How to reference in Harvard style

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LIL Library Learning Objects OU Harvard guide to citing referencesContents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Principles of in-text citations and references 1 1.2 The general structure of a reference 2 2 In-text citations 4 3 Reference list 7 4 Secondary referencing 8 5 Books, book chapters and ebooks 9 5.1 Books 9 5.2 Book chapters 9 5.3 Translated books 10 5.4 Modern editions 10 5.5 Sacred texts 11 5.6 Ancient texts 12 5.7 Ebooks online 13 5.8 Ebooks on readers 13 6 Journal and newspaper articles 15 6.1 Printed journal articles 15 6.2 Ejournal articles 15 6.3 Printed newspaper articles 17 6.4 Online newspaper articles 18 7 OU module materials 20 7.1 Module texts 20 7.2 Copublished module texts 22 7.3 Online module materials 22 7.4 Module readings 24 7.5 Module audiovisual materials 26 7.6 Figures, diagrams and tables 27 7.7 Secondary referencing in module materials 28 7.8 Citing materials from another module 29 7.9 Page numbers 30 7.10 Lectures, seminars and presentations 30 7.11 Student-generated content 31 8 Audiovisual materials 33 8.1 TV programmes 33 8.2 Radio programmes 33 8.3 Films 34 8.4 DVDs 34 8.5 Audio CDs 35 8.6 Songs 36 8.7 YouTube item 37 8.8 iTunes or other downloads 38 9 Works of art and visual sources 399.1 Works of art 39 9.2 Online images 40 9.3 Exhibition catalogues 41 9.4 Plays and live performances 42 10 Online/electronic materials 44 10.1 Personal or organisational websites 44 10.2 Online documents 44 10.3 Blogs 45 10.4 Wikis 46 10.5 Twitter 47 10.6 Podcasts 47 11 Conference papers 49 12 Reports 50 13 Software 51 13.1 Computer programs 51 13.2 Mobile application 51 14 Personal communications 53 14.1 Emails 53 14.2 Forum messages 53 14.3 Telephone calls 54 14.4 Personal letters 54 14.5 Unpublished interviews 55 14.6 Second Life 55 15 Theses 57 16 Legal and legislative material 58 17 Patents 61 18 Standards 62 19 Maps 63 20 Faculty-specificexamples 64 20.1 Health and Social Care 641 Introduction 1 Introduction This guide provides practical advice and examples to help you create references for information sources using the Open University (OU) Harvard style. Some OU modules may use other referencing styles. Please check the details for your module before using this guide. Note: this guide was revised in October 2014.Someofthe advice has been slightly amended, but it should not differ significantly from earlier versions. If your module materials ask you to reference OU module materials in a different way, please follow your module’s guidance. If you are unsure, contact your tutor. If you are unable to find the reference type you need in this guide, you are advised to find something similar and base your reference on that example. The main aim is to record the key information about your source to enable someone else to locate it. See the Library FAQ (‘What if I cannot find the reference type I need in the OU Harvard guide to citing references?’) for more guidance. 1.1 Principles of in-text citations and references When producing an academic assignment you are required to acknowledge the work of others by citing references in the text and creating a list of references or bibliography at the end. There are two steps involved: Step 1: In-text citations In-text citations enable you to indicate in your work where you have used ideas or material from other sources. Here are some examples using the OU Harvard style. If, for example, your source is a book written by Brown and published in 1999, your in-text references would follow one of these three formats: . Further work (Brown, 1999) supports this claim . Further work by Brown (1999) supports this claim . ‘This theory is supported by recent work’ (Brown, 1999, p. 25). For further guidance see In-text citations (Section 2) of this guide. 1X443 Information literacy Step 2: List full references at the end of your work Everything you have cited in the text of your work, for example journal articles, web pages, podcasts, etc., should be listed in alphabetical order at the end. This is the reference list. Each reference should include everything you need to identify the item. You need to identify the source type (e.g. book, journal article) and use the correct referencing format from this guide to create the reference. If you include items that are not specifically cited but are relevant to the text or of potential interest to the reader, then that is a bibliography. For further guidance see Reference list (Section 3 of this guide). Op. cit. and ibid. These terms (from the Latin opere citato, ‘in the work already cited’ and ibidem, ‘in the same place’) are not used in the OU Harvard system. 1.2 The general structure of a reference As mentioned in Section 1.1, the main aim in providing accurate and consistent referencing (apart from meeting academic conventions) is to enable your readers to look up the exact sources that you have cited in your piece of work. This means that you need to give accurate information about the type of item, the name or title of the item, who produced it, the date it was produced and where you found it. All reference examples in this guide are based on a combination of some or all of these elements, depending on the type of item. Knowing this should help you to break down a reference into its component parts and therefore to create references for any sources you might use that aren’t covered in this guide. Broadly speaking, the key pieces of information for a reference in OU Harvard style tend to be: Author, A. A. and Other-Author, B. B. (Date) ‘Title of item’, Title of Overall Work Item type/information, Publisher information/location from which accessed. Author/creator This is usually the names of the person or people who created the specific item you are citing. 21 Introduction Date This is the year, and sometimes the month and day, when the cited item was published or made available. If no date is available, use n.d. If a work is to be published in the near future, use ‘forthcoming’. Title/name of item This is the title of the specific item you have cited. Title/name of overall work This is the title of any overall work in which the item you cited appeared, for example an edited book from which you used a chapter or the journal fromwhichyouusedanarticle. Item type/information This is information about the type of item you’ve cited, for example an ebook, a Twitter post or a DVD. It could also be where information about the nature of the item is placed, for example that this is a special issue or special section of a journal. Publisher information This is the item publisher’s location and name. Location from which accessed This is usually a URL or web address from which the item can be accessed. These elements are the basic parts from which a reference in Harvard style is formed. There are various modifications to this, depending on the type of item. If you can’t find an example reference in this guide for the precise type of item you have cited, you should find the most similar example and base your reference on that, bearing in mind the elements outlined above. 3X443 Information literacy 2 In-text citations In the Harvard system, references in the text (in-text citations) are referred to by the author’sname and year of publication, for example: It is stated that … (Bloggs, 2007) or Bloggs (2007) states … Quotes If you are directly quoting material (i.e. using the exact form of words used in the original and putting the text in quote marks), you will also need to include the page number(s) of the quoted material in your in-text citation, for example: Bloggs talks about ‘the importance of preparation’ for interviews (2007, p. 57). This is also the case for where you use quoted material from all the types of text referred to in the rest of this guide, unless page numbers are not available. Larger quotes should be displayed in a separate paragraph, for example: Bloggs (2007, p. 348) is more critical: I don’t agree with this at all, the argument is poorly made and does not hold up to any scrutiny. One begins to wonder if we shall ever see any sense from this organisation on this subject at any time in the next one hundred years. If you do not name the source in the lead-in to the quote, then it must be given after it: Other commentators are more critical: I don’t agree with this at all, the argument is poorly made and does not hold up to any scrutiny. One begins to wonder if we shall ever 42 In-text citations see any sense from this organisation on this subject at any time in the next one hundred years. (Bloggs, 2007, p. 348) Authors with more than one publication In the reference list or bibliography, items are listed only once in alphabetical order. In some cases you may refer to more than one publication by an author for a specific year. To help identify these different items for your in-text citation and reference list, you should add a letter of the alphabet to the year of publication, for example: (Thomson, 2004a), (Thomson, 2004b) and (Thomson, 2004c) where a, b and c refer to the order in which they are cited in your text. Multiple authors If a publication hasthreeormore authors the in-text citation should list only the first author followed by et al. (‘and others’). For example: (Jones et al., 2006) but in the reference list or bibliography you would list each author in full as follows: Jones, R., Andrew, T. and MacColl, J. (2006) The Institutional Repository, Oxford, Chandos Publishing. Citing multiple sources Where you have several in-text citations together, you should order them in reverse chronological order, beginning with the most recently published source, and separate each source with a semicolon (;). If more than one work is published in the same year, order these texts alphabetically by author. (Frobisher, 2012; Barnes et al., 2009; Huy, 2009; Monk and Bosco, 2001) 53 Reference list 3 Reference list References in the reference list or bibliography give, in alphabetical order by author surname, full details of all the sources you have used in the text. When a corporate author’s name starts with ‘The’,usethe first main word of the title when alphabetising, e.g. The Open University is listed under ‘O’. For example: Reference list example Bourdieu, P. (1992) The Logic of Practice, Cambridge, Polity Press. Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) (2007) This Way to Better Streets: 10 Case Studies on Improving Street Design, London, CABE Online. Available at www.cabe.org.uk/default. aspx?contentitemid=1978 (Accessed 12 February 2009). Foucault, M. (1991 1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (trans. A. Sheridan), London, Penguin. Glaskin, M. (2004) ‘Innovation: the end of the white line’, Sunday Times, 22 August Online. Available at www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/ driving/article472085.ece (Accessed 12 February 2009). Goffman, E. (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life,New York, Anchor Books. House of Commons (2003) Hansard, 2 July, Column 407 Online. Available at www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm200203/ cmhansrd/vo030702/debtext/30702-10.htm (Accessed 12 January 2012). McNichol, T. (2004) ‘Roads gone wild’, Wired Magazine, vol. 12, no. 12, December Online. Available at www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.12/ traffic.html (Accessed 12 January 2012). The Open University (2006) Real Functions and Graphs: Workbook 2, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Ruppert, E. S. (2006) The Moral Economy of Cities: Shaping Good Citizens, Toronto, University of Toronto Press. Shared Space (2005) Shared Space: Room for Everyone, Leeuwarden, Shared Space Online. Available at www.shared-space.org/files/18445/ SharedSpace_Eng.pdf (Accessed 21 February 2009). Thompson, K. (2003) ‘Fantasy, franchises, and Frodo Baggins: The Lord of the Rings and modern Hollywood’, The Velvet Light Trap, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 45–63. 7X443 Information literacy 4 Secondary referencing You may want to use a quotation or an idea from a source referenced in a work you have read. You haven’t read the original, but have discovered it through a secondary source. This is known as ‘secondary referencing’.You could try to get hold of the original, but if you can’t then you need to make it clear in your work that you have not read the original and are referencing the secondary source, for example: In-text citation: Bloggs (2004), cited in Smith (2007), loves chocolate. In the reference list you would provide details for the source you read it in, for example: Smith, J. (2007) Musings from Chocolate Lovers,Bicester,JFJPress. If your secondary source is part of your OU module materials, see Secondary referencing in module materials (Section 7.7) for guidance. 85 Books, book chapters and ebooks 5 Books, book chapters and ebooks 5.1 Books In-text citation: (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) says … Full reference: Author, A. (year of publication) Title of Book, Place of publication, Publisher. Examples In-text citation Full reference (Chalke, 2003) Chalke, S. (2003) How to Succeed as a Working Parent, London, Hodder & Stoughton. (Winder, 2002) Winder, S. (2002) Analog and Digital Filter Design, 2nd edn, Boston, Newnes. Note that: If the book has an edition number, you should record this after the title as in the example above. For guidance about how to cite works with multiple authors, see In-text citations (Section 2 of this guide). 5.2 Book chapters In-text citation: ... and others agree (Author of chapter, year of publication) or Author of chapter (year of publication) states ... Full reference: Author of chapter, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of chapter’, in Author A. (eds) Title of Book, Place of publication, Publisher, page extent. 9X443 Information literacy Example In-text citation Full reference (Mason, 1994) Mason, R. (1994) ‘The educational value of ISDN’, in Mason, R. and Bacsich, P. (eds) ISDN: Applications in Education and Training, Exeter, Short Run Press, pp. 58–83. 5.3 Translated books In-text citation: (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) says ... Full reference: Author, A. (year of publication of translated version year of publication of original work if available) Title of Book (trans. A. Translator), Place of publication, Publisher. Examples In-text citation Full reference (Foucault, 1991) Foucault, M. (1991 1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (trans. A. Sheridan), London, Penguin. (Golomstock, 1990) Golomstock, I. (1990) Totalitarian Art in the Soviet Union, the Third Reich, Fascist Italy and the People’s Republic of China (trans. from Russian by R. Chandler), London, Collins Harvill. Note that: If there is information available about the original language and it would be helpful for you to include that, you can format your reference as shown in the second example above. 5.4 Modern editions In-text citation: 105 Books, book chapters and ebooks (Author, year of original publication) or Author (year of original publication) says ... Full reference: Author, A. (year of original publication) Title of Book,Editor,A.and Editor, B. (eds), Place of publication, Publisher (this edition year). Examples In-text citation Full reference (Hume, 1839) Hume, D. (1839) A Treatise of Human Nature, Selby-Bigge, L. and Nidditch, P. (eds), Oxford, Clarendon Press (this edition 1978). 5.5 Sacred texts In-text citation: (Book and chapter/Surah: verse) Full reference: Sacred text except for Bible. Book and chapter/Surah: verse, version of Bible only. Examples In-text citation Full reference (Matthew 5: 3–12) Matthew 5: 3–12, Revised standard version of the Bible. (Qur’an 20: 26) Qur’an 20: 26. (Shemot 3: 14) Torah. Shemot 3: 14. 11X443 Information literacy 5.6 Ancient texts Referencing ancient texts presents specific challenges. For example, titles may not be consistently referenced: they may not have existed in the modern sense or may be subject to different translations. It is important to cite information such that a reader will be able to find the exact passage you are referring to in any edition of the work. To this end, you always need to give the name of the author and the title of the work (unless only one work survives by that author, in which case the title is not needed). When referencing ancient texts within the body of your assignment, you should wherever possible refer to the book and/or line or chapter numbers of the work in question, rather than the page number of the modern translation. Each ancient text has a conventional way in which it is divided into sections. For most ancient texts the following will apply: Prose texts (e.g. historical works, letters, speeches, essays) are divided into books, chapters and (sometimes) sections: Tacitus, Annals 4.31 Strabo, 7.5.1 (no title needed as only one work survives) Poetic/dramatic works (e.g. poems, plays) are sometimes divided into books or scenes in the first instance, and always into individual lines: Virgil, Aeneid 3.466 Aristophanes, Lysistrata 1235-41 In your bibliography, you are required to give details not just of the author, title, the place and date of publication but also of the translator and the title of the modern publication. The publication date is the modern rather than the ancient date. The guidance here differs slightly from that in the section on Translated books (Section 5.3 of this guide) and reflectsthepracticeusedinthe Department of Classical Studies at the OU. Example In-text citation Full reference (Homer, The Odyssey Homer, The Odyssey, trans. R. Fagles 1.4) (2006) London, Penguin. Note that you may sometimes have to give approximate line numbers if a modern translator has chosen not to render each line of ancient text with exactly one line of modern text. 125 Books, book chapters and ebooks 5.7 Ebooks online In-text citation: (Author, year of ebook publication) or Author (year of ebook publication) states ... Full reference: Author, A. (year of ebook publication) Title of Book Online, Place of publication if available, Publisher if available. Available at URL (Accessed date). Examples In-text citation Full reference (Willie, 2003) Willie, S. S. (2003) Acting Black: College, Identity and the Performance of Race Online, New York, Routledge. Available at http://library.open.ac.uk/ linking/index.php?id=311027 (Accessed 10 April 2010). (Speake and LaFlaur, 1999) Speake, J. and LaFlaur, M. (1999)The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English Online, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Available at Oxford Reference (Accessed 10 December 2013). If you accessed your ebook via a database, you should reference the database name (see second example above). If your ebook has section titles or numbered sections instead of page numbers, you should use these to indicate the location of any quotations. For guidance about referencing online figures, diagrams and tables, see Figures, diagrams and tables (Section 7.6 of this guide). 5.8 Ebooks on readers In-text citation: (Author, year of ebook publication) or Author (year of ebook publication) states ... Full reference: 13X443 Information literacy Author, A. (year of ebook publication) Title of Book ebook reader, Place of publication, Publisher. Example In-text citation Full reference (Matthews, 2010) Matthews, D. J. (2010) What Cats Can Teach Us ebook reader, London, Penguin. Note that: Ebook readers have different standards for presenting page locations, and page numbering can vary depending on the type of reader and the settings you are using. Instead, you should use section numbers (or, if these are not available, section titles) to indicate the location of any quotations: (Pike and Price, 2011, Section 1.1) 146 Journal and newspaper articles 6 Journal and newspaper articles 6.1 Printed journal articles In-text citation: (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) states ... Full reference: Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume abbreviated to vol., number abbreviated to no., page number(s) abbreviated to p. or pp.. Example In-text citation Full reference (Thompson, 2003) Thompson, K. (2003) ‘Fantasy, franchises, and Frodo Baggins: The Lord of the Rings and modern Hollywood’, The Velvet Light Trap, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 45–63. 6.2 Ejournal articles Please make sure that you reference the format of a journal article that you have actually used. If you consulted a print copy of a journal (Section 6.1), you should reference it accordingly. If, however, you have used an electronic copy of an article from an ejournal, you should reference that version. In-text citation: (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) states ... Full reference: Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume abbreviated to vol., number abbreviated to no., page number(s) if known abbreviated to pp. Online. Available at URL (Accessed date). Example In-text citation Full reference 15X443 Information literacy (Jones et al., 2005) Jones, H. M., McKay, J., Alvarado, F., Plath, E., Jordan, A., Porter, M., Allsop, S. (2005) ‘The attractions of stupidity’, The St. Croix e-Review, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 6–10 Online. Available at http:// st_croix_e-review.com/index.php/articles/ view/30/6/ (Accessed 28 October 2010). Not all online journals have page numbers, in which case it is correct to format references without these. For articles that have been accepted for publication by a journal for a forthcoming issue which you may have been able to access online before the publication date, use ‘Forthcoming’ in place of the date. For guidance about referencing online figures, diagrams and tables, see ‘Figures, diagrams and tables’ (Section 7.6). URLs and DOIs for ejournals If the article is not from a database, you should use the standard URL provided, as in the example above. If you access the article via a library subscription database, you should include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in your reference, if a DOI is available. A DOI is a permanent link for an electronic document. This takes the form of a unique number that identifies the article and should be placed after ‘Online’ in the reference. Some databases and electronic journals provide persistent links or permalinks (a URL that should get you directly to the article). If there is no DOI, use the persistent link or permalink. If there is no persistent link or permalink available and your article is from a database, we would recommend just listing the name of the database you got it from. This is because if you copy the URL in the address bar from the database following a search, it is unlikely to work for someone else using it to find the article. Examples showing DOI, persistent link and database name In-text citation Full reference (Miller and Pole, 2010) Miller, E. and Pole, A. (2010) ‘Diagnosis blog: checking up on health blogs in the blogosphere’, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 1514–1519 Online. DOI: 10.2105/ AJPH.2009.175125 (Accessed 15 December 2011). 166 Journal and newspaper articles (Callahan, 2011) Callahan, D. (2011) ‘Rationing: theory, politics, and passions’, Hastings Center Report, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 23–27 Online. Available at http://libezproxy. open.ac.uk/login?url=http://search. ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=cmedm&AN=21495512&- site=eds-live&scope=site (Accessed 8 December 2011). (Jones et al., 2011) Jones, C., Orr, B. and Eiser, J. (2011) ‘When is enough, enough? Identifying predictors of capacity estimates for onshore wind-power development in a region of the UK’, Energy Policy,vol.39, no. 8 Online. Available at GreenFILE, EBSCOhost (Accessed 13 December 2011). Systematic reviews A systematic review collects published and unpublished research on the same intervention, topic or question. It assesses the quality of each study and provides health professionals with a summary of evidence from the best. Example In-text citation Full reference (Pidala et al., 2011) Pidala, J., Djulbegovic, B., Anasetti, C., Kharfan-Dabaja, M. and Kumar, A. (2011) Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first complete remission, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,issue10,art. no.: CD008818 Online DOI: 10.1002/ 14651858.CD008818.pub2 (Accessed 12 December 2013). 6.3 Printed newspaper articles In-text citation: (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) says… Full reference: 17X443 Information literacy Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of the article’, Title of the Newspaper, date, page number. Example In-text citation Full reference (Mackay, 2002) Mackay, C. (2002) ‘Alert over big cat’, The Daily Mirror,4July,p.28. When there is no named author for an article, use the name of the newspaper for your in-text citation, and start your reference with the title of the newspaper (in italics). e.g. The Times (2008) ‘Bank accounts’, 14 June, p. 7. 6.4 Online newspaper articles In-text citation: (Author, year of publication) or Author (year of publication) says… Full reference: Author, A. (year of publication) ‘Title of the article’, Title of the Newspaper, date Online. Available at URL (Accessed date). Examples In-text citation Full reference (MacLeod, 2007) MacLeod, D. (2007) ‘Oxbridge trainee teachers twice as likely to get jobs’, Guardian, 3 August Online. Available at http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/ news/story/0,,2140513,00.html? gusrc=rss&feed=8 (Accessed 3 August 2007). (Rawnsley, 2013) Rawnsley, A. (2013) ‘A shining lesson that politics can be a tremendous force for good’, Observer, 8 December, p. 39, Online. Available at Nexis UK (Accessed 11 December 2013). Note that if you accessed a newspaper article from a database, you should format the reference as in the second example above. 18