How to avoid Plagiarism in a Research Paper

how to check plagiarism of a research paper and how plagiarism affects research andhow much plagiarism is allowed in research paper how to avoid plagiarism in research report
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Published Date:06-07-2017
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“ writing code “ summarizing Academic Integrity at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: A Handbook for Students citing facts and statistics quoting ” paraphrasing web.mit.edu/academicintegrity collaboration ”writing code quoting “ collaboration paraphrasing citing facts and statistics Academic ” Integrity You are a student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology because of your demonstrated intellectual ability and because of your potential to make a significant contribution to human thought and knowledge. At MIT, you will be given unusual opportunities to do research and undertake scholarship that will advance knowledge in your fields of study. You will also face many challenges. As the world becomes more complex, scientists and engineers, as well as humanists, social scientists, managers, architects and planners, need to be able to communicate what they know both to each other and to the public. One of MIT’s goals is to graduate articulate men and women who will be able to take their expertise into the world and communicate it effectively. During your academic life at MIT, you will be required to complete assignments based on oral communication and writing, some of which will require research in libraries and laboratories and accessing electronic resources. MIT anticipates that you will pursue your studies with purpose and integrity. The cornerstone of scholarship in all academic disciplines is honesty. MIT expects that you will approach everything you do here honestly – whether solving a math problem, writing a research or critical paper, or writing an exam. Some of you may be coming from educational systems where rules of academic integrity were not clearly defined or enforced. Others may be studying in the United States for the first time and may have different and culturally-based understandings of academic integrity. To ensure that all MIT students understand the high academic standards of the Institute, we have prepared this handbook to help guide you when you approach the writing, research, coding and test-taking tasks your classes will demand of you. This handbook outlines important information you will need to know about correctly acknowledging your sources when you write a report, research paper, critical essay, or position paper. It provides guidelines for collaboration on assignments and writing code. The handbook also provides information about what constitutes violations of academic integrity and the consequences of committing such violations. Please familiarize yourself with this material before you begin work in your classes, and use it as a resource when you have questions — at MIT and beyond. Ignorance is never an excuse for academic dishonesty. A note on responsible and ethical conduct of research: This handbook does not address issues related to research ethics, which often are field-specific. Your research supervisor and department are important sources of information concerning these questions. MIT also offers online research ethics training to ensure you have the knowledge and tools you need to pursue your research interests by adhering to the highest academic and personal standards. Through the Office of Sponsored Programs (OSP), anyone in the MIT community can take the free online course in Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) at http://osp.mit.edu/compliance/rcr. The training provides both fundamental as well as discipline-specific training. ”What is Academic Integrity? Fundamental to the academic work you do at MIT is an expectation that you will make choices that reflect integrity and responsible behavior. MIT will ask much of you. Occasionally, you may feel overwhelmed by the amount of work you need to accomplish. You may be short of time, with several assignments due the same day. The pressure can be intense. However, no matter what level of stress you may find yourself under, MIT expects you to approach your work with honesty and integrity. Honesty is the foundation of good academic work. Whether you are working on a problem set, lab report, project or paper, avoid engaging in plagiarism, unauthorized collaboration, cheating, or facilitating academic dishonesty. Follow this advice: Plagiarism Do Don’t Trust the value of your own intellect. Don’t purchase papers or have someone write a paper for you. Undertake research honestly and credit Don’t copy ideas, data or exact working others for their work. without citing your source. Unauthorized Collaboration Don’t Do Don’t collaborate with another student Do your own thinking. beyond the extent specifically approved by the instructor. Cheating Do Don’t Demonstrate your own achievement. Don’t copy answers from another student; don’t ask another student to do your work for you. Don’t fabricate results. Don’t use electronic or other devices during exams. Accept corrections from the instructor as Don’t alter graded exams and submit them for part of the learning process. re-grading. Do original work for each class. Don’t submit projects or papers that have been done for a previous class. Facilitating Academic Dishonesty Do Don’t Showcase your own abilities. Don’t allow another student to copy your answers on assignments or exams. Don’t take an exam or complete an assignment for another student. 3 Academic Integrity at MITViolations of Academic Integrity: What are the consequences? The consequences for cheating, plagiarism, unauthorized collaboration, and other forms of academic dishonesty can be very serious, possibly including suspension or expulsion from the Institute. Any violation of the rules outlined in this handbook or established by the instructor of a class may be considered violations of academic integrity. Instructors decide how to handle violations of academic integrity on a case-by-case basis, and three options exist: Academic consequences within the class itself The instructor determines what action is appropriate to take. Such action may include: • requiring the student to redo the assignment for a reduced grade. • assigning the student a failing grade for the assignment. • assigning the student a failing grade for the class. The instructor may also submit documentation to the Office of Student Citizenship in the form of a letter to file or a formal complaint. These options are outlined below. Letter to file The instructor writes a letter describing the nature of the academic integrity violation, which is placed in the student’s discipline file. The discipline file is maintained by the Office of Student Citizenship (OSC) and is not automatically associated with the student’s academic record. • A letter may be filed in addition to the action already taken in the class. • The instructor can choose to designate a letter as an informal or formal letter to file. This determines whether the letter is maintained as an internal record only or could be released. • If a student decides to authorize the release of her/his discipline file to a third party (for example to a graduate school or employer): • informal letters to file are not disclosed. • formal letters to file are disclosed. • If a student receives a letter to file, s/he has the right to: • submit a reply, which is added to the student’s file. • appeal the letter to the Committee on Discipline (COD) for a full hearing. • In resolving the violation described in the letter, the OSC reviews any previous violations which are documented in the student’s discipline file. Committee on Discipline (COD) complaint The instructor submits a formal complaint to the COD, which resolves cases of alleged student misconduct. • This complaint may be filed in addition to the action already taken in the class. • A COD complaint is reviewed by the COD Chair and considered for a hearing. Any previous violations documented in the student’s discipline file are reviewed as part of this process. • Cases resulting in a hearing are subject to a full range of sanctioning outcomes, including probation, suspension, dismissal, or other educational sanctions. The MIT Policy on Student Academic Dishonesty is outlined in MIT’s Policies and Procedures 10.2 at http://web.mit.edu/policies/10/10.2.html. Questions about these options? Contact the Office of Student Citizenship (citizenshipmit.edu). 4 Academic Integrity at MIT u e o c r What is Plagiarism? During your academic career at MIT, you will write original papers and give oral presentations that require research. It is important to understand that notions concerning reusing other people’s creative output vary from discipline to discipline and culture to culture. For example, in the United States our copyright law does not protect ideas or facts, but does protect the particular, original expression of an idea in words or images when they are expressed in a tangible form. In some cultures, the concept of “owning” words that are arranged in a particular sequence may seem strange. Students from these cultures may have been encouraged to repeat the words of others and incorporate them into their own writing without quoting or otherwise indicating that they came from another source. Other cultures accept the practice of copying phrases or sentences into a paper without using quotation marks as long as the writer shows where they came from. These practices not acceptable in North American academic culture. Creative expression of ideas through words, images, and other media is the lifeblood of this academic culture. For this reason, we expect that our original expressions should not be used by others without attribution and acknowledgment. Plagiarism occurs when you use another’s words, ideas, assertions, data, or figures and do not acknowledge that you have done so. If you use the words, ideas, or phrasing of another person or from published material, you must • Use quotation marks around the words and cite the source, or • Paraphrase or summarize acceptably and cite the source. If you use charts, graphs, data sets, or numerical information obtained from another person or from published material, you must also cite the source. Whether you quote directly or paraphrase the information, you must acknowledge your sources by citing them. In this way, you have the right to use another’s words by giving that person credit for the work s/he has done. 5 Academic Integrity at MIT sAvoiding Plagiarism: Cite Your Source Whenever you take information from a source, whether that source is published on paper, presented in a lecture or broadcast, or made available online, you must tell your reader where the information came from: that is, you must cite your source. What does it mean to “cite” a source? In writing a paper, it means: • You show, in the body of your paper, where the words or information came from, using an appropriate format, and • You provide complete information about the source (author, title, name of publication, date, etc.) at the end of your paper, in the bibliography (also called the works cited or references page, depending on the style you use). Note: Different disciplines use different citation styles. We discuss this further on page 14. If you are unsure which to use, check with your instructor. In giving a formal presentation, it means: • You acknowledge, on your slide, where the graph, chart or other information came from. In writing a computer program, it means: You use comments to credit the source of any code you adapted from an open source site or other external sources. Generally, providing a URL and the date of retrieval is sufficient. You also need to follow the terms of any open source license that applies to the code you are using. Why should I cite my sources? • To show your readers that you have done your research. • To give credit to others for work they have done. • To point your readers to sources that may be useful to them. • T o allow your readers to check your sources, if there are questions. Citing sources points the way for other scholars. Future generations of engineers, scientists and leaders will look to work done at MIT to solve some of the world’s greatest problems. Citation helps that process continue. 6 Academic Integrity at MITArticles Social Media Data Avoiding Plagiarism: Cite Your Source (continued) What should I cite? • Print sources: books, journal articles, newspaper – any material published on paper. • Electronic sources: Articles retrieved from databases such as Lexis-Nexis and ProQuest Personal and organizational websites Government and institutional websites Blogs Email messages Social media, such as Tweets and Facebook pages Computer source code In short, any material published or made available on the Internet. • Data: geospatial (GIS) data, Census, economic and other types of data published by governments, data from surveys, economic indicators, bioinformatics data. • Images: charts, graphs, tables, illustrations, architectural plans, photographs. • Recorded material: television broadcasts, podcasts or public speeches. • Spoken material: personal conversations, interviews, information obtained in lectures, poster sessions, or scholarly presentations of any kind. The MIT Libraries provides additional guidance on what, why and how to cite: http://libguides.mit.edu/citing. 7 Academic Integrity at MIT electronic sourceWhat is Common Knowledge? You may have heard people say that you do not have to cite your source when the information you include is “common knowledge.” But what is common knowledge? Broadly speaking, common knowledge refers to information that the average, educated reader would accept as reliable without having to look it up. This includes: Information that most people know, such as that water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit or that Barack Obama is the first American of mixed race to be elected president. Information shared by a cultural or national group, such as the names of famous heroes or events in the nation’s history that are remembered and celebrated. Knowledge shared by members of a certain field, such as the fact that the necessary condition for diffraction of radiation of wavelength from a crystalline solid is given by Bragg’s law. However, what may be common knowledge in one culture, nation, academic discipline or peer group may not be common knowledge in another. To help you decide whether information can be considered common knowledge, ask yourself: • Who is my audience? • What can I assume they already know? • Will I be asked where I obtained my information? Some examples: A description of the symptoms of Asperger’s Syndrome would need to be cited for a composition in a general writing class but probably not need citation for an audience of graduate students in psychology. A reference to the practice of fair value accounting would be understood by a group of economists, but would need citation to an audience of non-experts. A statement reporting that 24% of children under the age of 18 live in households headed by single mothers would need to be cited. This is information that would not be known to the average reader, who would want to know where the figure was obtained. The best advice is: When in doubt, cite your source. 8 Academic Integrity at MIT What is Common Knowledge? (continued) Common Knowledge: Yes or No? Consider the following statements. Which would be considered common knowledge? Which would need to be cited? 1. The Big Bang theory posits that the universe began billions of years ago with an enormous explosion. 2. The phrase “Big Bang” was coined by Sir Fred Hoyle, an English astronomer. Hoyle used the term to mock the theory, which he disagreed with. 3. According to the Big Bang model, the initial explosion was produced when an infinitely hot, dense center referred to as a singularity, began to expand, giving rise to the particles that eventually formed into our universe. Statement 1 is common knowledge; the Big Bang theory is widely accepted among scientists and the term is used regularly in everyday speech. Statement 2 needs citation; this information is very specific and may even be unknown to some physicists. Statement 3 would not need citation to an audience of physics students but would need citation in a paper for a non-expert audience. What is not Common Knowledge? • Datasets generated by you or others. • Statistics from sources such as the US Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. • References to studies done by others. • Reference to specific dates, numbers, or facts the reader would not know unless s/he had done the research. The following statements are not common knowledge and would need citation: Researchers have found that dispersants utilized to clean up oil spills can lead to lung damage when airborne particles of these dispersants combine with crude oil and are inhaled. (Source: Wang, H., Shi, YL, Major, D. and Yang, HL (2012, August). Lung epithelial cell death induced by oil- dispersant mixtures. Toxicology in Vitro, 26, 5, 746-751. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.03.011) A recent study by the Brookings Institute found that the number of people living in poverty in America grew by 12.3 million between 2000 and 2010, so that by the end of 2010, 15% of the population was living under the poverty line. (Source: Kneebone, E., C. Nadeau and Berube, A. (2011, November 3). The re-emergence of concentrated poverty: metropolitan trends in the 2000s. Brookings Metropolitan Opportunity Series. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/about/programs/metro/metropolitan-opportunity.) The energy of mixing per site for a binary polymer blend with differing degrees of polymerization can be described through the Flory-Huggins equation. (Source: Flory, P.J. (1953). Principles of Polymer Chemistry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.) 9 Academic Integrity at MIT Citing Electronic Sources Do not assume the information you find on the Internet is common knowledge. Everything on the Internet has been written by someone and may need to be cited. Simply including a URL is not enough. Even if there is no visible author, there is other information that should be included in the citation. Consult your style guide on how to cite electronic sources, including social media posts. Different disciplines use different citation styles. If you are unsure which to use, check with your instructor. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) of Purdue University provides useful examples of citing electronic sources for each style: • American Psychological Association (APA): http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ • Modern Language Association (MLA): http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/ • Chicago Manual of Style (CMS): http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/05/ Citations of electronic sources often require the URL or the name of the database from which you retrieved the information. Always keep the URL for your own records so you can refer back to it. Cite Creative Commons-licensed Content When you use content made available under a Creative Commons license, follow the terms of the specific Creative Commons license attached to the content. All Creative Commons licenses require that you cite the creator of the content. In addition to giving credit to the creator, you should cite the content as any other online source. Provide as much information as possible and adapt the citation entry to the style you are using. Also include the URL to the Creative Commons license at http://creativecommons.org/. Do not cite Wikipedia as a Source Many of us use Wikipedia as a source of information when we want a quick explanation of something. However, Wikipedia or other wikis, collaborative information sites contributed to by a variety of people, are not considered reliable sources for academic citation, and you should not use them as sources in an academic paper. The bibliography published at the end of the Wikipedia entry may point you to potential sources. However do not assume that these sources are reliable – use the same criteria to judge them as you would any other source. Do not consider the bibliography as a replacement for your own research. 10 Academic Integrity at MIT Citing Electronic Sources Is the Information Reliable? Articles from online publications and databases often provide an author’s name and credentials so that you can evaluate the author’s reliability as a source. However, the reality is that anyone can put up a website, create a Facebook page, or post via the multitude of other social media tools. Before you take information from a source you have found on the Internet, assess its reliability by looking for the following: Name of the author: Is the author a recognized authority? Or is the author a student who has posted his or her paper online? If the person is not a qualified expert, you should not use the information. Name of the sponsoring institution: Is the sponsoring institution a name that you recognize as a reliable, unbiased source of information? For example, the World Health Organization, The United Nations, The American Medical Association. If you cannot locate this information or you are not sure of the reliability of the institution, do not use the information. Date of posting: Has the website been recently updated? Is the information current? The relevance of the information can be affected by timeliness of the post. Based on your topic, you need to evaluate if timeliness is critical. Some electronic sources have no clear author. This may include: • Government websites and social media • University, institutional or organizational websites and social media When using sources without a clear author, always look for the name of the sponsoring institution and investigate its reliability. If you cannot locate this information or you are not sure of the reliability of the institution, do not use the information. 11 Academic Integrity at MIT Citing Electronic Sources Authenticity of Social Media Posts In evaluating social media posts, first follow the guidelines outlined on the previous page. In addition, the authenticity of the author should also be assessed. Outright imposters, as well as parody accounts, have proliferated within social media networks. To assess the authenticity: • Some social media tools, such as Twitter, perform their own verification testing, which can be helpful in identifying the “true” account of an individual. A Twitter name is not always indicative of the author’s true identity. Verified Twitter accounts are marked with a blue check badge next to the name. This indicates that Twitter has verified the identity of the individuals of these accounts. For example: President Obama uses Twitter to keep citizens informed on current issues. “Barack Obama BarackObama” is President Obama’s verified Twitter account whereas “Barack Obama theUSpresident” is a parody account. • Look at the quality of the previous posts to see if the content is consistent with who the author says s/he is. Read any associated bio to see what is said about the individual’s identity, beyond just the name. Does the bio link to his/her website, book site or blog? Can you verify the author’s credentials on LinkedIn or similar sites? • If you are in doubt of the person’s true identity, do not use the source. When you do cite a social media source, cite it by its handle or vanity URL, not by the name it professes. This ensures you are accurately reflecting your source to the reader. For example, if you found the Twitter feed cola78456 listed as Coca Cola Company and your assessment led you to believe it was authentic, you would cite the source as: “cola78456 says…” not “Coca Cola Company on Twitter says…” In some cases, you may want to quote social media posts by “everyday people” to help exemplify a viewpoint or trend. In this case, the challenge is not assessing the authenticity of the author, but determining if the person is real and not an automated web “bot.” To assess if the author is real: • Check the quality of previous posts. Bots tend to post spam and re-post content of others. • Consider the tone of the posts. Bots typically post a statement and a link. Opinions and sentiments usually come from a real person, not a bot. • If the social media account is being curated, it is more likely a legitimate person. • If you are in doubt whether to social media post is from a person or bot, do not use the source. The MIT libraries provide excellent guidance on finding and evaluating internet sources. • For advice on finding good websites: http://libraries.mit.edu/quality-web • For advice on evaluating scholarly information: http://libguides.mit.edu/evaluateinfo • For a subject specialist who has expertise in finding web resources: http://libraries.mit.edu/experts 12 Academic Integrity at MITAcademic Writing at MIT Throughout your academic career, you will be required to write papers for which you will need to do research in books, journals, electronic media, and other sources. One of the challenges of good scholarship is to take what has already been done, said, or argued, and incorporate it into your work in an original way. To some students, this task may seem unnecessarily redundant: a student writing a paper on the benefits of stem cell research may ask, “If the positive aspects of this research have already been argued, why do I need to do it again?” The answer is that: • by doing research on your subject, you become more familiar with existing scholarly work, which in turn can provide models for your own writing • your way of presenting the information and arguing it will be different from that of others and is therefore valuable; and • as more recent information on your subject becomes available, you have the opportunity to bring this information into your report or argument, adding new dimensions to the discussion. Sometimes the goals of academic writing may seem contradictory. On the one hand, we ask you to write about the topic in an original way. Find what is written on a topic BUT and report it, demonstrating you have done your research, Bring in opinions of experts and BUT do more than simply report them; authorities, comment on these opinions, add to them, agree or disagree with them. Notice articulate phrasing and use your own words to paraphrase BUT learn from it, especially if you accurately or quote directly when you are trying to enhance your incorporate this into a paper. capability in English, Academic writing is a challenge. It demands that you build on work done by others but create something original from it. By acknowledging where you have used the ideas, work, or words of others, you maintain your academic integrity and uphold the standards of the Institute and of the discipline in which you work. (Adapted from: Overview and Contradictions. Purdue University OWL Online Writing Lab. Retrieved July 5, 2012 from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/.) 13 Academic Integrity at MIT Incorporating the Words and Ideas of Others Plagiarism is sometimes unintentional. It can occur when you try to put information from a source into your own words, but fail to do so completely. Often plagiarism occurs not because a student is trying to cheat, but because he or she has not been taught how to incorporate the words and ideas of others in the proper way. Several options exist for incorporating the words and ideas of others into your own work: • Quote directly: put quotation marks around the words and identify the source. • Paraphrase: put the information into your own words and identify the source. • Summarize: take the key ideas and paraphrase them and identify the source. The form you use to do this depends on the Citation Style you choose: APA – American Psychological Association Style is often used by history, economics, psychology and political science. MLA –Modern Language Association Style is often used in the arts and humanities. CMS - Chicago Manual of Style is often used in architecture and urban planning. CSE – Council of Science Editors is often used in biology and other sciences Other citation styles exist. Some academic journals, for example, have their own styles. Use the one your instructor asks you to use. In this handbook, all examples are in the APA style. The MIT Libraries provides links to all these style guides: http://libraries.mit.edu/help/citing.html. 14 Academic Integrity at MIT Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting When the words of an expert, authority, or relevant individual are particularly clear or expressive, you may want to quote them. Do not quote all the time: save quotes for instances where the wording is especially powerful. When should I quote? • When language is particularly vivid or expressive. • When exact wording is needed for technical accuracy . • When the words of an important authority lend weight to an argument. How do I show I am quoting? • Name the source in an introductory phrase. • Use quotation marks or indent long quotations. • Cite the source appropriately. If you fail to do this, it is plagiarism. Original source Accurate quoting Plagiarism Because of their unique Economist Lester Thurow The American view of perspective, Americans fear (1993) has asserted that globalization is unlike that of globalization less than the American reaction to the rest of the world. Because anyone else, and as a globalization is different of their unique perspective, consequence they think about from that of the rest of the Americans fear globalization it less than anyone else. When world in that “American’s fear less than anyone else, and Americans do think about globalization less than anyone therefore think about it less globalization, they think of the else, and as a consequence . . . than anyone else (Thurow, global economy as an enlarged think about it less than anyone 1993). version of the American else” economy. (p. 6). Why is this accurate? Why is this plagiarism? • The writer has introduced (Source: Thurow, L. (1993). • The writer has identified the quotation with his/her Fortune Favors the Bold (p. 6). the source but has not put own words. New York: Harper Collins. ) quotation marks around • S/he has named the the words. source in an introductory • Lack of quotation marks phrase. allows the reader to think • S/he has indicated where the words are the writer’s, the exact words of the not Thurow’s. source begin and end by using quotation marks. (Complete Thurow reference appears in bibliography) 15 Academic Integrity at MIT Paraphrasing Paraphrasing Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing In writing papers, you will paraphrase more than you will quote. For a report or research paper, you may need to gather background information that is important to the paper but not worthy of direct quotation. Indeed, in technical writing direct quotation is rarely used. Exactly what does “paraphrase” mean? It means taking the words of another source and restating them, using your own vocabulary. In this way, you keep the meaning of the original text, but do not copy its exact wording. Original Plagiarism Paraphrasing Because of their unique According to Lester Thurow Lester Thurow (1993) perspective, Americans fear (1993), Americans fear maintains that because globalization less than globalization less than people Americans see globalization anyone else, and as a from other countries and as simply as a bigger form of consequence they think about a consequence spend less their own economy, they are it less than anyone else. When time thinking about it. Indeed, less concerned about it than is Americans do think about Americans see globalization the rest of the world. globalization, they think of the as an enlarged version of their global economy as an enlarged own economy. version of the American economy. Why is this plagiarism? Why is this acceptable? The writer has used Thurow’s The writer has kept the exact words without enclosing meaning of the original (Source: Thurow, L. (1993). them in quotation marks. passage without copying Fortune Favors the Bold (p. 6). S/he has only substituted words or structure. Words like New York: Harper Collins. ) synonyms here and there. Even globalization and Americans though Thurow is credited are generic terms (i.e., terms with a citations, this would be that are commonly used for considered plagiarism. the concept they illustrate - it is difficult to find synonyms (Complete Thurow reference for them). Thus you may use appears in bibliography) these words without placing them in quotation marks. 16 Academic Integrity at MIT Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing Strategies and Examples What strategies can I use to paraphrase? • Use synonyms for all words that are not generic. Words like world, food, or science are so basic to our vocabulary that is difficult to find a synonym. • Change the structure of the sentence. • Change the voice from active to passive and vice versa. • Change clauses to phrases and vice versa. • Change parts of speech. Example 1: Original Acceptable Paraphrase 1: Acceptable Paraphrase 2: Used Synonyms Changed Sentence Structure Like drought, excess rainfall An overabundance of rainfall When there is an and flooding can also can also be a factor in overabundance of rainfall, contribute to epidemics spreading infectious diseases two situations can occur: of waterborne infectious carried by water, usually as a sewers can overflow and water diseases, in this case result of overflowing sewers can become polluted by the due to poor sanitation and pollution from farm presence of livestock, both of resulting from runoff from animals (Shuman, 2010). which can lead to outbreaks of overwhelmed sewage lines or waterborne diseases (Shuman, the contamination of water by 2010). livestock. (Source: Shuman, E., M.D. (2010, March 25). Global climate change and infectious diseases. New England Journal of Medicine; 362, 12, 1061-1063. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.) 17 Academic Integrity at MIT Avoiding Plagiarism: Paraphrasing Strategies and Examples (continued) Example 2: Original Acceptable Paraphrase: Changed Voice and Changed Parts of Speech Current political and economic incentives favor Researchers point out that in attempting industry and other interest groups at the expense to implement economic growth, industry is of health: consider the subsidies paid for corn- often favored over health: government may based agriculture and mass-produced processed subsidize certain forms of agriculture and food foods, the tobacco revenue generated in countries production, contribute to tobacco consumption with a government-owned tobacco industry, in nations where it owns the industry and industrial growth in the face of environmental otherwise promote growth of industries that pollution, and the spread of the sedentary pollute. (Venkat Narayan et. al, 2011). automobile-and-television culture. (Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J. (2010, September 23). Global noncommunicable diseases – where worlds meet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363; 13. 1196-1198. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.) Example 3: Original Acceptable Paraphrase: Changed Clause to Phrase The prevalence and impact of non-communicable The increasing spread of non-communicable diseases continue to grow. Chronic diseases diseases can be seen in figures that show these account for 60% of all deaths worldwide, and 80% diseases are responsible for 60% of all deaths of these deaths occur in low-or middle-income on the planet, and that in countries where countries, where the toll is disproportionate the population is primarily of low or middle during the prime productive years of youth and income, the impact is greatest, often focusing middle age. on those who are young or middle-aged (Venkat Narayan et. al, 2011). (Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., , Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J. (2010, September 23). Global noncommunicable diseases – where worlds meet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363; 13. 1196-1198. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.) A good paraphrase combines a number of strategies: the goal is to rephrase the information so that it appears in your words, not those of the author. 18 Academic Integrity at MIT Example 4 - using multiple strategies to paraphrase: Original Acceptable Paraphrase 1 Acceptable Paraphrase 2 We do not yet understand Siegel (1986) writes that Siegel (1986) writes that the all the ways in which brain although the relationship relationship between the chemicals are related to between brain chemistry and chemicals in the brain and our emotions and thoughts, thoughts and feelings is not thoughts and feelings remains but the salient point is that fully understood, we do know only partially understood. He our state of mind has an that our psychological state goes on to say, however, that immediate and direct effect on affects our physical state. one thing is clear: our mental our state of body. state affects our bodily state. (Source: Siegel, B. (1986). What did the writer do? What did the writer do? Love, Medicine and Miracles (p. • Used synonyms • Used synonyms 69). New York: Harper and Row.) • Changed the sentence • Changed sentence structure (use two structure sentences instead of one) • Changed voice • Changed voice • Cited source • Changed parts of speech • Cited source Words like brain are generic and do not need to be changed. Words like brain and chemicals are generic and do not need to be changed. Example 5 - unacceptable paraphrase: Original Unacceptable Paraphrase 1 Unacceptable Paraphrase 2 We do not yet understand Siegel (1986) writes that we According to Siegel (1986), all the ways in which brain still do not know all the ways our mind affects our body chemicals are related to in which brain chemistry quickly and directly, although emotions and thoughts, is related to emotions and we do not yet understand but the salient point is that thoughts, but the important every aspect of how brain our state of mind has an point is that our mental state chemicals relate to emotions immediate and direct effect on has an immediate and direct and thoughts. our state of body. effect on our physical state. Why is this unacceptable? Why is this unacceptable? (Source: Siegel, B. (1986). • The writer has kept the • Although the writer has Love, Medicine and Miracles (p. 69). New York: Harper and Row.) same exact sentence changed the structure of structure. the sentence, key phrases have been taken directly • The writer had only from the original. substituted synonyms in certain places; in others the wording is exactly the same as that of the original. Even though the writer mentions the original source in the introductory phrase, the result is plagiarism. 19 Academic Integrity at MITChoosing Whether to Quote or to Paraphrase Sometimes students are not sure when to quote directly and when to paraphrase. As we said before, quote only if the language is particularly expressive and/or adds weight to your argument. Example of a good use of quotation: After the Challenger disaster of 1986, it was learned that NASA was so anxious to launch the shuttle that it had overlooked certain safety measures. Nobel physicist Richard Feynman later observed that “for a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled” (cited in Katz, 1999). Feynman’s credentials and the fine wording of his comment deserve quotation here. (Source: Katz, J. (1999, May 13). Retrieved July 6, 2005 from http://wuphys.wustl.edu/katz/naturefooled. html) Example of unnecessary quotation, a paraphrase would be better: In January 2012, the World Health Organization published a set of recommendations for policy- makers regarding marketing food and beverages to children. The report noted that “In Norway, the Broadcasting Act bans advertising directed at children and advertising in connection with children’s programming on television and radio. The ban applies to the advertising of any products, including food and beverages.” (p. 22) The wording of this information is not particularly noteworthy. In this case, it would be better to paraphrase: In January 2012, the World Health Organization published a set of recommendations for policy- makers regarding marketing food and beverages to children. The report noted that the country of Norway has enacted a law that prohibits all advertising to children, including advertisements for drinks or food. (p. 22) (Source: World Health Organization (2012). A framework for implementing the set of recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children. Marketing Framework 2012. PDF file. Retrieved from www.who.int.) 20 Academic Integrity at MIT

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