How to write Workshop Paper

explain thesis defense presentation tips and how to write a workshop paper and how to cite a workshop paper and how to reference a workshop paper
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WORKSHOP PAPERS Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Examination Preparation Research Support & Training for Post Graduate Researchers 3-Stage Generic Research Skills Training Anglia Ruskin University Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation CONTENTS Page 1 Research Degrees Criteria 3 2 Some Preparation for The Viva 4 3 Texts To Support Your Viva Preparation 5 4 Characteristics of Doctoral Studies 6 5 The Thesis: A Suggested Order (an Example) 7 5.1 Your Thesis 8 6 Something for Doctoral Candidates to Think About 9 7 Audit Your Thesis 11 7.1 Auditing Your Doctoral Thesis 12 8 The Completed Thesis: Technical Specification, Number of Copies, and Submission to ARRO 16 9 Copyright 18 10 Examination Arrangements 25 11 Implicitly Inside the Viva 27 12 Thinking About The Doctoral Viva 28 13 Re-examinations 34 14 Preparation for your Viva Voce 35 15 Your Action Points 36 2 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 1. Research Degrees Criteria The online Research Degrees Handbook provides a helpful background guide for your intellectual journey towards success in obtaining your postgraduate research degree. However this must be read in close conjunction with the Research Degree Regulations. Please note that the most recent edition of the Research Degree Regulations at the time of writing is the 15th Edition, revised Sept. 2014. They may be found on the university website under ‘Academic office’, ‘Research Degrees Regulations’. The direct link is: http://web.anglia.ac.uk/anet/academic/public/research_degree_regs.pdf Please see the Research Degrees Regulations, Sept. 2014, Part A Section 1, and the Research Degrees Handbook, for the principles underpinning the award of research degrees. Information on the assessment of research degrees is also provided in The Senate Code of Practice on Postgraduate Research Programmes, section 10. This Senate Code of Practice may be found in Annex 9 of the Research Degrees Regulations, Sept. 2014. 3 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 2. Some Preparation for the Viva Here are a few questions aimed at helping you prepare for your viva. By the end of the Stage III training do ensure that you are fully conversant with the answers. 1. What is a thesis? What is its function? 2. Can a thesis be a diary of events? 3. How do you know that your thesis is ready for submission? Have you audited your thesis (see section 7 of this workshop booklet)? 4. Have I observed the correct format for the abstract in my thesis? 5. Do I need to bind my thesis for the viva? 6. How are examiners chosen? 7. How does an examiner examine a thesis? 8. What is my role at the viva? 9. Suppose that at your viva the first question asked is ‘Please tell us what you have achieved in your research’ – how would you respond? 10. In your viva one of your examiners is very eminent in an area of research that is similar but not relevant to the research underpinning your thesis. This examiner asks a question that is really outside the research in your thesis – how do you respond? 11. Identify the question that you would least like to be asked at your viva. How would you respond? Does your thesis either answer the question or show clearly that the question would be inappropriate? 12. What role might one of your supervisors have in attending your viva? 13. In addition to the examiners, Anglia Ruskin University appoints, for each viva voce, an independent chair. What is their role? 14. Are typographical errors permissible in your thesis? 15. Following the viva, I have some minor amendments to make to my thesis. When will I be awarded my research degree? 16. You have been awarded your MPhil / MProf / PhD / DProf / MD(Res) – what happens to my thesis? 17. I am asked to provide a copy of my thesis in a digital format for inclusion in ARRO. Are there any benefits from my thesis being made publicly available through ARRO? 4 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 3. Texts to Support your Viva Preparation Dunleavy, P. (2003) Authoring a PhD, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (ISBN 1-4039-0584-3) Hartley, J. (2008) Academic writing and publishing: A practical handbook, London and New York: Routledge (ISBN 13: 978-0-415-45322-6 (pbk) ISBN 13: 978-0-203-92798-4 (ebk) Murray, R. (2002) How to write a thesis, Buckingham: Open University Press (ISBN 0-335- 20718-9) Murray, R. (2009) How to Survive your Viva, Maidenhead: Open University Press (ISBN 0- 335-21284-0) nd Oliver, P. (2008) Writing your thesis, 2 edition, London: Sage (ISBN 978-0-412-94689-6) Tinkler, P. and Jackson, C. (2004) The Doctoral Examination Process: A Handbook for Students, Examiners and Supervisors, Maidenhead: Open University Press, McGraw-Hill Education (ISBN 0-335-213057) Trafford, V. and Leshem, S. (2008) Stepping Stones to Achieving your Doctorate: Focusing on your viva from the start, Maidenhead: Open University Press (IBSN 13: 978-0-335-225439) Vitae Defending your thesis: the viva, https://www.vitae.ac.uk/doing-research/doing-a- doctorate/completing-your-doctorate/your-viva (accessed 12 August 2014) 5 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 4. Characteristics of Doctoral Studies (Doctoral level research will display one or more of these features – but not all of them)  Application of conventional research instruments in new fields of investigation  Combining disparate concepts in new ways  Creating new understandings of existing and emerging issues  Demonstration of self-evident rigour and analysis in the design and conduct of the research, with explicit links to other extant research  Design and application of new field instruments  Drawing upon wider than normal discipline bases for conceptual frameworks – or to explain findings  Generating knowledge through rigorous intellectual application, testing and proof that constitutes an addition to knowledge in that area  Identification of new and emerging issues worthy of investigation and explanation  Originality in using the work of others 6 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 5. The Thesis: A Suggested Order (An Example) Title Page Preface / Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents Lists of Diagrams / Figures / Tables / Photographs / CDR etc. Copyright Declaration The following list suggests the content and order only – please do not use bland headings, for example, Literature Review, for your thesis. Your headings should give the reader a clear understanding as to the subject of your research. 1. Introduction 2. Review of Literature 3. Design of Study 4. Presentation of Results 5. Discussion of Results 6. Summary 7. Conclusions and Recommendations 8. Appendices, Statistical Tables (often printed in the main text), Illustrations (if any; could be located in the main text) 9. References (if provided; Footnotes are normally printed at the foot of each page or as Endnotes to each chapter or at the end of the thesis) 10. Bibliography – if you really need this, in addition to the References (often preceded by a classification of how the bibliography is organised) 11. Appendices (if appropriate to your study) N.B. Thesis formats vary according to the conventions of the specific discipline. For example, some disciplines use the term references, some bibliography – with both meaning material referenced in the thesis. Other disciplines use references to be those texts referred to in the thesis and bibliography for additional reading that is not referenced. The examiners may ask about all this material so do not include unnecessary material if it does not really support your research. Make certain particular attention is given to: Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation, Clarity of Writing, Footnotes, References, Illustrations and Use of Statistics Do refer to the Research Degree Regulations (15th edition – Sept. 2014) to ensure that your thesis complies with the formal requirements for the thesis. 7 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 5.1. Your Thesis DO NOT FORGET Your contribution to knowledge The scholarly nature of a doctoral thesis Descriptive text is just that – it is descriptive text The excitement that attracted you to the topic of your thesis Your obligation to address the needs and expectations of your readers The expectations of your readers to be given conclusions in the conclusions chapter A long chapter has a more difficult task of holding the attention of readers than a short concise chapter The opportunity to leave your readers with a positive impression of the merit of your thesis as an exemplar of doctoral writing and research 8 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 6. SOMETHING FOR DOCTORAL CANDIDATES TO THINK ABOUT Compose a title for your doctoral research that is succinct, clearly expressed and not stated in the form of a question – then it will have the potential to attract, and interest, your readers. Always think how you will defend your doctoral thesis as you write your doctoral thesis. Decide on the gap in knowledge that your research will fill, or the specific area of knowledge to which it will contribute. Tell readers how this guided your choice of research design and fieldwork methods and the method of analysing your evidence. Then, in your section of conceptual conclusions within your Conclusion chapter, state quite unambiguously how this quest has been met. State your research approach as assertions – follow it with a full explanation of research choices. Remember that you are writing for the examiners to read. They are your primary audience. Ensure that they find evidence that you are aiming at, and displaying, doctorate level research in your thesis. Compose your text in a clear manner; re-check the grammar and proof read it again – so that the examiners are not distracted by typographical error, grammatical mistakes or sloppy writing. State your research boundaries – and remind your readers again in the Design and Conclusions chapters so that they cannot expect you to have dealt with issues that are outside your research. Offer absolutely clear research questions in your Introductory chapter, remind readers in the Design chapter of them, and then give the answers to these questions in the Conclusions chapter Do not have a chapter called Literature Review – PLEASE Use your reading to generate conceptual insights. Allow your reading to produce a clearly stated conceptual framework. Remind the readers how you used the conceptual framework to design your research AND to analyse your findings. Remind the readers how research at the doctoral level can be found in your thesis by stating this clearly in the introductory and concluding chapters. Make sure that you have satisfied yourself and your supervisor(s) that this has been fully achieved. Accept that you are engaged in an academic marketing exercise. YOU are persuading readers – Examiners – that your work is at the doctoral standard. YOU must ensure that you 9 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation achieve that quest by checking the academic and technical parts in your thesis to support that claim. Recognise that the CONTENT / SUBJECT part of your research must be accurate and relevant – so it must cite the primary and secondary sources that examiners will expect to see in your thesis. Help the reader with the text of the thesis. Explain. Guide them through the text. Explain. Introduce Parts and Chapters. Explain. Avoid surprises. Explain. Your thesis is NOT a mystery story. EXPLAIN. Make sure that every reference in the text appears within a List of References that follows your final chapter. Do not include any reference in that list which is not included in the text of your thesis. Please note that conventions vary considerably across subject areas. In some disciplines the convention is to include a Bibliography – this can be the same as References, a rather confusing situation. In some disciplines extensive use is made of footnotes. It is important to observe the conventions for your subject area. Please consult your supervisory team for advice. Note how your research might be improved and include a critique of your own work. Be honest. Be fair to good work. Be open about other ways that it might have been undertaken. Be critical. Never forget that your thesis is going to be judged MORE on its conceptual foundations, and rigorous analysis, than on the factual findings. Thus, give yourself a conceptual framework to work with and then make sure that you explain how it has guided your research. Finally, check that your thesis clearly displays research at master’s or the doctoral level, as appropriate. Does your thesis reflect the criteria / features expected of a master’s/doctorate? 10 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 7. Audit your Thesis The Research Question OR The Research Statement Conceptual framework Theoretical Perspectives  Engagement with the literature  Coherent story Research design and Methodology: EXPLAINED IN FULL Building a Defence for the Thesis in YOUR Viva:  Linkages, In the Field  Emphases,  Agendas. Details Details Details  When, how many, who, where, why?  Your role, methods, CONCLUSIONS  recordings, analysing  Theory testing or theory  Problems, solutions development  A clear research story  Primary findings  Secondary findings  Unexpected findings  Hypotheses judged  Propositions offered Analysis and Interpretation  Factual conclusions of evidence  Conceptual conclusions  Limitations of the research  Research agenda  Research question answered State what the evidence  Research statement shows and NOT what explained opinion(s) you may have  Contribution to knowledge about the research  Personal development 11 THUS – DOCTORATE LEVEL RESEARCH Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 7.1 Auditing your Doctoral Thesis Name: Start date: 1 Provisional working title of your thesis 2 What is / are your principal research question(s)? 3 What were your considerations in selecting the structure of Parts and / or chapters for your thesis? Please name the Parts that you are likely to have in your thesis. 4 How does your research question derive from and link to your review of the literature and is there any appropriate single founding or seminal paper or framework that you will cite in your thesis? 5 How does your research question derive from and link to current issues in professional practice and/or the business or education problem you are addressing? 12 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 6 What is / are the main propositions you have generated, or may yet generate, from questions 2, 3 and 4 that will inform your research design? 7 Research Design – are you: 7a mainly testing or developing theory? 7b following a conventional or innovative methodological approach (compared to the way this type of research question might normally be investigated)? 7c using a context that is familiar or unfamiliar in terms of the norms for the subject domain? 7d following mainly an inductive or deductive approach? 7e intending to extend, challenge or refute existing knowledge/practice? 7f focusing more on reliability or validity? 7g adopting more of a quantitative or qualitative approach? 8 Evidence 8a What primary evidence will you seek to collect? 8b How will you use / evaluate this evidence? 8c What difficulties might you encountering in your data collection process, and how will you avoid / resolve those difficulties? 13 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 9 Research Methods and Tools and Techniques What will you use to give added-value to your research? (e.g. text analysis of your interviews, data mining of questionnaire data, conjoint analysis) 10 Methodological Critique: how will you demonstrate and support (critically) your methodological stance? 11 What is the intellectual question that you seek to answer or gap in knowledge that you are seeking to fill? 12 Summarise your conceptual framework or the one you will adopt / base your research upon. 14 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 13 What are the likely / possible outcomes, or what might be the nature of such outcomes from your research? 13a as factual conclusions? 13b as conceptual conclusions? 13c as conclusions that might inform or enhance professional practice? 14 What reflections are you likely to be able to make on your research question (= the nature of)? 15 What is the likely generalisability of your research findings? 16 Personal Development: how will you report, and critique, your personal journey and personal development? © Vernon Trafford and Peter Woolliams, 2001 15 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 8. The Completed Thesis: Technical Specification, Number of Copies, and Submission to ARRO Do ensure that your thesis complies with the regulations set out in the Research Degrees Regulations, 14th Edition, September 2013. The Research Degrees Handbook also offers advice concerning the preparation and submission of your thesis. Clarify any queries about the specification for your thesis with your supervisors. You may wish to pay someone else to word process the final copy. Advertisements for individuals/agencies offering thesis production services can be found in the educational press and appropriate libraries. Think about costs, timing and delivery arrangements. Make certain that you discuss the specification in advance with the person who will be word processing the thesis. Your instructions must be clear. Preparing and word processing the thesis is a substantial task that requires thought and attention. A postgraduate research thesis is a potential minefield of typographical errors, even if the preparation has been meticulous. Proof reading is more effective if carried out by someone else. If this is not possible, you should leave a gap of several days between the completion of the typing and your proof reading. This will help you see your work with a “fresh eye”. Do not rely on the word processing package’s spell-checker – but do use the grammar checker, together with the advice on grammar and punctuation provided in the mid-phase training booklet for academic writing. The examiners will expect your thesis to demonstrate clarity of expression. Your writing should be grammatically correct, well punctuated, well formatted and set out to ensure clarity. In the same way that you would not expect to find errors in any book, your examiners should not find errors in your thesis. A thesis containing many errors gives a very poor ‘first impression’. Research degree candidates need to obtain permission from their First Supervisor before submitting their thesis for examination. th From the Research Degrees Regulations, 15 Edition, Sept. 2014, section 11.8: ‘Candidates may not submit their thesis for examination or re-examination without the approval of their First Supervisor. A candidate should not assume that a First Supervisor’s agreement to the submission of the thesis guarantees the award of the degree. Candidates have the right to appeal to the Director of Research Students or Director of Research if they are not happy with the decision of their First Supervisor.’ The submission of the thesis to Anglia Ruskin University is a crucial date. The viva voce examination cannot be arranged until the appropriate number of copies of the thesis have been deposited with the Academic Office for dispatch to the examiners. Candidates are encouraged to submit theses in temporary but secure binding, with official binding only following recommendation of the award. 16 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation You should submit sufficient copies for one copy to be sent to each examiner, the independent chair and to any of your Supervisory Team whom you have agreed may observe the viva voce. You will also need a copy for your own use. Following the award of the research degree, you must provide Anglia Ruskin University with a copy of the bound thesis and a copy in digital format, and a completed Thesis Deposit Agreement Form (see Part A, section 10 of the Research Degrees Regulations, Sept. 2013). The Thesis Deposit Agreement Form confirms your agreement to have your thesis published within the university’s Institutional Repository (ARRO). Anglia Ruskin University will:  Lodge one bound copy in the Anglia Ruskin University Library and in the library of any collaborating establishment.  send one copy of the title page, abstract and contents pages of a PhD, DBA, EdD, LLD and DProf thesis to the British Library together with the candidate’s signed Doctoral Thesis Agreement Form. Information regarding the copyright of theses may be found later in this booklet, and in Annex 5 of the Research Degrees Regulations, Sept. 2014. Information regarding confidentiality aspects of the thesis, and the regulations regarding research that is confidential may be found in the Research Degrees Regulations, Sept. 2014 in Part A sections 3.19 – 3.21. Your thesis and its submission to ARRO Following the award of your research degree and provided that your research is not confidential, a digital copy of your thesis will be submitted to ARRO (our Anglia Ruskin Research Online repository). A digital copy of your thesis together with the completed Thesis Deposit Agreement Form which confirms your agreement to have your thesis published with the Institutional Repository (ARRO) should be sent to the Research Degrees Unit in the Academic Office. When preparing the digital copy of your thesis you must ensure that for any diagrams, photos etc. that you have referenced from books or journals, you have received agreement from the holder of the copyright to include these in your digital copy of the thesis. Otherwise these diagrams, photos etc. will need to be removed. Please see the information later in this booklet about Copyright. ARRO provides a single point of access to our research output and scholarly publications. Additionally, and very importantly, authors benefit from the increased visibility of their work. Thus ARRO aids the rapid dissemination of our research and also ensures that all our research outputs are preserved long term in a secure repository. Further information on ARRO may be found at: http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/ARRO.html 17 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 9. Copyright For a good introduction to copyright, go to: Intellectual Property Office – Copyright, at: http://www.ipo.gov.uk/copy.htm The following is from: ARRO: A Comprehensive Guide (http://angliaruskin.openrepository.com/arro/) 9.1 What is Copyright? Copyright is the right of an author, artist or composer to prevent other people from copying an original work. It only protects actual works, not ideas. In the UK, copyright protection applies to most categories of original work, such as literary works, dramatic works, musical works, artistic works, sound recordings, films, broadcasts and the typographical arrangement of published editions. In the case of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works, ‘publication’ includes making the work available to the public by means of an electronic retrieval system such as Anglia Ruskin Research Online (ARRO), although public performances or exhibitions may not constitute publication. To benefit from international copyright protection, copyright owners based in the UK are advised to show the copyright symbol ‘©’ on all copies of their work. A growing number of research funders, such as the UK Research Councils and the Wellcome Trust, are making it a condition of grant that research output is made available through an open access repository. However, permission to deposit a full text item in an Institutional Repository must be granted by the copyright holder. In the context of research outputs, it is highly likely that the copyright holder will be a commercial publisher. There can, therefore, be a conflict between publishers’ standard policies and requirements imposed by sponsors. This is being recognised and publishers will often specify what conditions must be met in order for work to be included in an Institutional Repository such as ARRO. Although some online publications are accessible without charge to personal users for non- commercial use, it may still be necessary to seek permission from the copyright holder to re- use the work, including depositing it on an Institutional Repository. In addition to the rights of publishers, authors need to respect the rights of all other copyright owners when making submissions to ARRO and obtain permission from co- authors and owners of third party copyright. The author may also need to obtain permission from a sponsor if submitting the final report of funded research. 9.2 Copyright and journal articles 9.2.1 Ownership of copyright 18 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation Underlying the process of publishing a journal article is a publishing agreement. The agreement is the contract between an author and publisher outlining the terms and conditions on which an article, an original work of scholarship, is accepted for publication and made accessible to a wider readership. The agreement is an important step in achieving a balance of rights and responsibilities in the process of scholarly communication. Typically, when an article is published, the author assigns copyright, or gives a copyright licence, to the publisher of the journal. The particular agreement that is signed determines what rights the author gives up and what rights they retain to use the article. However, the majority of publishers will allow authors to deposit their work in an Institutional Repository under certain conditions and it is possible for authors to negotiate ‘changes or exceptions’ to standard agreements. The Copyright Toolbox ( http://copyrighttoolbox.surf.nl/copyrighttoolbox/ ) continues to act as a reference point for both authors and publishers on publishing agreements and licences. The aim of the resource is to assist authors and publishers to achieve a balance between granting maximum access to a journal article and ensuring financial compensation to the publisher. The toolbox includes an introduction to publishing agreements and licences as well as sample wording for both types of contract. 9.2.2 Implications for ARRO The conditions and restrictions imposed by journal publishers dictate which version of the paper can be made available. They may require the inclusion of a link to the published version, the inclusion of a statement of copyright ownership, or an embargo on the release of the full text version. When an embargo period applies, Library Staff will ensure that the files are not accessible until the embargo ends. The majority of journal publishers use a copyright transfer agreement that gives them copyright of the publisher-produced PDF. As the open access movement has gained momentum, however, many publishers have responded by allowing pre-prints and/or the final draft version of papers (post-prints) to be held in open access repositories. SHERPA runs the RoMEO service, a source of information about journal publishers’ standard copyright policies, available at http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ . Publishers are colour coded according to whether or not they permit depositing of pre-prints (yellow), post-prints or publisher’s versions/PDFs (blue), both (green) or neither (white). Any additional conditions and restrictions imposed by publishers are listed. Before submissions are accepted into ARRO, the University Library will check in RoMEO to confirm that any copyright restrictions have been met. In some cases it will be necessary to contact the publisher to request permission to include the article in ARRO. It is important that the request can be seen to come from the author as part of the publisher/author relationship, with some publishers insisting that the author contacts them directly to request permission to include papers in a repository. Authors are advised to write to the editor or officer in charge of authors' rights rather than to a general publisher's email for such permission. 19 Research, Development and Stage 3 – Thesis Production and Commercial Services Examination Preparation 9.3 Copyright and books, book chapters etc 9.3.1 Ownership of copyright As with journals, the process of publishing a book includes a publishing agreement to outline the terms and conditions on which it is accepted for publication, with copyright often being assigned to the publisher of the book. 9.3.2 Implications for ARRO There is no equivalent to RoMEO for book copyright agreements and the guidance it provides for publishers of journal articles cannot be assumed to apply to books from the same publisher. Therefore it is necessary to rely on the copyright transfer agreement signed by the author, which may also be available on the publisher's website. If it is necessary to contact the publisher to request permission, it is recommended that this is done by the author in order to take advantage of their relationship with the publisher. As with journals, there are some publishers of open access books. These are edited and sold in the usual manner, and the authors may even receive royalties. However, authors retain the full copyright. 9.4 Copyright and theses 9.4.1 Ownership of copyright According to the Research Degrees Regulations, the ‘copyright in any original material produced by candidates of Anglia Ruskin University as part of a course of study on which they are registered’ belongs to the University for one year, following which it belongs to the author, unless: 1. the candidate has conditions of employment that immediately vest ownership of copyright in their employer 2. the interests of Anglia Ruskin University are overridden by copyright claimed by an external examining body. The Regulations confirm that ‘copyright in included material shall remain with the owner of such copyright’. The full requirements regarding copyright of a thesis can be found in Annex 5 of the Research Degrees Regulations. 9.4.2 Implications for ARRO 9.4.2.1 The Research Degrees Regulations require a digital copy of each thesis to be provided for depositing into ARRO. 20