How to make citations in Research paper

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Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 Contents 1 Mastering your Studies .............................................................................. 7 1.1 Dealing with Too Much Information ............................................. 7 1.2 Assessing Quality ............................................................................. 8 1.3 Processing Information Quickly and Efficiently........................... 8 1.4 Turning Information into Knowledge ........................................... 9 1.5 Presenting Knowledge in a Structured Way ............................... 10 1.6 Fulfilling Formal Requirements .................................................... 10 2 The Research Process in a Nutshell ........................................................ 11 3 Reasons for Research Papers ................................................................... 13 3.1 What Makes a Research Paper “Academic”? .............................. 13 3.2 Writing Research Papers at the University Level ....................... 13 4 Research Papers, Step by Step ................................................................. 15 4.1 The Stages of a Research Paper ..................................................... 15 4.2 Planning Your Paper ...................................................................... 17 4.3 Coming Up with a Good Topic ..................................................... 19 4.4 Searching for, Organizing, and Evaluating Sources................... 20 4.5 Do Your Own Work ....................................................................... 20 5 Searching for Sources ............................................................................... 23 5.1 Types of Academic Sources ........................................................... 23 5.2 Search Strategies ............................................................................. 24 5.3 Searching for Sources in Your Library ......................................... 26 5.4 Searching for Sources Online ........................................................ 27 6 Working with Your Sources .................................................................... 35 6.1 Excerpting using Quotations ......................................................... 35 6.2 Excerpting Using Summaries ........................................................ 36 6.3 Evaluating with Comments ........................................................... 36 7 Writing ....................................................................................................... 37 7.1 Writing a Research Paper .............................................................. 37 7.2 Style and Tone ................................................................................. 38 8 Formatting a Research Paper .................................................................. 41 8.1 Sections and Structure .................................................................... 41 8.2 Table of Contents and Overall Structure ..................................... 41 8.3 The Title Page .................................................................................. 42 8.4 Additional Considerations ............................................................ 42 8.5 Formatting Your Manuscript ........................................................ 43 9 Quotations and Comments...................................................................... 45 9.1 Citing and Documenting ............................................................... 45 9.2 Footnotes .......................................................................................... 45 9.3 Quoting and Citing ......................................................................... 46 10 Citations and Bibliographies ................................................................... 49 10.1 Citing Works within Your Text ..................................................... 49 10.2 Bibliography Entries ....................................................................... 51 11 Last but not Least ...................................................................................... 55 12 Works Consulted ...................................................................................... 57 13 Index ........................................................................................................... 58 5 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 1 Mastering your Studies In an academic program you learn how to carry out your own research, how to critically use scholarly resources, and how to present your ideas and results in a clear and structured way. Citavi can help you with all of these tasks. In addition, Citavi lets you save information you encounter so that it can be reused and combined with other information at any time. Citavi makes it easier to search for, manage, and work with your sources. Of course, Citavi can’t do your thinking for you – you still need to do that yourself However, Citavi frees you from worrying about losing track of your sources and all the tasks related to your project. The information you’ve read can be combined and structured, and it becomes very easy to properly give credit to the works you’ve used. Citavi offers you a helping hand during all steps of the research process, from searching for sources to finishing your final publication. The academic pursuit of knowledge is a collective process. In each discipline knowledge has accumulated over the centuries and continues to do so. In the age of digital texts and electronic storage, knowledge can now be disseminated faster than ever before. Being able to make use of this vast body of knowledge in a targeted way and to work with it critically is one of the most important skills you will need to acquire during your studies. Equally important is the ability to independently work with your findings according to the conventions of your academic discipline. Citavi lets you focus on developing these skills by assisting you with many other necessary but time-consuming research tasks: searching for, evaluating, and organizing sources, analyzing texts, planning tasks, creating an outline, and presenting sources, information, and your own ideas in a written publication. 1.1 Dealing with Too Much Information The political scientist John Naisbitt has lamented that we are drowning in information but starved for knowledge. If you ever have been unable to access information due to vacation, illness, technical problems, or political restrictions, you know that the overabundance of information is a luxury. Rather than complain, we should instead look for strategies to make this overabundance work for us. One easy way is to access information from one central location. We recommend saving all materials you encounter from the very beginning of your studies onward in Citavi: journal articles you’ve read, books you’ve checked out, reading lists from your instructors, and relevant webpages. The time you invest pays off later on when you begin preparing for exams or writing a thesis. You’ll also notice that with time and practice you’ll be able to add new sources better and more quickly than you previously could. 7 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 1.2 Assessing Quality Clifford Stoll has created a model for the modern information dilemma. For Stoll information that we obtain cheaply and quickly cannot be good. Cheap and good information cannot be obtained quickly. Fast and good information is not cheap. (You will likely come across this “impossible triangle of quality” in other contexts as well.) As with any broad generalization, there are, of course, exceptions. However, the author’s assessment has some merit to it. If we examine our own use of online search engines, don’t we usually start looking for answers to our questions in Google, even though higher-quality and better-structured information can be found using library resources? Don’t we tend to view these easily available search results positively, even if we then spend an additional twenty minutes sifting through many useless results? Don’t we tend to gravitate towards supposedly “free” services, even though fee-based services could save us time in the end? The downside of the information society is that we don’t just have access to more good information (i.e. information that is verifiable, current, and presented in a structured way), but also to a great deal more bad information (information that is unproven, outdated, or unstructured). In order to successfully complete your studies, you need to be able to identify high-quality information quickly. This can be especially challenging during your first semesters. However, help is available. Most academic libraries offer courses that teach you how to find relevant scholarly information using academic resources. Citavi can help as well. Citavi provides a gateway to high-quality information resources. Using one simple search form, you can submit queries to many different online resources to find books or journal articles on any topic. This information almost always stems from an academic publisher and has been optimized for online search by specialists through the addition of carefully controlled keywords and abstracts. Admittedly, when performing an online search you may often be able to access a full-text article with a single click. When you search in a research database or library catalog, you often still need to obtain the article or book separately if the database does not offer full-text. However, Citavi can help you with this as well. 1.3 Processing Information Quickly and Efficiently Academic degree programs move quickly and require you to process a great deal of information within a short period of time. Guides for students offer many tried-and-true methods for improving reading speed and information retention. Citavi can also help you make the most of your time. Most research databases that you can search from within Citavi do not simply give you the “naked” bibliographic information, but also include abstracts. Abstracts are useful in two ways: they make it easier to assess whether or not an article is worth reading, and they also make it easier to remember what an 8 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 article was about long after you’ve read it. Citavi makes it possible to save abstracts along with the bibliographic information for a particular work. When you begin reading and analyzing your sources, Citavi’s Task Planner and quotation features can help. When you first take a look at one of your sources, you can define exactly what you later want to do with it. For example, you can create the tasks Excerpt quotations from chapters 3 and 4 and Go through bibliography. Excerpting important text passages is particularly easy if you have the full text in PDF format. You just need to highlight the relevant passages and tell Citavi to save them as quotations. Citavi will add the bibliographic information as well. You also can paraphrase text passages in Citavi using your own words. When you add these direct and indirect quotations, Citavi prompts you to summarize the main idea of the quotation in a core statement. The core statement is useful for identifying the quotation later on when you have a large number of quotations in your project. You can also use the core statement to check whether or not you’ve understood the passage you’ve saved. Whenever you reformulate the main idea in your own words, you will also find that you can better understand and remember the text you’ve just read. When you’re about to finish working with a particular source, you can use the Task Planner to check whether or not you’ve completed what you wanted to do. Perhaps you only examined the bibliography for the two chapters you read but not for the work as a whole? Such information could be important if you later want to work with the same source again in another project. 1.4 Turning Information into Knowledge In addition to evaluating whether information is relevant, you should also be able to integrate it with other information and your own knowledge and preserve it so that you can use it again. There are many ways to work with the information you find in your sources. A good method for grappling with a difficult text is to highlight important passages and make notes in the margins (just not in books you’ve borrowed from the library). However, after a few weeks you may no longer remember what your highlights and marginal notes mean. You might even need to read the text again. This method also has the drawback that it doesn’t allow you to trace relationships between texts. We recommend adding the information that’s important to you to Citavi. This allows you to work with it in additional ways. For example, you can apply keywords to quotations to find them easily later on. You can add comments to quotations so you don’t forget what you thought about a passage you excerpted. You can even juxtapose a quotation from one author with a quotation from another. This comparison can then lead you to new ideas, which you can also save in Citavi. 9 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 1.5 Presenting Knowledge in a Structured Way Some disciplines have strict requirements for how a research paper should be structured. Others give you more freedom. Regardless of how much leeway you have, a logical structure is always expected. The reader should be able to follow your arguments and should ideally come to the same conclusion based on your findings and interpretations. A logical structure is no accident – it’s the result of hard work. While Citavi can’t create a good structure for you, it can assist you in developing one. You can use Citavi’s category system to create an outline for the paper you are going to write. When you’re first starting out, this outline will be patchy and contain a lot of gaps. You’ll flesh it out with every reference, quotation, and thought that you add in Citavi. Whenever a new item cannot easily be inserted into your category system, it’s a sign that you need to restructure and improve it. After a while, your outline will become differentiated enough to easily accommodate new thoughts. Citavi’s category management is designed to make it easy to change your outline whenever you need to. 1.6 Fulfilling Formal Requirements Every research paper documents the sources on which its findings are based. These citations should make it possible for the reader to locate the original work. In order to achieve this you need to cite your sources thoroughly and according to a consistent pattern. Unfortunately, there are many differing ideas of just how such a consistent pattern should look. Nearly every publishing house, academic journal, and academic association has its own citation guidelines. Several of these guidelines are used widely. For example, the Style Guide of the American Psychological Association is utilized by many other organizations and publications. Fortunately, you don’t need to worry about citation styles if you use Citavi. You don’t need to know whether all the authors of a journal article should appear in the reference list or if only the first three or six authors should be listed. You don’t need to know if authors’ first names should be written out or abbreviated, if book titles should be written in italics, while journal article titles should appear in quotation marks, and whether or not the year should appear in parentheses. All you have to do is select a citation style in Citavi. This lets you focus on the content of your paper. 10 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 2 The Research Process in a Nutshell The process of writing a research paper consists of a number of steps, which we’ve outlined below. However, you should not think of the research process as a checklist; you won’t simply cross off one task after another. Instead, you will often feel as if you are doubling back, off-course, or even starting all over again. This is a normal part of the research journey. Whichever routes you ultimately take, the following general roadmap may serve as a useful guide. Start a project In Citavi your sources are saved in projects. Create a new project for your research paper. You can create separate projects for additional topics that have nothing to do with your upcoming paper but still interest you. If additional topics interest you that have nothing to do with your upcoming paper, you can also create separate projects for them. Add sources you Add sources to Citavi that are potentially useful for already have your paper. Formulate your Formulate the questions you want to answer. For research objectives example, “Why are there fewer sparrow populations in cities?”, “What effect do smells have on consumer purchases?”, “How does classroom size influence student achievement?” Create a draft Use Citavi’s Knowledge Organizer to create a draft outline outline for your paper. At the beginning your outline will be incomplete and still very rough. As you progress you will improve it bit by bit. Search for sources Look for additional sources with Citavi. Search for books in your university library catalog and for journal articles in research databases. You will continue to search for new sources throughout the research process as you fine-tune your research objectives or as you discover new search terms. Plan your work After performing a search, you may receive hundreds of results. Import them all into Citavi and work with them as a selection. Delete the sources you are sure you won’t need. Assign tasks to all other results, for example “Make copies this week.” Obtain materials Use Citavi to get a copy of a source. Then head to the library to borrow books or make photocopies. Or, go back to Citavi, where you can order books and scanned articles or search for full-text articles online. 11 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 Work with your This is what writing a research paper is all about. sources Search your sources for answers to your research questions (and for additional sources). Information you find can either be saved in Citavi as a direct quotation with the original wording – which is important when citing definitions – or in your own paraphrases. If an author’s claim seems questionable, add your own comment to it in Citavi. Many things you read will stimulate new ideas – save these in Citavi as well. All of these quotations, comments, and thoughts can be organized in your outline. Revise your outline Every quotation that you categorize tests how good the structure of your paper is. Ask yourself, “Does this quotation really fit in this chapter? Should a new chapter be added here? Or should the chapter be renamed?” While analyzing your sources, keep gradually improving your outline by adding categories, renaming, moving, or deleting them. Prepare for Citavi can help you prepare for a discussion of meetings with your your progress. Print out a list of all the sources in advisor your Citavi project and your outline and bring both documents along. Both will make it easier for your advisor to see which direction your research is taking and to give you useful hints. Structure your If you’ve been working on your project for a long knowledge time, you can easily lose track of where you are. Citavi’s Knowledge Organizer can help. Compare the statements of several authors on a given topic, and discover contradictions and flaws in their argumentation. Organize these statements in a way that makes sense for you and take your own stand. Begin writing Once you have a good feel for your topic, have examined the sources you’ve identified as the most important for your paper, and have more or less finalized your outline, it’s a good time to begin writing. Insert the quotations and thoughts you saved in Citavi into your Word document with a single mouse click. All sources you cite appear in the bibliography automatically. You can also create papers with OpenOffice.org or LibreOffice Writer or a LaTeX-Editor. 12 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 3 Reasons for Research Papers 3.1 What Makes a Research Paper “Academic”? When you hand in a research paper or submit a manuscript to an academic publisher, you know that the paper or submission needs to be structured and formatted in a very specific way and that certain elements, such as quotations, citations, or bibliography entries must be present. In academic writing, both content and form are important. If you’ve ever glanced at publications from different disciplines, you’ll have noticed how widely the formal characteristics of an article can vary. There are striking differences not only across disciplines but also among different publications within the same discipline. The Role of Formal Requirements Writing a research paper requires you explain your conclusions as they relate to your research question, to disclose your methods so that others can reproduce your results, to document your sources, to present your results in a logical way, and to make your work available to a wider audience. It’s not just about compiling a list of information on a topic. Rather, you need to be able to create connections between facts and to integrate them in the context of your explanations, justifications, and argumentation. Your Paper Can Take Many Forms As stated above, the form of an academic text can vary widely. However, within one discipline’s restrictions, there’s often a certain degree of freedom. This also means that for the concrete presentation of certain elements, personal preferences (such as your instructor’s) or the traditions of a particular department at your institution can influence the presentation of your paper. However, most of the time the main concern is that you remain consistent in the presentation of formal elements within your paper. Maintain Consistency with Citavi Citation style guidelines determine how source information should appear within your text and in the bibliography. In Citavi, you can choose from thousands of citation styles to apply to your paper. As far as the writing process is concerned, this means that you don’t need to worry at all about the formatting of your citations and bibliography. 3.2 Writing Research Papers at the University Level A longer written work often is a requirement for obtaining a Bachelor’s, Master’s, or Doctoral degree. These works should demonstrate your ability to perform independent research in an academic discipline using the appropriate research methods for that discipline. You should show that you can form independent opinions supported by credible academic sources, that you can 13 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 clearly develop and articulate your arguments, and that you can present your analysis, results, and further considerations according to formal conventions and without spelling and grammar errors. These expectations are shared more or less by all academic departments, even if they are never stated explicitly. Shorter Research Papers Also Need to Meet Academic Expectations The conventions for a certain discipline not only apply to papers written to obtain a degree, but also to shorter research papers written during the course of your studies. Even when writing a report, a presentation, or a term paper, you still should adhere to the standards for your particular discipline. Citavi – Your Research Assistant One way to document your academic progress is to keep a “reading diary.” Save all the books, essays, and webpages relevant to your studies in Citavi. For especially important sources you can write a brief summary (also known as an abstract) or save passages as quotations. Practice makes perfect, and the more often you do this, the easier it will become. Towards the end of your studies you will be able to draw upon all of the knowledge you’ve gathered. Real-World Application The skills developed while writing a research paper aren’t only relevant in the academic world. On the contrary You can use the following skills in your professional life as well:  Becoming acquainted with a certain topic in a short amount of time  Locating significant information on a topic  Coming up with answers to a specific research question by drawing on credible sources  Understanding difficult technical texts  Evaluating texts in light of a specific research objective  Analyzing a complex issue and being able to summarize it succinctly and accurately  Verifying the validity of an argument or building up your own argument  Presenting the results of your own findings and considerations in a way that makes sense to others  Being able to offer a differentiated opinion The experience and knowledge you gain from conceptualizing, planning, and carrying out small research projects will help you in many professions. 14 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 4 Research Papers, Step by Step 4.1 The Stages of a Research Paper Writing an academic research paper involves many individual tasks which can be grouped into different stages. A list of typical activities for each stage can be found below. In actual practice, stages are not discrete and will often overlap. However, thinking of your work in this way can help you plan for the many tasks involved. Exploration Develop interest in a topic, choose a topic, perform initial literature searches. Moving or copying references to another Exploring with Citavi project If you used Citavi as a reading diary to keep track of texts encountered throughout your  www.citavi.com/shows5/50 studies, it will pay off during this phase. Search within your project for topics that especially interested you and authors you found thought-provoking. Then, search for new works that have been written on the topic and let yourself be inspired by additional questions. Once your project starts to take shape, you can copy the references you want to use into a new project. This project will serve as the starting point for your research paper. Literature Search Define the scope of your topic and your research questions more precisely, search for sources, obtain materials, decide which methodology to choose (field research, questionnaires, etc.), perform test experiments, check whether a certain topic is feasible. Searching with Citavi From within Citavi you can quickly and easily search many library catalogs and research databases for academic sources. You don’t need to just search from within Citavi, however. When searching online, Citavi can help as well. The Citavi Picker extensions let you import results from research databases displayed in your browser directly into your Citavi project. In addition, you can even add entire webpages as sources. Conceptualization Further define the question, narrow down the materials you will use based on your research objectives, plan experiments (if applicable), test questionnaires, obtain the main primary and secondary sources you will need for your paper. Creating categories Conceptualizing with Citavi  www.citavi.com/shows5/34 Your research questions will contain important search terms. Database results will also point you to additional keywords. By taking a look at abstracts in articles that are relevant to your topic, you can further refine the formulation of your research questions. Using your research questions, try to put together a first outline for your future paper. This outline can be created as a category system in Citavi. When you later begin to work with your sources in a more in-depth way, you can improve your category system by 15 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 creating more specific categories, changing the order of categories, or removing unneeded categories. Analysis and Evaluation Analyzing and critically examine your sources, perform experiments, compile your notes, begin conceptualizing the presentation of your results, revise the overall plan for and structure of your work. Applying keywords Evaluating with Citavi  www.citavi.com/shows5/25 To place your sources in context, you can assign keywords and categories to them. You Adding abstracts and tables of contents can use keywords to describe the content of your sources. With categories, you can  www.citavi.com/shows5/26 assign a work to a chapter in which you might want to use it. A short summary helps you to quickly remember the content of a book or journal article. Planning tasks  www.citavi.com/shows5/19 In the Evaluation field you can enter to what extent the work is useful for your topic. You can add additional references to your Citavi project by consulting the bibliographies of sources already in your project. Add references that you think will be helpful and assign appropriate tasks to them (borrow, copy, etc.). Write and Edit The actual writing process can further be divided into its own stages: Conceptualizing This stage of the writing process naturally overlaps with the Analysis and Evaluation stages. Here it’s important to plan your work, create an outline, and determine the general direction your text will take. Composing Write a first draft. Editing In this stage you will make a great deal of revisions to both the content and structure of your text. Proofreading and Formatting Make corrections, improve the style and formatting, clean up the layout, print a final version. Creating a compilation Writing with Citavi  www.citavi.com/shows5/37 Hold off on writing your paper until you have worked with your sources extensively, Creating a publication with Word created a good outline, determined the general direction for your paper, and identified  www.citavi.com/shows5/43 the most important sources you will use to support your main points. Creating a publication with Writer Citavi’s Compilation feature can help you determine if you’re ready to begin writing. A  www.citavi.com/shows5/44 compilation includes all of the quotations and thoughts you’ve saved and categorized in your Citavi project. This gives you a good overview of the amount of content you Creating a publication with LaTeX  www.citavi.com/shows5/45 have for each section and can be a quick way to see which parts of your paper have a good amount of information and where you might need additional content or further explanation. To start your paper you can export your category system from Citavi into a Word or OpenOffice.org Writer document as an outline. Insert quotations and thoughts into your word processor using the Add-In for Word or the Publication Assistant. Citavi automatically generates a bibliography with all of the references cited in your paper and formatted in a citation style you select. 16 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 Even after you have a first draft, you still aren’t finished with your paper. You will need to revise your work with a great deal of care and reflection. This part of the writing process will lead you to your final version. If you’ve gone through the writing process successfully, your final version should be considerably better than your first draft. Revision improves any written text. 4.2 Planning Your Paper A paper or thesis needs to be submitted by a specific point in time. Although this deadline is usually defined for you, you sometimes can set your own. Often you do not have much time to complete a research paper or thesis and will simply be glad at the end to have somehow managed to finish your work by the deadline. Set Aside Time for Final Details While you won’t ever be able to avoid time crunches and stress entirely, a good plan can help. Just remember that you will need to revise your plan throughout the research process as something unexpected always comes up. With a realistic plan that takes into account the different stages of the research process and the writing process, you should be able to allow time at the end of your project for the important finishing touches that often have to be rushed through. Since the final phase of revision and proofreading has the most impact on the quality of your writing, making time for this stage will vastly improve your text. So, don’t forget to set aside time for final revisions and also for printing your paper. Using the Task Planner Most tasks in your Citavi project will pertain to individual references in your project. You will want to keep track of when you want to check out a book, when you have to return a book, which articles you need to photocopy, and which books you might want to examine more closely. In Citavi you can also keep track of tasks that relate to your project goals. To get started, ask yourself when you want to start the revision process, on what dates you will meet with your advisor, and when your submission deadline is. In empirical research that relies on questionnaires, data collection, or field research, you will also want to plan for all of the work that needs to be taken care of beforehand. Make sure to not only allot time for data collection and evaluation. Depending on your research, you might also need to consider the time it will take to gain access to certain institutions, to locate test subjects, and to arrange interviews. Research Papers Are Projects Writing a paper is a project. The word “project” is used to describe an undertaking outside of normal daily tasks that is a one-time occurrence with a defined end point. In a project you set out to meet a defined goal within a certain amount of time and with predetermined financial and personal resources. 17 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 Why Are Citavi Databases Called Projects? In Citavi you save all the information you collect in projects. A project is a Citavi database containing various information: bibliographic information (who published what, when did they publish it, and where), information for obtaining a source (which library has the book and what is its call or shelf number), notes about when changes were made (when and where did you find the information), links to full-text articles saved on your computer or online, excerpts from texts you read saved as abstracts or as quotations, and tasks that you want to complete during the course of your project. One rule of thumb for working with Citavi is to create a separate project for each paper or publication. You may also want to use multiple projects if you’re working on several topics that don’t overlap in content. For example, you may want to create a project for your Biology 101 term paper and one for your model airplane building hobby. During your first semesters, you should work with fewer projects. As your studies progress, you will likely start to see interesting connections between certain topics. Then, when you later want to focus more closely on one particular topic, you can copy the references related to this topic into a new project. Best-Laid Plans… Just like anything else in life, writing a paper does not always go according to plan. Very often your progress will be slower than you originally anticipated. It can also happen that you might need to spend more time on one particular aspect of your research or that you need to completely change the structure of your paper. You should be flexible and update your plan continuously as you go along. Plans should not be set in stone. Even with good planning, you still will not always be able to avoid time crunches and stress. This does not mean that you should abandon plans altogether; it simply means that you need to be aware of their limitations. You won’t be able to anticipate everything that might occur. When you plan you will be estimating how much time you need on average for a given task or phase of your work. Make sure to take practical matters into account as well. For example, finding the right books on your topic will likely take longer than one or two catalog searches and a single trip to the library. If an item you need is unavailable, you might need to invest considerable effort to obtain it another way. If you are going to make photocopies of a number of essays so that you can mark them up while reading, be aware that photocopying all those page could take a while. It makes sense to allow enough time for each individual step needed to complete a task. One big advantage of planning is that it gives you an overview of what still needs to be done in your work and how far along you already are. A plan also helps you to break down your work into manageable chunks. It lets you check how much you’ve already completed and how far your work has progressed. Printing a task list The Task Planner  www.citavi.com/shows5/20 You can view all open and completed tasks in Citavi’s Task Planner. If you have a lot of tasks, you can filter them to focus on the tasks with high importance or with an upcoming due date. You can then print a list of these selected tasks. 18 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 4.3 Coming Up with a Good Topic In any paper, your topic is already predetermined to a certain extent by external factors. For example, if you need to choose a topic from a list provided to you by your professor, you do not need to come up with one on your own. For longer research papers, the choice of a topic is an important part of writing the paper. The difficulty involved in picking a single topic and narrowing it down is often underestimated. However, a narrowly-defined, specific topic will help you get a handle on your paper and will make the research process as a whole much easier. Your Main Focus: Research Objectives After settling on a topic and narrowing it down, you will also need to define your research objectives as precisely as you can. The objectives should be defined in such a way that the topic fits the type and scope of paper you are writing. You should also make sure that you will likely be able to complete the project within the amount of time available — it makes a difference whether you are writing a research paper for a semester-long course or a dissertation on a specific topic. The types of objects you want to examine also play a role. The materials you will look at should relate to your topic and you should be able to analyze them with a reasonable amount of work. For example, for a semester- long research project, you would not want to examine lexical variations in a group of ten medieval manuscripts housed at different libraries across the country. Instead, you might want to look at the lexical characteristics of one medieval manuscript available at your institution. Choosing a topic, narrowing it down, and defining the objectives of your project are not tasks that can be completed all at once. Your topic and objectives will evolve as your interest in certain areas develops and as you continue to do exploratory reading. It will usually only be possible to formulate research questions after starting to work with your primary sources and as you begin exploring the relevant secondary literature. One difficulty can be that every topic has some connection to many other topics, but you cannot consider every possible connection. Even in a dissertation, you should not pursue every tangential connection to your topic. When writing a research paper, it’s important to concentrate on just one aspect of a particular topic and to keep your defined objectives in mind. Creating a compilation Don’t Miss the Point  www.citavi.com/shows5/37 Perhaps nothing is more embarrassing than being told that your paper has missed the Creating a simple project bibliography point. To avoid wasting a lot of time and effort, you should consult with your advisor as  www.citavi.com/shows5/39 early as possible about your topic and research objectives. The more concrete you can be in describing your plans and the steps you are taking, the more efficient and constructive your talk will be. To prepare for this consultation, it is helpful to bring along a couple documents . These should include a rudimentary outline for your paper and an overview of the sources that you want to use. Both the outline and the list of references can be created in Citavi with a single mouse click. 19 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 4.4 Searching for, Organizing, and Evaluating Sources When preparing for and working on a research paper you will quickly accumulate a great deal of sources. To make it possible to find a source again and not get overwhelmed, you should search for these sources and save them in a systematic way. Adding a book by hand Adding Sources to Citavi www.citavi.com/shows5/3 There are four ways to add sources to your Citavi project: Adding a book by ISBN number  Enter bibliographic information by hand. The templates for each reference type help www.citavi.com/shows5/7 you to enter the information that will later be important when citing your sources. Adding a webpage with the Citavi Picker  Let Citavi find the bibliographic information for you. You can either use search terms www.citavi.com/shows5/18 (author names and/or title keywords), the ISBN number on a book, or the DOI name in a journal article.  Import bibliographic information from another program or list of references using one of Citavi’s import filters.  Perform a search online in your browser and use the Citavi Picker to send the results to your project. Be an Early Bird It’s never too soon to begin searching for sources. Even if you don’t have time to really get started on your work, you can at least keep track of ideas you have or sources you run across by chance. 4.5 Do Your Own Work When researching a topic you will analyze other academic sources that you will then use to support your own claims. Categories, Evaluations, Links, Quotations, Comments, Thoughts Citavi gives you a number of tools for analyzing your sources. On the Contents tab in the Reference Editor you can evaluate each work. You can do this by assigning stars. The meaning of these stars is up to you. In addition to using stars, you can also compose a detailed evaluation, for example: “good overview of current literature.” On the Context tab you can assign one or more categories to each reference that you add to Citavi. When writing your paper you will probably focus on one chapter at a time, so you’ll always be able to quickly look at the most relevant sources. On the same tab you will also find Links, which allow you to document relationships between sources, such as when the author of one work discusses the ideas of another author. On the Quotations tab you can save the most important statements from a work. If you want to summarize an entire chapter or multiple sections, use the Summary quotation type. Otherwise use the quotation type Direct quotation or Indirect quotation. The Comment feature lets you keep track of your own thoughts on a particular textual passage. You can even keep track of your own ideas not related to a particular text by using the Thought feature. All quotations and thoughts can later be inserted into your word processor with a single mouse click. A cornerstone of every academic work is that readers should be able to verify the author’s claims and see the sources and methods they are based on. For this 20 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 reason, proper citation plays a key role. In many disciplines, certain citation conventions have arisen over time (see chapters 9 and 10). Full Disclosure It is critical that the reader of your paper can easily tell what sources informed your work, what your own work is, and what you have directly taken from other sources. Copying a passage from another text without making it clear that you have done so isn’t just sloppiness (“Whoops I just forgot the quotation marks”). Instead, it’s a major breach of academic integrity. Citing with Citavi In Citavi you can add as many quotations from each book, article, or webpage as you want. Then, if you later no longer have access to the original source (for example, if you had to return the book to the library) you still have all the information you need for your citations: the original text and the bibliographic information for the source in which you found the quotation, including the page numbers. It’s also dishonest to cite a source that you found within another source but that you did not consult yourself. If there’s no way around it because it is impossible to get a copy of the original source, you can cite a secondary quotation, but you need to make it clear where you obtained it. Plagiarism is Unacceptable When you present the work of someone else under your name as if it were your own, you are committing plagiarism. For this reason, your department will often require a formal declaration that you have done your own work when you submit a thesis or dissertation. 21 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 Plagiarism Typology Complete plagiarism A text is copied without any changes and without citations. Self-plagiarism The author steals from himself or herself by using passages from a previous paper without making it obvious that the passage was already published. How should previous work be cited? Include a citation and your own name just as you would when citing any other source. Structural plagiarism Although everything is written in your own words, you copy another author’s thought process and the structure of their arguments. Translation plagiarism Passages are translated into the language the paper is written in without a proper citation. Collage method Fragments from various sources are copied and reassembled in a new way without citations. Although the text is new, its components have been plagiarized. Camouflaging Another author’s sentences and thoughts are written in different words with no mention of the original source. One rule of thumb: even if you use different wording to describe an idea, it’s still not your own. Paraphrasing The ideas of another author are summarized without plagiarism attribution. When paraphrasing, the exact wording cannot be identical and the original source must be cited. Sacrificing a pawn You cite a portion of another author’s ideas but then copy additional text without citing it. As always, every thought and sentence that is not your own requires citation. Source: Greiner, Lena; Olbrisch, Miriam (2013): Studieren und Plagiieren: Sorry, habe abgeschrieben – war ein Versehen. Studying and plagiarism: Sorry, I copied that – but I didn’t mean to. In: Spiegel Online. Available online at: http://www.spiegel.de/unispiegel/studium/hausarbeiten-deutscher-studenten-sind- haeufig-plagiate-a-893893.html, last accessed on September 9, 2014. While it used to take some effort to obtain dissertations or theses that were submitted to another institution, you can now find many of these types of sources online. Large collections of papers and presentations can be found on the Internet as well. As long you are using another person’s work as a source and citing it accordingly, it’s not a problem to use information you find online. However, passing off another’s work as your own is dishonest and even illegal under certain circumstances. 22 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 5 Searching for Sources 5.1 Types of Academic Sources Becoming familiar with different types of academic sources will help you perform more targeted searches and will make it easier to cite your sources later on. Monographs (Books) The classic printed book is still a major source of scholarly information, even though the number of e-books is rapidly increasing. Books can be formally grouped into two categories: monographs and edited books. Monographs usually refer to longer non-fiction books written by a single author. However, a monograph can also be written by two authors or a team of authors. In this case, the authors share responsibility for the whole work; the book is not a collection of essays by individual authors. Selecting catalogs for ISBN download Adding a Book by ISBN  www.citavi.com/shows5/9 Almost all books published since the mid-1970s have an ISBN number (International Standard Book Number). If you want to add a book to Citavi, all you need to do is enter the ISBN number. Citavi downloads the bibliographic information from the catalogs you’ve selected. Make sure to place catalogs from libraries where you have borrowing privileges at the top of the list, since Citavi can save the call or shelf numbers of books as well. This keeps you from having to search for the call or shelf number later on when you want to make a trip to the library. Edited Books An edited book contains contributions from various authors. An editor or group of editors is responsible for the book as a whole. Edited books usually focus on one topic or subject area. The contributions, which usually are not very long, often provide an overview of current research. Edited books written in honor of another researcher are known as Festschrifts and are added in Citavi as edited books. Edited books containing papers that were presented at a conference should be added using the reference type “Conference Proceedings.” Adding a Contribution in an Edited Book: Adding a Contribution in an Edited Book  www.citavi.com/shows5/4 When adding a contribution in an edited book to Citavi, first add the book itself. Then, add the contribution from the edited book. This has two advantages: if you’re adding multiple contributions from one edited book, you only have to add the bibliographic information for the book one time. If you make a mistake, you also only have to make corrections once. The other advantage is that you can easily view other contributions you already saved from the same book with just one click. 23 Writing a Research Paper with Citavi 5 Journal Articles Academic texts are published not only in book format, but also, and in some disciplines primarily, as articles in journals. Academic journals usually are issued multiple times per year and for this reason are able to publish the most current findings on a particular topic. If the library does not subscribe to a journal in electronic form, individual issues will usually later be bound into annual volumes. Most of these volumes contain an index for all of the articles published that year. More comprehensive journals often include a keyword index as well. Adding Journal Articles In Citavi you’ll usually only add individual articles from a particular journal. This is especially easy if the article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Using the DOI name, Citavi can download the bibliographic information for the article online. A DOI name looks like this: 10.1016/j.lisr.2013.03.001 Gray Literature Gray literature refers to publications that are not published by a normal publishing house. They include publications issued by institutes, workgroups, and companies and unpublished manuscripts circulated among a select group of people. Often these types of sources are preliminary versions or “working papers” that are later revised and then published in a traditional way. Gray literature can be difficult to locate using conventional search methods. In Citavi, gray literature should be added using the reference type “Unpublished Work”. Theses and Dissertations These sources can also be hard to track down. Theses and dissertations are usually not published and not widely cited. They may not appear in indices or bibliographies. However, many university libraries keep a copy of all theses submitted to the university, either in print or electronic form. Theses and dissertations contain a great deal of information, literature reviews, and discussion of current methodology that should not be underestimated. They can be invaluable sources if you are able to obtain them. As with all of your sources, be sure to accurately cite any theses and dissertations you consult (see chapter 4.5). Exception: Published Dissertations If a dissertation has been published, you should add it as a book. In the Title supplement field you can enter a note if your style requires additional information, e.g. “Doctoral dissertation originally submitted to the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee”. 5.2 Search Strategies Books can be found in a library catalog or in a publisher’s catalog, as long as the book is still in print. 24