How to cite sources in a Research Paper APA style

how to write an apa research paper step by step and how to write an apa format paper step by step and how to write a research paper apa guideline
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A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition A guide to the th APA 6 ed. referencing style This guide has been prepared by staff from the UCOL Student Experience Team (SET) Library and Learning Services January 2015 1 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition What is APA? th Your assignment states – Please reference using the APA style - 6 ed. You think to yourself ... “Arrrgghhh... what does that mean, why do I have to do it and how do I do it?” APA is one of many referencing styles used in academic writing. APA stands for American Psychological Association. The Association outlines the style in the Publication manual of the American th Psychological Association APA (6 ed.). UCOL programmes utilise the APA referencing style. There are many different referencing styles (over 100). It is essential to follow the style specified in your assignments and not to mix styles. Consistency of style is important Why reference? When you reference you use the standardised style to acknowledge the source of information used in your assignment. It is important (morally & legally) to acknowledge someone else’s ideas or words you have used. Academic writing encourages paraphrasing information you have researched and read. Paraphrasing means re-wording something you have read in to your own words. If you use someone else’s words or work and fail to acknowledge them – you may be accused of plagiarism and infringing copyright. Referencing correctly enables the marker or reader of your assignment to locate the source of the information. They can verify the information or read further on the topic. Referencing also allows for you to retrace your steps and locate information you have used for assignments and discover further views or ideas discussed by the author. By referencing clearly and correctly, it demonstrates you have undertaken research on the assignment topic and located relevant information. There are two main parts to referencing: 1. The first indicating within your assignment the sources of the information you have used to write your assignment. This demonstrates support for your ideas, arguments and views. Sometimes this is referred to as: citing in text, in text citations or text citations 2. The second part to referencing is the construction of a reference list. The reference list shows the complete details of everything you cited and appears in an alphabetical list on a separate page, at the end of your assignment. Tip: Everything you have cited in text appears in your reference list and likewise... everything that appears in your reference list will have been cited in text Check this is the case prior to handing in your assignment. (The exception is when using a personal communication. Personal communications are cited in text but do not appear in the reference list. See page 25). 6 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition th The following guide provides some general rules and examples using the 6 ed. of APA. For further information and help: th  Refer to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6 ed.) from here on referred to as the APA manual, especially chapters 6 & 7. Copies are available at the UCOL Library, some for borrowing, some on Desk reserve. Shelf number: 808.027 PUB  Student Experience Team members (Learning Services & Library staff) are available to assist with referencing  See the APAstyle website ( http://www.apastyle.org/)  Plus there are APA wizards freely available online and Microsoft Word provides a built-in referencing function (Note: some editing maybe required when using these tools) How to reference 1. In text citations Even though you have put someone else’s ideas or information in your own words (i.e. paraphrased), you still need to show where the original idea or information came from. This is all part of the academic writing process. When citing in text within an assignment, use the author/s (or editor/s) last name followed by the year of publication. Example: Water is a necessary part of every person’s diet and of all the nutrients a body needs to function, it requires more water each day than any other nutrient (Whitney & Rolfes, 2011). or Whitney and Rolfes (2011) state the body requires many nutrients to function but highlight that water is of greater importance than any other nutrient. or Water is an essential element of anyone’s diet and Whitney and Rolfes (2011) emphasise it is more important than any other nutrient. Reference list entry: Whitney, E., & Rolfes, S. (2011). Understanding nutrition (12th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Note: This book did not have a city for place of publication, just a country. Extra note: This book has an edition. This information is included straight after the title. 7 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 1.1. Three, four or five authors If a work has three (3), four (4) or five (5) authors, cite all authors the first time and from then on include only the last name of the first author followed by the words et al. (‘et al.’ is Latin for ‘and others’) Example: Research can be defined as a systematic method of creating new knowledge or a way to verify existing knowledge (Watson, McKenna, Cowman & Keady, 2008). Deciding on a research method demands the researcher consider carefully the problem or area of investigation being researched (Watson et al., 2008). Reference list entry: Watson, R., McKenna, H., Cowman, S., & Keady, K. (Eds.). (2008). Nursing reseach: Designs and methods. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. Note: The people were identified as the editors, hence ‘(Eds.)’ is a shortened version of Editors. 1.2. Six or seven authors If a work has six (6) or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al. each time you refer to this work. Example: (Mikosch et al., 2010) Reference list entry: When a source has up to seven (7) authors, include all names in the reference list. Mikosch, P., Hadrawa, T., Laubreiter, K., Brandl, J., Pilz, J., Stettner, H., & Grimm, G. (2010). Effectiveness of respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia biofeedback on state-anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(5), 1101-1110. 1.3. Eight or more authors When there are eight (8) or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ each time you refer to this work. Example: (Vissing et al., 2004) Note in the reference list: When there are eight (8) or more authors, include the first six (6) authors’ names and then use ellipsis points (...) before concluding with the last author’s name. 8 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition Reference list entry: Vissing, K., Brink, M., Lonbro, S., Sorensen, H., Overgaard, K., Danborg, K., ... Aagaard, P. (2008). Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(6), 1799-1810. 1.4. Groups as authors The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g., corporations, associations, government agencies) are usually written in full each time they appear in a text citation. The names of some group authors (e.g., associations, government agencies) are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter. In deciding whether to abbreviate the name of a group author, use the general rule that you need to give enough information in the text citation for the reader to locate the entry in the reference list without difficulty. Some groups are recognised by an abbreviation (e.g., WHO for World Health Organisation). Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 176. First text citation: (Ministry of Health MOH, 2007). Second & subsequent citations: (MOH, 2007). Reference list entry: Ministry of Health. (2007). Looking at long-term residential care in a rest home or hospital: What you need to know. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. Note: If the author and publisher are the same – Author – can be used to indicate the publisher in place of the full name. See the example above. Group as author no abbreviation New Zealand House of Representatives, Health Committee. (2007, August). Inquiry into obesity and type 2 diabetes in New Zealand: Report presented to the House of Representatives. Retrieved from http://www.parliament.nz/NR/rdonlyres/47F52D0D-0132-42EF-A297- 6AB08980C0EA/61821/DBSCH_SCR_3868_5335.pdf In text citation: (New Zealand House of Representatives, Health Committee, 2007). 1.5. Similar information referred to by more than one author There may be occasion to refer to more than one source in relation to similar information. In this case, list the sources in alphabetical order within the brackets, separated by a semi-colon. Example: Resilience is seen as the ability to overcome adversary, combat stress and bounce back from hardship (Dawson, 2006; Overton, 2005). 9 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition Reference list entry: Dawson, L. (2006). Wise up: How to be fearless and fulfilled in midlife. Auckland, New Zealand: Random House New Zealand. Overton, A. (2005). Stress less: Make stress work for you not against you. Auckland, New Zealand: Random House New Zealand. 1.6. Same author and same date If a work has the same author and same date, differentiate between them by assigning lowercase letters a, b, c, etc. They are listed in the reference list alphabetically by title (excluding A or The). Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 178, 182. Examples: Eyes are susceptible to melanoma, even though it is rare (Cancer Society of New Zealand, 2013a). According to the Cancer Society of New Zealand (2013b) the rate of… Reference list entry: Cancer Society of New Zealand. (2013a). Ocular melanoma: Information sheet. Retrieved from http://www.cancernz.org.nz/information/cancer-types/ Cancer Society of New Zealand. (2013b). Reducing your cancer risk. Retrieved from http://www.cancernz.org.nz/reducing-your-cancer-risk/ 1.7. One work by one author, when the author is cited more than once in a paragraph Refer to the APA Manual, 2010, p 174 (section 6.11) The rules for this are quite complex, mostly because there is one rule for citations in brackets (parenthetical) and other rules for citations that are part of the narrative. ‘Part of the narrative’ means that the reference is part of a sentence, and not in brackets. Examples If a citation is part of the narrative, it looks like ‘According to Jones (2013)…, or Jones (2013) states that…. If a citation is parenthetical, it looks like ‘(Jones, 2013)’. 10 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition Citations in brackets (parenthetical) One rule, very straightforward. The APA manual states that the year should be included in all citations that are in brackets. “Do include the year in all parenthetical citations” (APA, 2010, p. 174) This applies irrespective of the style (part of the narrative, or parenthetical) of the first citation. Example from APA manual (2010, p. 174) Among epidemiological samples, Kessler et al. (2003) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course. ….The study also showed that there was a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression (Kessler et al., 2003). Citations that are part of the narrative There are two rules for this style of citing. Not so simple. If the first citation is part of the narrative, do not include the year in subsequent references that are in the narrative. APA states “you need not include the year in subsequent nonparenthetical emphasis added references….” (APA, 2010, p. 174). We asked for clarification of the meaning of ‘need not’, via the APAstyle blog, and they have informed us that it is correct to interpret the text ‘you need not’ to mean ‘do not’. Example from APA manual (2010, p. 174) Among epidemiological samples, Kessler et al. (2003) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course. Kessler et al. also found…. If the first citation is in brackets, the year is to be included in subsequent citations within the paragraph. (this applies whether they are in the narrative or parenthetical) Example from APA manual (2010, p. 175) Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler et al., 2003). Kessler et al. (2003) also found… 1.8. Citing a secondary source Where possible use original material. However, if the information you wish to use is cited by another author, acknowledge the source you have read, showing it is a secondary source. This demonstrates you have not read the original source but read about it in a secondary source. Within the text citation, use the words “as cited in” to indicate this is a secondary source. In the reference list, include the author and details of the source you actually read. Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 178. Example: Fawcett (as cited in Polit & Beck, 2008) outlined the four main concepts… Reference list entry: Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing th practice (8 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 11 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 2. Direct quotes Quoting directly from a work should be done sparingly, in order to emphasis or stress a point in your essay. When using a quote, it must be copied exactly as written in the original work including any punctuation or incorrect spelling. When using a quote, include the author’s last name, year of publication and page number/s where the quote appears. Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 170-173 for further information. 2.1. Short quote – less than 40 words To indicate a short quote (less than 40 words), enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Example: “Self-directed learning is also a term with which you will become familiar as you study in Australia or New Zealand. Students are expected to take responsibility for their own learning and organise their own study” (Hally, 2009, p. 7). 2.2. Longer quote – 40 words or more For a quote that is 40 words or more, include it in your essay as a freestanding piece of text or block form and do not use the quotation marks. Double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include the author’s name, year of publication and page number/s after the full stop. Example: Principle-based teaching and principle-based learning are important in nursing, particularly as they relate to clinical skills. Clinical skills are usually taught according to principles, and this means that the student learns key principles associated with the skill, and then applies those principles to the actual performance of the skill. (Hally, 2009, p. 6) Reference list entry: Hally, M. B. (2009). A guide for international nursing students in Australia and New Zealand. Sydney, Australia: Elsevier. 12 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 2.3. Quotations from online resources that do not provide page numbers The APA manual (2010, p. 171-172) states when using direct quotes from online material provide the author, year and page number within brackets ( ). If the page number is not known, use a paragraph number. If the paragraph number could confuse the reader, consider including a section heading e.g. discussion section. Example: “The WTN exists to "encourage serendipity" the happy accidents of colliding ideas and new relationships that cause the biggest breakthroughs for individuals and institutions” (World Technology Network, 2014, para. 3). Reference list entry: World Technology Network. (2014). About the World Technology Network. Retrieved from http://www.wtn.net/about 13 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 3. The reference list All references or information sources cited in any written work (i.e. essays, reports, research papers, etc.) need to be listed in a reference list on a separate page at the end of your assignment, headed ‘References’ or ‘Reference List’. The reference list provides all the details necessary for the person reading and/or marking the assignment to locate and retrieve any information source cited. An accurate and properly constructed reference list provides credibility to the written work it accompanies. Tip: Everything you have cited in text appears in your reference list and, likewise, everything that appears in your reference list will have been cited in text Check this is the case prior to handing in your assignment. (The exception is when citing a personal communication. Personal communications are cited in text but do not appear in the reference list. See example 4.21) Basic rules 1. The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of the authors’ last names. 2. If there is more than one work by the same author, order them by publication date – oldest to newest (therefore a 2004 publication would appear before a 2008 publication). 3. If there is no author the title moves to that position and the entry is alphabetised by the first significant word, excluding words such as “A” or “The”. If the title is long, it may be shortened when citing in text. 4. Use “&” instead of “and” when listing multiple authors of a source. 5. The first line of the reference list entry is left-hand justified, while all subsequent lines are consistently indented. 6. Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if there is one, plus any proper names – i. e. only those words that would normally be capitalised. 7. Italicise the title of the book, the title of the journal/serial and the title of the web document. 8. Do not create separate lists for each type of information source. Books, articles, web documents, brochures, etc. are all arranged alphabetically in one list. When creating the reference list entry for an information source you need to identify and record specific details. It might be useful to remember these Ws Who – wrote /edited it – author or editor When was it written – date What is it – title of book, title of the article & serial/journal, title of the web document Where was it published (Books) – place of publication– usually city & country and publisher’s name Where was the article located (Serial/journal) - volume number, issue number and page numbers of the article Where you located it (Internet sources) - URL – web address 14 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition The following are the details for common types of references. The information is usually found on the title page and the back of the title page of a book. For serials/journals, you will find the information included on the article plus the front cover or inside pages of a print serial. Webpages can take a bit of detective work. You may need to scroll to the bottom of the webpage to find a date and an author. Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 180-192, for further information. 3.1. Books 1. Author/s or Editor/s last name (surname) appears first, followed by initials (Bloggs, J.). 2. Year of publication in brackets (2010). 3. Full title of the book. Capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle, if any, and proper names. Italicise the title. Use a colon (:) between the title and subtitle. 4. Include the edition number, if applicable, in brackets after the title or subtitle (3rd ed.) or (Rev. ed.). Note: No full stop, after the title, if there is an edition. 5. Place of publication. Always include the city and 2-letter state code when published inside the USA, and the city & country, if published outside the USA (Fort Bragg, CA or Auckland, New Zealand or Benalla, Australia or Weybridge, England). If there are two or more places included in the source, then use the first one listed. 6. Publisher’s name. Provide this as briefly as possible. Do not use terms such as Publishers, Co., or Inc. but include the words Books & Press. When the author and the publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher. 3.2. Book – one author Collier, A. (2008). The world of tourism and travel. Rosedale, New Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand. 3.3. Book – place of publication Note: always include the city and 2-letter state code when published inside the USA, and city & country if published outside the USA. Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. Berkeley, CA: New Riders. Stein, R. (2001). Rick Stein’s seafood. London, England: BBC. 3.4. Book – editor rd Aspinall, V. (Ed.). (2014). Clinical procedures in veterinary nursing (3 ed.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier. 15 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 3.5. Book – author & publisher are the same MidCentral District Health Board. (2008). District annual plan 2008/09. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Author. 3.6. Chapter in an edited book Palmer, F. (2007). Treaty principles and Maori sport: Contemporary issues. In C. Collins & S. Jackson nd (Eds.), Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society (2 ed., pp. 307-334). South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson. McKinney, C., & Smith, N. (2005). Te Tiriti o Waitangi or The Treaty of Waitangi: What is the difference? In D. Wepa (Ed.), Cultural safety in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 39-57). Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand. 3.7. Serial/journal articles 1. Author/s last name (surname) first, followed by initials. 2. Year of publication in brackets. (2012) 3. Title of article. Capitalise only the first word of the title and the subtitle, if any, and proper names. Use a colon (:) between the title and subtitle. 4. Title of the serial/journal in full in italics. 5. Volume number, in italics. Do not use “Vol.” before the number. 6. Issue number. This is bracketed immediately after the volume number but not italicised. 7. Month, season or other designation of publication if there is no volume or issue number. 8. Include all page numbers. 9. Include any Digital Object Identifiers DOI. 3.8. Serial / journal article (print) Thompson, C. (2010). Facebook: Cautionary tales for nurses. Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand, 16(7), 26. 3.9. Serial / journal article – more than one author (print) Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583. 16 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 3.10. Serial / journal article (online from a database – e.g. EBSCO or Newztext) The database name and retrieval date are no longer required. Include the home page of the journal. This may require a quick web search to locate the URL (Refer to the APA manual, p. 191-192, 199). Marshall, M., Carter, B., Rose, K., & Brotherton, A. (2009). Living with type 1 diabetes: Perceptions of children and their parents. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(12), 1703-1710. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0962-1067 Otherwise, simply reference the journal article as per the print version (check with your lecturer to ensure this is acceptable) Huy, C., Becker, S., Gomolinsky, U., Klein, T., & Thiel, A. (2008). Health, medical risk factors and bicycle use in everyday life in the over-50 population. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 16(4), 454-464. 3.11. Serial / journal – more than one author (online– DOI) th The 6 ed. of the APA manual emphasises the use of DOI (Digital Object Identifiers). Many publishers, databases and online journals use DOIs. They are alpha-numeric codes that usually appear on the first page of the article. Copy the DOI exactly as it appears. Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.03.007 If the article has no DOI: Consider providing the home page URL of the journal. If you are accessing the article from a database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL. It is not necessary to include the name of the database. No retrieval date is necessary for content that is not likely to be changed or updated. These are DOI resolver / locator sites: http://dx.doi.org/ and http://www.crossref.org/ 3.12. Serial / Journal article – 8 or more authors (online – no DOI) Reference list: Crooks, C., Ameratunga, R., Brewerton, M., Torok, M., Buetow, S., Brothers, S., … Jorgensen, P. (2010). Adverse reactions to food in New Zealand children aged 0-5 years. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327). Retrieved from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/123-1327/4469/ In text citation: (Crooks et al., 2010). 17 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 3.13. Internet sources Where possible, include similar information, in the same order, as you would for other types of information and other sources (who, when, what) and then add the electronic retrieval information required for people to locate the material you cited (where). 1. Author/s of the document or information – individual or organisation/corporate author. 2. Date of publication. If no date is available use (n.d.). 3. Title of the document or webpage in italics. 4. Complete & correct web address/URL. th Note: APA 6 ed. does not require a retrieval date for most online information, although, the APA manual states to include a retrieval date for material that may change over time (e.g. Wikis) (p.192). 3.14. Internet – no author, no date When using information from the Internet consider carefully the origins of the information. Is it credible, valid and reliable? Sometimes it is not clear who (author) wrote it or when (date) it was written. Reference list: Pet therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holisticonline.com/stress/stress_pet-therapy.htm In text citation: (Pet therapy, n.d.). 3.15. Internet – Organisation / Corporate author Reference list: Ministry of Health. (2014). Ebola: Information for the public. Retrieved from http://www.health.govt.nz/your-health/conditions-and-treatments/diseases-and-illnesses/ebola- information-public In text citation: First time cited: (Ministry of Health MOH, 2014). Second and subsequent citations: (MOH, 2014). SPCA New Zealand. (2011). Your dog may be dying from the heat Press release. Retrieved from http://www.rnzspca.org.nz/news/press-releases/360-your-dog-may-be-dying-from-the-heat In text citation: (SPCA New Zealand, 2011). 18 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 4. Examples of various types of information sources The following are examples of various types of information sources UCOL students and staff may use for their study and assignments. For further details and examples see the APA manual (2010), especially chapters 6 & 7. 4.1. Act (statute / legislation) Reference list: Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. (2013, December 16). Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz Note: The date in brackets is the date on the Act indicating the latest update or reprint. In text citation: (Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, 2013). 4.2. Blog post Reference list: Stefanie. (2014, October 8). What a tangled web: Website versus webpage Blog post. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2014/10/what-a-tangled-web-website-versus-webpage.html Note: The title of the blog post is not italicised – who knows why not? The vagaries of APA Refer to the APA manual, 2010, p. 215. The APA manual uses the technical term Web log post as the descriptor but we have used the common terminology Blog post. In text citation: (Stefanie, 2014). 4.3. Brochure / pamphlet Tamihana, B. (2007). Gambling health promotion: Mate petipeti whakapiki hauora Brochure. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Best Care (Whakapai Hauora) Charitable trust. 4.4. Brochure / pamphlet (no author) Reference list: Ageing well: How to be the best you can be Brochure. (2009a). Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health. In text citation (for print brochure): (“Ageing well,” 2009a). 19 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition Same brochure accessed online Ageing well: How to be the best you can be Brochure. (2009b). Retrieved from https://www.healthed.govt.nz/resource/ageing-well-how-be-best-you-can-be 4.5. Clickview see DVD / Video / Motion Picture 4.6. Conference Paper Reference list: Williams, J., & Seary, K. (2010). Bridging the divide: Scaffolding the learning experiences of the mature age student. In J. Terrell (Ed.), Making the links: Learning, teaching and high quality student th outcomes. Proceedings of the 9 Conference of the New Zealand Association of Bridging Educators (pp. 104-116). Wellington, New Zealand. In text citation: (Williams & Seary, 2010). 4.7. Conference paper (online) Reference list: Cannan, J. (2008). Using practice based learning at a dual-sector tertiary institution: A discussion of current practice. In R. K. Coll, & K. Hoskyn (Eds.), Working together: Putting the cooperative into cooperative education. Conference proceedings of the New Zealand Association for Cooperative Education, New Plymouth, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.nzace.ac.nz/conferences/papers/Proceedings_2008.pdf MacColl, F., Ker, I., Huband, A., Veith, G., & Taylor, J. (2009, November 12-13). Minimising pedestrian- cyclist conflict on paths. Paper presented at the Seventh New Zealand Cycling Conference, New Plymouth, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://cyclingconf.org.nz/system/files/NZCyclingConf09_2A_MacColl_PedCycleConflicts.pdf In text citation: First time cited: (MacColl, Ker, Huband, Veith & Taylor, 2009). Second and subsequent citations: (MacColl et al., 2009). 20 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 4.8. Dictionary (print) Reference list: th Weller, B. F. (Ed.). (2009). Bailliere’s nurses dictionary: For nurses and health care workers (25 ed.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier. 4.9. Dictionary (online) Reference list: Cambridge dictionaries online. (2011). Retrieved from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ In text citation: (Cambridge dictionaries online, 2011). 4.10. Specific entry in an online dictionary (no author or editor) Reference list: Acquiescence. (2011). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/acquiescence In text citation: (Acquiescence, 2011). 4.11. Specific entry in an online dictionary (editor) Simpson, J. (Ed.). (2011). Acquiescence. In Oxford English dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com/ 4.12. DVD / Video / Motion Picture (including Clickview & Youtube) Reference list: Gardiner, A., Curtis, C., & Michael, E. (Producers), & Waititi, T. (Director). (2010). Boy: Welcome to my interesting world DVD. New Zealand: Transmission. In text citation: (Gardiner, Curtis, Michael & Waititi, 2010). Reference list: Ahmed, A. (Producer), & Breitenmoser, K. (Director). (2012). Job seeker Q&A: Planning your search Clickview DVD. Bendigo, Australia: VEA. Competenz NZ. (2014, October 16). The tattooed baker Video file. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Gr1IaBVXkI&list=UUfkO7pVdIaH2ROyw0pzvryg 21 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition 4.13. e-book (including Safari and Google books) Reference list: Rich, J. R. (2011). Your iPad 2 at work e-book. Retrieved from http://safaribooksonline.com nd Sadun, E., Grothaus, M., & Sande, S. (2011). Taking your iPad 2 to the max (2 ed.). e-book. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.nz 4.14. Figures (images, illustrations, photographs, maps, charts) When you use a figure for educational purposes (e.g. in essays, reports, presentations, Moodle) you need to reference the source of the figure. This means you need to cite and reference the publication details of where you found the figure e.g. the web page, newspaper, book, or any other publication. Check with your lecturer to make sure you meet the programme requirements for referencing figures.  Insert the figure within your essay/report, not In text citation as a separate page.  Use the most original source available.  The in text citation below the figure identifies the source.  Include the page or paragraph number if there is one.  Include the full details in the reference list. (Evans, 2000, p.45). or Image Optional extras  You can include a label: Figure 1  You can include a title and/or information about the figure. This can be in your own words if necessary.  You do not need to repeat all the caption Figure 1. A fine tauihu (Evans, 2000, details within the narrative. You may simply p.45). refer to Figure 1, Figure 2 etc. In the reference list  Where did you find this figure? Image  You need to provide the information to identify and find each source.  Include all the publishing details in your reference list (Who. When. What. Where from.) This is the information that will let your reader find the book or journal article or web page or database where you found the figure. 22 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition Specific examples Source In text citation Reference list (Who, When) Who. (When). What. Where from. From Google Images Zimbio. (2013). NZFW A/W 2013: Find the original source by Charlie Brown – Backstage selecting the image then select Image. Retrieved from ‘Visit page’. Reference this page http://www.zimbio.com/ i.e. go to where Google located pictures/ZIL6dIX5VQT/NZFW+ the image W+2013+Charlie+Brown+Back (Zimbio, 2013) stage From a book (or a journal article) Evans, J. (2000). Waka taua: The Maori war canoe. Auckland, Include the page number in the New Zealand: Reed. in text citation (Evans, 2000, p.45) From a database Heart Image. (2012). Retrieved e.g. Britannica Images Quest from Encyclopaedia Britannica or SMART Imagebase. Image Quest database. Note: No Who (author) is (Heart, 2012) obvious, therefore the What (title) is used. Unpublished – in a personal collection Not in the ‘Reference list’ as it has not been published i.e. you created the figure and it is not published. Douglas Channel, Canada, 2009 (Personal collection) Art works Pool, P. (1973). Impressionism. In the caption include the details London, England: Thames & you consider to be relevant Hudson. about the art work e.g. Artist, Title, Year created. Figure 1. Manet, River at This is followed by the in text citation which is giving details Argenteuil, 1874 (Pool, about where the figure was 1973, p.134) published. Clip Art Check with your lecturer – do Child’s footprint. Image. (n.d.). they want you to reference Clip Microsoft Word Clip Art. Art or not? (Child’s footprint, n.d.) 23 A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition Copyright of figures (Images, illustrations, photographs, maps, charts) You do not need to get copyright permission if you are using the figure for educational purposes. The New Zealand Copyright Act (1994) allows the free use of figures for educational purposes but they must be referenced. If you plan to sell or exhibit your work you will need to get copyright permission for figures used. The Copyright Council of New Zealand provides useful information at http://www.copyright.org.nz/infosheets.php 4.15. Magazine Reference list: White, M. (2011, October). Food, inglorious food. North & South, 307, 96-97. Ng, A. (2011, October-December). Brush with history. Habitus, 13, 83-87. In text citation: (Ng, 2011). 4.16. Moodle Note: It is advisable to check with your lecturer prior to referencing information from Moodle. Some lecturers may not permit it. Provide enough details to clearly show where you retrieved the information. Darragh, L. (2012). Professional and cultural practice 513: Consent: Patient care in professional and cultural practice Moodle. Palmerston North, New Zealand: UCOL. 4.17. Music recording (Whole album) Reference list: Midler, B. (2010b). Memories of you CD. London, England: Warner Music UK. In text citation: (Midler, 2010b). Reference list: Nga Pihi. (2011b). Taki mei ao: Maori songs for children CD. Porirua, New Zealand: Universal Children’s Audio. In text citation: (Nga Pihi, 2011b). 24