relationships Additional key functions that NHTSA performs include throughout the industry that position the agency to investigating safety defects for motor vehicle recalls, accomplish valuable RD&T initiatives with exponentially investigating odometer fraud, establishing and enforcing benec fi ial paybacks from the resources applied. vehicle anti-theft regulations, and providing government 20 RD&T STRATEGIC PLAN RESEARCH WITHIN THE U.S. DOT safety ratings and other types of consumer information agency’s mission and support current or potential future on motor vehicle safety topics. rulemaking decisions. For example, NHTSA’s behavioral safety research programs led to the widespread adoption NHTSA conducts behavioral and vehicle safety research of many effective programs by the States, including: to develop and evaluate the most efc fi ient and effective means of bringing about safety improvements. NHTSA’s • T raining programs for law enforcement primary objective is to implement research programs that – S tandardized Field Sobriety Tests produce research n fi dings that support agency decisions – D rug Evaluation and Classic fi ation Program and actions in the areas of vehicle and behavioral safety. – Advanced Roadside Impaired Driving In the vehicle safety area, the primary focus is to produce Enforcement Program research n fi dings that support Federal motor vehicle safety • More effective highway safety laws standards, regulations, and consumer information. In the – Primary seat belt laws behavioral safety area, the primary objective is to develop, implement, test, and demonstrate tools and countermea- – A dministrative license suspension for sure programs for use by the States, local communities, impaired driving and other safety organizations to reduce crashes, deaths, – Zero tolerance laws for underage drivers and injuries. These efforts focus on the major causes of • Graduated driver licensing programs crashes, deaths, and injuries and include impaired driving, • National high-visibility enforcement mobilizations seat belt use, child passenger safety, speeding, pedestrian – Click It or Ticket and bicycle safety, motorcycle safety, and the safety of – D rive Sober or Get Pulled Over young, novice drivers and older drivers. For the most part, NHTSA’s vehicle research is applied By meeting key research objectives, NHTSA assures regulatory support research. Some recent examples that research products and n fi dings directly relate to the include NHTSA’s work on stability control for light and heavy vehicles, improving the ability of light vehicles to withstand roof crush during rollovers, and improvements in child safety seat designs. Some research is less directly tied to regulation, however, and conducted through the DOT’s ITS program. For example, in the late 1990s, NHTSA worked within the DOT’s ITS program to perform NHTSA: Crash Avoidance Research research of Forward Crash Warning and other crash avoid- In the area of crash avoidance research, NHTSA conducted ance technologies, which facilitated their development and and continues to produce signic fi ant research results with deployment in industry. Once these technologies became respect to vehicle systems designed to avoid crashes. For more mature, NHTSA focused more of its effort on applied example, NHTSA performed signic fi ant research to develop research to develop test procedures and performance objective test procedures and associated pass/fail criteria criteria that could be used for a regulatory decision. Also, for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems for both light NHTSA conducted signic fi ant biomechanics research to and heavy vehicles. A signic fi ant output of this research was understand the human tolerance of crash forces, which to support a n fi al rule on light vehicle ESC (FMVSS 126) and will eventually lead to better metrics that can evaluate a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on heavy vehicles. a vehicle’s ability to protect occupants during a crash. The agency estimates that ESC will reduce single-vehicle crashes of passenger cars by 34 percent and single vehicle The Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety (DADSS) crashes of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) by 59 percent, with a research program, a joint research partnership between much greater reduction of rollover crashes. NHTSA estimates NHTSA and the auto industry, offers another type of ESC would save 5,300 to 9,600 lives and prevent 156,000 to advanced technology. This research is focused on 238,000 injuries in all types of crashes annually once all light detecting an impaired driver and preventing him or her vehicles on the road are equipped with ESC. from operating a vehicle. Developing a voluntary standard

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