How to Format Thesis

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TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS-DISSERTATION FORMATTING GUIDELINES Revised June, 2013 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual DOCUMENT PREPARATION Choosing a style guide All theses and dissertations submitted to the Graduate School must follow an approved style guide. Failure to use proper citation and formatting styles may delay the approval of your document. What is a style guide? Style guides specify proper citation formats as well as other mechanical aspects of preparing researched manuscripts such as the presentation of figures or the disposition of appendices. In instances where this manual gives formatting specifications that differ from those in your designated style guide, specifications in this manual supersede those that may be listed in your required style guide. Which style guide am I required to use? Some standard style guides include MLA, Chicago, APA or CBE. An updated listing of approved style guides may be found on the Graduate School web site. Your department or advisor may alternatively designate a more specialized guide such as IEEE publications guidelines or a style guide from a specific journal. If you are following a guide from a journal or professional organization, you must provide the thesis-dissertation staff with off-prints of that guide or a web address where the guidelines may be found. What do I do if my department/committee chair hasn’t specified a style guide? If your department or advisor has not specified a style guide or you have a formatting question not covered in your approved guide, you must use Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. This is the default style guide for theses and dissertations at Texas Tech. You may purchase the Turabian book in the bookstore, online or use the copies in the library. The appendix of Turabian’s book, “Paper Format and Submission,” covers most formatting issues for a thesis or dissertation. Copyright Copyright law essentially establishes that writing inherently creates copyright and the author automatically owns copyright unless it is relinquished by some form of contract. The absence of a copyright notice or symbol does not mean that the work is unprotected or in the public domain. Copyrighting your Work The copyrighting process is thus not required by law, but the Graduate School recommends that you place a notice of copyright in your documents (except when 1 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual prohibited by supporting agencies), as this helps to protect you in event of litigation. All dissertations and theses must have a copyright page. See the templates link on the Thesis-Dissertation page on the Graduate School web site for examples. While registration of copyright with the U.S. Copyright Office is not a condition of copyright protection, it is a prerequisite for an infringement suit. Necessary forms and more information about copyright registration may be found at the U.S. Copyright web site at http://www.copyright.gov. Copyright and Co-Authored Work In rare instances (about one in 10,000), a thesis or dissertation may be co-authored, and hence there may be co-owners of a copyright. This may be appropriate if the thesis or dissertation involves a joint effort between you and the professor (beyond that normally associated with the direction of such study). Copyright law holds that scientific findings or facts may not be copyrightable, but their arrangement in a table or presentation in the text is protectable. Thus, you own the presentation copyrighted in a thesis or dissertation, but the underlying data is not “locked up.” This means faculty cannot copy your tables or appropriate your presentations verbatim, but may legally use the data in their own differently worded presentation. Your work should be acknowledged to avoid plagiarism. Co-owners have the right to free use of jointly owned property, subject to accountability for royalties. In such cases, the professor’s name should also be included on the copyright page after yours. In those few cases where Texas Tech University should own the copyright, rather than the student (and possibly the professor), the Graduate School should be contacted in order for the student to execute a release form. Plagiarism It is your responsibility to document all work that is not your own in the thesis or dissertation by proper citation of sources. Offering the work of another as one’s own, even unintentionally, is a serious offense covered by the University’s policy on academic integrity, and is especially problematic in a research document which purports to be original work. If you are using information that you have previously published under your own name, you should still, nonetheless, cite yourself in your document. Information about academic integrity may be found in the most current edition of the Student Handbook. Proofreading It is your responsibility to insure that the thesis/dissertation is properly formatted and thoroughly proofread before submission to the Graduate School. You should always proofread after using the spell check, as many errors may be missed by automated spell check functions. A thesis or dissertation submitted to the Thesis/Dissertation Supervisor or Coordinator which shows an obvious lack of proofreading will be returned to you for additional revisions before further review. 2 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual The Graduate School does not proofread, copyedit, or format theses and dissertations for students. PDF Conversion All theses and dissertations submitted to the Graduate School must be in PDF format (unless security or patent restrictions apply). To create PDFs, you must have Adobe Acrobat software (at least version 7.0 Professional) or another compatible PDF-writer software installed on your computer. • A free trial version of the latest version of Acrobat Professional is usually available at http://www.adobe.com • If you are on campus, the ATLC in the TTU library has 80 computers, all of which are equipped with Acrobat Professional. ATLC staff will happily assist students in converting files into PDF format. NOTE: Adobe Reader is not the same as Adobe Acrobat. You cannot create PDF documents with Reader. You must have Acrobat or another fully compatible PDF- writer software. Required Forms Before submission of the thesis/dissertation, you must have all the required support documentation submitted to the Graduate School. Required paperwork includes the following: Masters Doctoral • Masters Intent Form (thesis • Doctoral Intent Form option) • Doctoral Final Oral • Oral Exam and Thesis- Examination Notification Form Dissertation Approval Form • Oral Exam and Thesis- Dissertation Approval Form All forms are available for download from the Graduate School web site. Deadlines for these forms vary throughout the semester. Please consult the current deadlines on the web site for due dates. Thesis-Dissertation Fee All thesis/dissertation students are required to pay a one-time Thesis-Dissertation fee through Student Business Services. This fee is used to support educational programming related to theses and dissertations. The fee is posted to your account when your Defense Notification (doctoral students) or your Intent to Graduate (masters students) has been processed. Deadlines for fee payments can be found on the Graduate School web site. The fee is 50.00 for both Masters and Doctoral students. 3 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual Fees must be paid before final approval of official theses/dissertations on the ETD system. Submission Submission of the Thesis/Dissertation for Official Review No later than the online, published deadline, a committee-approved, proofread and formatted copy of the thesis/dissertation must be submitted to the ETD system. Please check the Graduate School web site for specific semester deadlines. Review copies of the thesis/dissertation must be submitted in PDF format. You must upload the review copy PDF to your ETD account (see below). The review copy file should be named as follows: lastname_ThesisReview.pdf or lastname_DissertationReview.pdf The copies are reviewed in the order they are received. It is to your advantage to submit your thesis/dissertation as early as possible. After the thesis/dissertation has been checked, it will be sent back to you with any corrections noted. You must make the required corrections before making your final, official submission. Creating an ETD Account An Electronic Thesis or Dissertation (ETD) is the archived document that identifies the student, program, and committee associated with the thesis/dissertation document as well as key words, an abstract, and the document itself. Your official submission of your PDF version of your thesis/dissertation becomes an ETD when it is uploaded to an ETD account. ETD accounts are created on the university library’s ETD web server. Relevant web addresses for TTU ETDs Create/Access ETD Account: https://ttu-edu.tdl.org View/Browse: http://thinktech.lib.ttu.edu If you don't have an ETD account I. Login: Go to https://ttu-etd.tdl.org/ and sign in with your eRaider. II. Verify and Upload: You will be directed through the following steps. (1) On the first screen, you verify your personal information. (2) On the second screen, read and check the license information 2 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual (3) On the third screen, add your document and committee information. For “Release Options” • If you are going to allow your document to have worldwide release, leave the check box blank and click “Save and Continue” • If you are going to limit access, check the box and select the hold (Embargo) type. TTU Only = access available only with eraider IDs 5-year Hold = 5 years Other Hold = indefinite (all documents under 5-year Hold embargoes will be released once the hold period expires unless the student contacts the graduate school about an extension) Click “Save and Continue” (4) For the fourth screen, browse and upload your PDF file. If you have supplementary files you can upload them at this time. Click “Save and Continue” (5) On the last screen, verify your information and your file upload. If everything is correct, you can click the “Submit” button. Once the submit button is clicked, you will not be able to replace your document until it has been reviewed. III. Correct and Re-Upload: • When the document has been reviewed, you will receive an email notification. When you go back into your account, you will have the option to “Replace” your file. • Download, from the link in the Activity Log, the marked up version of your file. • Correct your original document, create a new PDF and replace the PDF on your account with the corrected PDF. • Add a confirmation message (the box for this will appear once your account is in “Needs Correction” status). IV. Publication: When your corrections have been approved, your document status will either be "Published" (available in the repository) or will be "On Hold" (if you've selected an embargo period). When the embargo period has elapsed, the document will be "Published". Document Access on the ETD Site When setting up your ETD account, you will indicate what kind of access you want to allow for your document: • Open Access 3 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual • Embargo (access after some period of time, to allow for patent or copyright protection purposes for five years, restricted access for availability only through eraider, or no access.) Open Access ETDs have several advantages in that they allow increased visibility and attention for the author among faculty, potential employees, and fellow scholars. You may Embargo (withhold) ETDs from all access for one or two years, or an indefinite period of time because of copyright, patent or security issues related to your work. You should consult with your advisory committee to decide whether the appropriate access for your thesis or dissertation should be Open Access or Embargoed. All documents are released when the embargo period expires Submission of the Final, Official Thesis/Dissertation as an ETD On or before the deadline published on the Graduate School web site, you must submit your final, official copy of your thesis/dissertation to your ETD account. The final submission must be in PDF format. It should be a single file with all front and back matter including appendices. Other media files (programs, video, sound) can be included on the ETD account separately from the main PDF document as “supplemental files”. The ETD submission should reflect the student’s final, committee-approved, polished work. The Thesis Supervisor or Coordinator will review the submission a last time before giving final approval and then publishing the ETD to the server. Please name your corrected and reviewed file as follows: Lastname_Firstname_Thesis.pdf or Lastname_Firstname_Diss.pdf Documents on published ETDs cannot be further edited. 4 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual BASIC FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS “Formatting” refers to the design of pages in a document as well as specifications for presenting, in print, certain types of information. This section covers the Texas Tech Graduate School formatting guidelines for preparing your thesis or dissertation document for official submission. If there is a difference between a formatting rule covered here and a formatting rule in your department-approved style guide, the Graduate School guideline must be followed. For formatting not covered by these guidelines, consult your department-approved style guide or Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations These guidelines are divided into four sections: Page layout: margins, headers/footers and pagination Front matter title page, acknowledgments, table of contents, abstract, list of tables, list of figures, list of abbreviations Text formatting subheadings, figures, tables, equations, schema and notations Back matter bibliography/references/works cited, appendices Page Layout Margins All pages must have the following margins: 1.5 inch left margin 1.0 inch top, right, and bottom margins Page numbers must be positioned ABOVE the bottom margin Do not use mirror margins. All figures, tables and appendix content must fit within these margins. See below (“Figures” and “Tables”) for information about formatting oversized figures and tables. Headers and Footers A running header is text that appears at the top of the document All theses/dissertations must have the following text in a running header starting on the “Acknowledgments” page and running through the end of the document: 5 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual Texas Tech University, Student Name, Month Year of Graduation This running header must be right-aligned and one point smaller in font size than the main document text. The running header can be at .5” from the top margin (within the top margin) Pagination All page numbers should be in the same font and size as that used for the text. Do not add dashes around page numbers. All page numbers should be at the bottom of the page, centered and above the bottom margin (1.0” from the bottom of the page). Title page: No page number Copyright page: No page number Front Matter: Consecutive lower-case Roman Numerals Start with “ii” Main Text: Consecutive Arabic Numerals Start with “1” on the first page of Chapter 1 Front Matter All pages prior to the main text are considered front matter pages. Each one starts on a separate page. Students must include these sections in this order for ALL theses and dissertations: 1. Title page 2. Copyright Page 3. Acknowledgments - optional 4. Table of Contents 5. Abstract – optional but recommended (you will need one for your ETD account) 6. List of Tables (if more than two tables have been used) 7. List of Figures (if more than two figures have been used) 8. List of Abbreviations (or Symbols or Nomenclature) - optional 6 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual Title Page The title page should indicate: • the title of thesis/dissertation (the student records system only allows titles that are 238 characters long, including spaces). • the student’s name including initial abbreviations of any previously awarded degrees that appear on the student’s transcript • whether it is a thesis or dissertation • the degree granting department • the "submitted in partial fulfillment" text as indicated on the template • the type of degree • the names of the committee members (with the chairperson designated as such on a line under his/her name) • the name and designation of the current Graduate School dean • the month and year of graduation. Please see the “Templates” link on the Thesis-Dissertation page on the Graduate School web site for an example title page. Do not include signature lines on the title page for your electronic copy. If you are making personal paper copies, however, you may want to print copies of this page and bring them to your defense so that your personal copies can have signature pages. Copyright Page A copyright page, it should have: • the word “Copyright” or its symbol (©) • the year in which the work first appeared • your name This text should be on an otherwise blank page, centered both ways on the page without a page number. Acknowledgments (Optional) The purpose of this page is to recognize scholarly and professional aid and advice; however, the inclusion of references to persons who provided clerical help, help with field studies, financial assistance, and permission to use copyrighted materials is also acceptable. Acknowledgments should be brief, in a professional style, and should not exceed two pages. The section should be titled “Acknowledgments”. 7 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual Table of Contents All preliminary page divisions (except the title page, the copyright page, and the Table of Contents itself) must be listed in the Table of Contents. All chapter numbers and titles and all divisions of the back matter (References and Appendices), including appendix titles, must be listed. Subheadings used in the text may be included. The same levels of subheadings must be listed for all chapters. Be careful about including too many levels as it becomes cumbersome and unwieldy for the reader. Do not list subheadings used in Appendices in the Table of Contents. When formatting the Table of Contents, each of the following items should be considered: • The section should be titled “Table of Contents” • Indentation – Subheadings are indented in increments of tabs from the chapter titles. • Line spacing – Double or 1.5x spacing should be used between entries. In a very long Table of Contents, single-spacing may be used between lesser levels of subheadings. Entries which require two or more lines should be single- spaced within the listing with wrapped text aligning under the text of the previous line. Title text should not run into the column where the page numbers are. • Consistency with the text – The wording and capitalization of entries in the Table of Contents should be consistent with what is found on the actual page, except that subheadings should not be underlined in the Table of Contents as they may be in the text. • Page numbers – Page numbers should be aligned at the right margin. • Leader lines – Leader lines are the spaced periods leading from the end of each entry to its page number. They are optional. If you plan to use the automated Table of Contents function in your word processing software, be sure that you have it set to meet the above requirements or that you edit the finished listing so that it meets the requirements. Abstract (Optional but recommended) The section should have the title “Abstract”. No subheadings should be used. An abstract should NOT have citations and should be no longer than 2-3 paragraphs. List of Tables (Required if more than two tables) Each of the following items must be considered when formatting the List of Tables. • The section should have the title “List of Tables” • Line spacing – Single-space within titles that have two or more lines and align wrapped text with the text on the previous line. Double or 1.5 spacing should be used between titles. 8 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual • Consistency with the text – The wording and capitalization of the titles in the list should be consistent with what is found within the main document. • Avoid repetition – do not repeat the word “Table” in the list. Table titles should be unique. • Leader lines – If leader lines were used in the Table of Contents, they must also be used in the List of Tables. If you plan to use the automated List of Tables function in your word processing software, be sure that you have it set to meet the above requirements or that you edit it to meet these requirements. List of Figures (Required if more than two figures) If more than two figures are included in the document, a List of Figures must be prepared and should include the titles for all of the chapter and appendix figures. • The section should have the title “List of Figures” • Line spacing, Consistency with the text and repetition – See “List of Tables” above. • Page numbers and Leader lines – See “List of Tables” above. If you plan to use the automated List of Tables function in your word processing software, be sure that you have it set to meet the above requirements or that you edit it to meet these requirements. List of Abbreviations (or Symbols or Nomenclature)(Required as needed) The section should be titled “List of Abbreviations/Symbols/Nomenclature” (use only one term). This list would be the last page in the front matter. Entries in this list should be alphabetized by abbreviation or symbol. Single-space when two or more lines are needed per explanation, and double-space (or one-and-a-half-space) between entries. Preface (Optional) The section should be titled “Preface”. The need for a preface is very rare, but if included, it will immediately precede Chapter I as part of the front matter and have the continued, roman numeral page numbers. It should be listed in the Table of Contents Text Formatting Font The same font size and style must be used consistently throughout the text. 9 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual The font must be at least 12 point for serif fonts (Times New Roman, Cambria) or 10 point for sans serif fonts (Arial, Calibri). Keep readability in mind. It is usually best to use a standard serif font (e.g. Times) or standard sans-serif type font (e.g. Arial) rather than decorative or unusual fonts. Please do not use colored text if possible. Paragraphs Consult your style manual to determine whether your paragraphs should have the first line indented or should be in “block” format. Whichever style you use, use that style consistently throughout your document. Justification Do NOT use full justification unless your word processing software is sufficiently sophisticated enough to keep your text from appearing with large gaps and spaces. Line Spacing The thesis should be consistently spaced throughout, either with double or 1.5x spacing between the lines. However, single spacing is used for: • centered or side-margin subheadings of two or more lines, • direct quotations over four lines in length, • table and figure titles of two or more lines, • within each reference or note of any type (maintain regular text spacing between each reference). Headings Consult your department-approved style guide for heading formatting. Top level headings should include the section titles (Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, Abstract, References, Appendix A, Appendix B etc.) and the chapter titles. Each new chapter should start on its own page and should have "Chapter" and the number on the line above the chapter title. Subheadings Consult your department-approved style guide for subheading formatting however the following principles should apply: Subheadings should be formatted with a distinctive style for each sub-level in the hierarchy. Distinctive formatting includes centered vs. left margin, bold, italic or underlined text vs. regular text or serif vs. sans-serif fonts (i.e. Times vs. Arial), or 12 point vs. 14 point font sizes. All subheadings at the same level should share the same, distinctive formatting. 10 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual Dangling or “Widowed” Subheadings and the Bottom Margin. Subheadings which appear at the bottom of a page should be moved to the next page if there is not room for at least two lines of text beneath them. Numbering Subheadings. A decimal system of numbering may be used in conjunction with the above formats for subheading levels. If decimal numbering is used for the subheadings, this style of numbering MUST also be used for equations, figures, and tables. Subheading text should still be formatted distinctively by level even when a numbering system is also used. Footnotes, Notes, or Endnotes. Consult your department-approved style guide for note and citation formatting. Footnotes Footnotes appear at the foot of the page and are numbered by chapter or consecutively throughout the document. Footnotes for tables or figures are numbered separately from text footnotes. Notes Notes appear at the end of the chapter. Notes begin on a new page at the end of each chapter with the word “Notes” appearing as a subheading. Endnotes Endnotes appear immediately after the last chapter and before the “References”. Endnotes begin on a new page with the word “Notes” appearing as a top-level heading and should be listed in the Table of Contents as their own section Tables Please consult your department-approved style guide or Turabian for table design, placement and formatting. All tables (as well as figures and equations) should have a unique title and number. Table titles should be placed ABOVE the table. If at all possible, use no smaller than an 8-point font for the text within the table. Multiple-Page Tables The title for the second and following pages of a multiple-page table should read, for example, “Table 4.1. Continued”. Multiple-page tables also should have the column headings repeated at the top of each page. Oversized (Large) Tables Oversized tables may be handled in several ways, including the following. • The table may be placed on a page that is in a “landscape” orientation. 11 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual • The table may be continued on another page (see “Multiple-Page Tables”). Placement of Tables in the Chapter • Tables should be mentioned specifically in the text before they appear. • Tables should be numbered and appear in order of mention. • If tables are discussed individually, they should appear in the text, not in the appendix. • Tables can be placed within the body of the chapter on a page with text, on their own page or all together at the end of the chapter. Figures Figures are illustrative material including, but not necessarily limited to, charts, graphs, excerpts of computer programs, maps, lists of more than four lines, hand- drawn illustrations, photographs, samples, and examples in both the text and appendices. Please consult your department-approved style guide or Turabian for figure placement and formatting. Chemical schema and musical examples are not required to be labeled as figures. Small figures may be displayed in the text without labeling as a figure, unless they require further reference in the text. All figures should have a unique title and number. Figure titles should be placed BELOW the figure. Oversized Figures Oversized figures may be handled in the same way as oversized tables. Placement of Figures in the Chapter • Figures should be mentioned specifically in the text before they appear. • Figures should be numbered and appear in order of mention. • If figures are discussed individually, they should appear in the text, not in the appendix. • Figures can be placed within the body of the chapter on a page with text, on their own page or all together at the end of the chapter. Equations Please consult your department-approved style guide for Equation formatting. Equations should remain within the required document margins. Equation numbers should appear in parentheses at the right margin. You do not need to use the abbreviation “Eq.” 12 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual Music Examples Numbers and titles for music examples should be placed BELOW the example. You do not need to provide a list of examples in your Front Matter. Back Matter The back matter consists of the Bibliography, Appendix (as needed), and Glossary (if included). Bibliography The section should be titled “Bibliography” (or “Literature Cited”, “References”, etc.,) depending on the specifications in your style guide. Please consult your department-approved style guide or Turabian for correct citation formatting. When formatting your bibliography, keep in mind: • Single-space within the lines of a reference. • Do not divide individual references between pages. • Automated citation formatting can still be incorrect if you have not included all the necessary information. Appendix Appendices consist of materials which are related to the text, including, but not necessarily limited to, the following: a glossary, forms, Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval form, letters, questionnaires, raw data, computer programs, case studies, narratives, additional tables and/or figures which have not been mentioned or discussed individually in the text, or material of a textual nature. Please consult your department-approved style guide or Turabian for correct appendix formatting. When formatting your appendices, keep in mind: • All appendix materials should fit within the required margins and should not obscure the page number. • All appendix pages must have a page number which is consecutive for the document. • All appendix tables and figures must be numbered, have a title, and be listed in the List of Tables or List of Figures, respectively. • Appendices should be lettered (A, B, C, etc.) and titled. Titles should be formatted similar to chapter titles in that the word “Appendix” and the letter should appear on one line and the appendix title should appear below. If there is only one appendix, no letter is assigned; the division will simply be called Appendix. 13 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual Glossary A glossary, if included, would be an appendix. The entries in a glossary should be alphabetized. Entries should be single-spaced with regular spacing between definitions, using the hanging indent format. 14 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual SPECIAL CATEGORIES Most theses can be formatted from the instructions presented in the previous chapters. However, there will be some theses which require additional guidelines. You should consult the Thesis-Dissertation Coordinator or Supervisor concerning problems or special needs not discussed here or in Turabian. Converting Journal Manuscripts into Theses A journal manuscript cannot be left “as is” for a thesis submission. However, publication of research is encouraged and the following suggestions are offered to facilitate the conversion from a document formatted as a journal manuscript to a document formatted as a thesis. A thesis containing two or more studies (articles/topics), each usually of a length and scope conducive to submission separately as a journal article, should be organized as follows: 1. An introductory chapter (Chapter I) explaining the contents of the total document and providing a statement of the rationale and/or relationship of the several topics being presented MUST be included. A summary or conclusions chapter is recommended. 2. Use a chapter for each of the discrete articles, with each chapter including, as appropriate, the subheadings of abstract, introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and conclusions. Such a thesis need not include a comprehensive list of references as part of the back matter if the discrete chapters have their own reference lists. If the separate topics are closely related, however, and share many references, it may be appropriate to use a comprehensive reference list in the back matter. If you are using a journal’s style guide, please keep in mind that the document you are preparing here is a thesis/dissertation. You should use one, uniform style for your thesis/dissertation, even if you will be submitting the sections to different journals with different reference requirements. Creative Documents In the areas of creative writing, musical composition and theatre arts, students may write musical composition, original play or compilation of poems or short stories. For the creative writing thesis, the writer must include an introductory chapter (Chapter I), which is followed by the creative work(s). With a collection of poems, the author should place the poems in one chapter with the poem titles serving as subheadings or group the poems into additional chapters with a chapter header page before the poems. In regard to short stories, the individual chapter title pages may precede each short story as a header page or follow standard chapter title page format. 15 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual In the areas of music composition and theatre arts, students may write pieces of music or plays for their thesis project. These theses should include the following chapters/sections: • an introduction (Chapter I) • methodology (if required by committee) (Chapter II) • the creative work (as a chapter) • conclusion (as a chapter) • references Foreign-Language Thesis When your major area is a foreign language, often the thesis will be written in that language. Generally, the language of the thesis will not change any of the formatting requirements, but the following items should also be considered: • For a thesis written wholly in the foreign language, the major division headings are more appropriately written in the foreign language. • For a thesis written partially in the foreign language, the major division headings should be in English. • Abstracts of foreign-language theses should be written in English or dual- language. 16 Texas Tech University Graduate School Formatting Manual GETTING HELP Document Organization This guide is focused solely on specifics of formatting for theses and dissertations. There are many organizational issues involved in preparing a longer, research document that are not covered here. Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is the resource students should consult for any point of formatting or organization not covered in a department-approved style guide or this guide. There is a great deal of variety in organization for documents appropriate to different academic fields. You and your advisory committee should work together to agree on the organization appropriate for your work. The decision you and your committee make must be communicated to the Graduate School when your document is submitted for review. Using Word Processors For technical assistance in using Microsoft Word, you are encouraged to take advantage of the short courses offered by the ATLC in the library. The Thesis- Dissertation pages on the Graduate School web site also offer some How-to guides for using Microsoft Word to create formatted documents. Currently the Graduate School does not have tutorials for using LaTex for formatting. Students using LaTex are encouraged to be careful if using one of the many existing class files for thesis-dissertation formatting available on the web; many of them are not compliant with Graduate School requirements. Make sure that your class file produces a document that correctly conforms to the formatting specifications of your department-designated style guide and the Graduate School formatting guidelines. Be sure that you know how to customize your LaTex class file to ensure that you are able to comply with Graduate School formatting requirements. 17

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