How to Avoid Plagiarism in Research

depict how to avoid plagiarism in the research process and how to write a research ethics statement to research ethics committee | free Pdf download
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Published Date:06-07-2017
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Research Ethics Prashant V. Kamat Based on the lectures of Leonard V. Interrante Editor-in-chief, Chemistry of Materials Presented at in the Symposium on Scientific Publishing, ACS National Meeting, Atlanta, GA March 2006 On Being a Scientist: Third Edition Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine do students learn ethical decision making? 1. Mentor, advisor 2. Fellow graduate students 3. Family 4. Friends not in graduate school 5. Other faculty 6. Religious beliefs 7. Discussions in courses, labs, seminars 8. Professional organizations 9. Courses dealing with ethical issues Setting off on the road to the responsible conduct of research (From ORI intro/c02/0c2.html ) - J. P. Swazey, K. S. Louis, and M. S. Anderson, “The ethical training of graduate students requires serious and continuing attention,” Chronicle of Higher Education 9 (March 1994):B1–2; J. P. Swazey, “Ethical problems in academic research,” American Scientist 81(Nov./Dec. 1993):542–53.Three sets of obligations of a researchers to adhere to professional standards. 1. An obligation to honor the trust that their colleagues place in them. 2. An obligation to themselves. Irresponsible conduct in research can make it impossible to achieve a goal. 3. An obligation to act in ways that serve the public. On Being Scientist Available free for one downloadResearch Ethics Part I. Sharing Scientific Knowledge •Research publication •Authorship and collaborative Research •Scientific Misconduct –FFP & QRP Good Luck •Examples of scientific misconduct in literature on your new job Part II Laboratory Practice and COI •Practices of Image and Data Manipulation •Data Ownership & Intellectual Property Guidelines •Conflict of Interest & Commitment Who owns research data? •Govt. vs. Industry Sponsored Research (From ORI •Sharing the data in thesis intro/c02/0c2.html )Scientific Knowledge The object of research is to extend human knowledge beyond what is already known. But an individual’s knowledge enters the domain of science only after it is presented to others in such a fashion that they can independently judge its validity (NAP, “On Being a Scientist” 1995)Sharing Scientific Knowledge “Science is a shared knowledge based on a common understanding of some aspect of the physical or social world” (NAP, “On Being a Scientist” 1995) Presentations - Social conventions play an important role in establishing the reliability of scientific knowledge Publications in peer reviewed journals - Research results are privileged until they are published ThesisWhy Publish? •“A paper is an organized description of hypotheses, data and conclusions, intended to instruct the reader. If your research does not generate papers, it might just as well not have been done” (G. Whitesides, Adv. Mater., 2004, 16, 1375) • “if it wasn’t published, it wasn’t done”-in E.H. Miller 1993Scientific Publication is a Team Effort Journal Reviewer Authors ACS Journals: Great Manuscript • The list of authors establishes accountability as But LAB CHIEF well as credit. always gets listed as FIRST author • Policies at most scientific journals state that a person should be listed as the author of a paper only if that person made a direct and substantial intellectual contribution to the design of the research, the interpretation of the data, or the drafting of the paper. • The acknowledgments section can be used to thank those who indirectly contributed to the work. Including “honorary,” “guest,” or “gift” authors dilutes the credit due the people who actually did the work, inflates the credentials of the added authors, and Responsible authorship? makes the proper attribution of credit more difficult. (From ORI (“On Being a Scientist” , NAP) intro/c02/0c2.html )Author Responsibilities – Preparation and Submission of Manuscripts: Follow General Rules: – Ensure work is new and original research – All Authors are aware of submission and agree with content and support submission – Agree that the manuscript can be examined by anonymous reviewers. – Provide copies of related work submitted or published elsewhere – Obtain copyright permission if figures/tables need to be reproduced – Include proper affiliation What is publishable…. Journals like to publish papers that are going to be widely read and useful to the readers • Papers that report “original and significant” findings that are likely to be of interest to a broad spectrum of its readers • Papers that are well organized and well written, with clear statements regarding how the findings relate to and advance the understanding/development of the subject • Papers that are concise and yet complete in their presentation of the findingsWhat is not acceptable… • Papers that are routine extensions of previous reports and that do not appreciably advance fundamental understanding or knowledge in the area • Incremental / fragmentary reports of research results • Verbose, poorly organized, papers cluttered with unnecessary or poor quality illustrations • Violations of ethical guidelines, including plagiarism of any type or degree (of others or of oneself) and questionable research practices (QRP) Research Misconduct Research misconduct means Fabrication, Falsification, or Plagiarism (FFP) in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results. (a) Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them. (b) Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. (c) Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. (d) Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion. Definitions: Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism • Plagiarism: using the ideas or words of another person without giving appropriate credit (Nat. Acad. Press document) • Self-Plagiarism: The verbatim copying or reuse of one’s own research (IEEE Policy statement) Both types of plagiarism are considered to be unacceptable practice in scientific literatureACS Publication Policy Plagiarism statement for Ethical Guidelines January 2009 B. 9. It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that the submitted manuscript is original and shall not contain plagiarized material. Plagiarism is passing off another person’s work as one’s own, i.e., reusing text, results, or creative expression without explicitly acknowledging or referencing the original author or publication. Authors should be aware this includes self-plagiarism, defined as the reuse of significant portions of the author’s own published work or works, without attribution to the original source. Examples of plagiarism include verbatim copying of published articles; verbatim copying of elements of published articles (e.g., figures, illustrations, tables); verbatim copying of elements of published articles with crediting, but not clearly differentiating original work from previously published work; and self-plagiarism. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain proper permission and to appropriately cite or quote the material not original to the author. In this context, “quote” is defined as reusing other works with proper acknowledgement. Appropriate citation applies whether the material was written by another author or the author him or herself. A tale of two citations Mounir Errami & Harold Garner Nature 451, 397-399 (24 Jan 2008) doi:10.1038/451397a "It is the best of times, it is the worst of times". Scientific productivity, as measured by scholarly publication rates, is at an all-time high. However, high- profile cases of scientific misconduct remind us that not all those publications are to be trusted — but how many and which papers? The most unethical practices involve substantial reproduction of another study (bringing no novelty to the scientific community) without proper acknowledgement. If such duplicates have different authors, then they may be guilty of plagiarism, whereas papers with overlapping authors may represent self-plagiarism. Simultaneous submission of duplicate articles by the same authors to different journals also violates journal policies. Mounir Errami & Harold Garner Nature 451, 397-399 (24 Jan 2008) China and Japan, have estimated duplication rates that are roughly twice that expected for the number of publications they contribute to Medline. Perhaps the complexity of translation between different scripts, differences in ethics training and cultural norms contribute to elevated duplication rates in these two countries. Other Types of Ethical Violations • Duplicate publication/submission of research findings; failure to inform the editor of related papers that the author has under consideration or “in press” • Unrevealed conflicts of interest that could affect the interpretation of the findings • Misrepresentation of research findings - use of selective or fraudulent data to support a hypothesis or claimWOW…..DOES Data Manipulation THIS HAPPEN OFTEN? • Researchers who manipulate their data in ways that deceive others are violating both the basic values and widely accepted professional standards of science. - failure to fulfill all three obligations. • They mislead their colleagues and potentially impede progress in their field or research. • They undermine their own authority and trustworthiness as researchers. (From ORI intro/c02/0c2.html ) Misleading data can also arise from poor experimental design or careless measurements as well as from improper manipulation. When a mistake appears in a journal article or book, it should be corrected in a note, erratum (for a production error), or Additions/CorrectionsSooner or later ……. ethical violations get exposed Some recent examples

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