how to start writing research papers

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Mount Saint Vincent University Library Guide to Writing Research Papers 1TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1. Introduction 3 1.1 Assignment Requirements 3 1.2 Choosing a Topic 3 1.3 Understanding the Topic 4 1.4 Developing the Topic 4 1.5 Preliminary Outline 5 2. Research 5 2.1 Plagiarism 5 2.2 Collecting Resources 6 2.3 Organizing Resources 6 2.4 Using the Novanet Catalogue to Find Books 8 2.5 Finding Periodical Articles 10 2.6 Finding Web Pages 12 2.7 Other Sources of Information 13 2.8 Taking Notes 13 3. Writing 14 3.1 Writing the First Draft of Your Paper 14 3.2 Revising/Editing the Draft. 15 3.3 Works Cited & Bibliography 15 3.4 Final Draft 16 21. INTRODUCTION As a university student, you will undoubtedly have to write research papers. The tasks of selecting a topic, preparing an outline, locating sources, reading books and articles, taking notes, citing references, writing, rewriting, word processing and proofreading may sound challenging at first, but they merely require time and, above all, organization. Allow yourself enough time to do a thorough research job; avoid the last minute panic. The following is a step-by-step guide that explains the research process. It will help you prepare a well-organized research paper. Many departments provide documentation or booklets that describe the research process within a specific discipline. Check with your professors to determine if they prefer that you use departmental writing guidelines. This booklet provides a general overview of the research process. It has been designed to cover the research basics that could apply to most disciplines. 1.1 ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS Ensure you understand the requirements of the assignment: C When is the assignment due? C What is the purpose of the assignment? C Are a certain number of resources required? C Are certain types of resources required: scholarly and/or popular sources, books, journal articles, government documents, newspaper articles, web sites, primary sources? C Are more recent resources a requirement, e.g., only books and journal articles published in the last 5-10 years? C Is there a minimum or maximum word limit? C What format is to be used for references, footnotes and/or a bibliography? If you are unsure about any of these requirements, speak with your professor to get clarification. 1.2 CHOOSING A TOPIC When writing a paper you may be able to choose your own topic, you may be assigned a topic, or you may be presented with a list of topics from which to choose. In any case, you will need to decide on a specific idea or approach to take with your topic. When choosing a topic consider the following: If you have a choice of topics, pick one in which C Are you interested in the topic? you are truly interested. You will more likely enjoy C Do you have enough time to cover the topic? the process of research and writing if you find the C Are there enough resources in the library to cover topic interesting. your topic? Are you willing and able to visit other libraries if necessary? C Is the topic within your scope? It is generally a good idea to avoid topics that are completely unfamiliar and involve determining technical concepts too involved to investigate within the given time frame. 31.3 UNDERSTANDING THE TOPIC Once you have decided on a topic it is important to do some background reading to gain an understanding of the subject area. Increasing your knowledge of the topic will help you narrow your topic and develop a thesis. To understand your topic consult some of the following resources: C Chapter in a course textbook C Reserve readings or a suggested reading by your professor C Specialized encyclopedia, e.g., Encyclopedia of Fable, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Encyclopedia of Propaganda, Encyclopedia of Education C General magazine or newspaper article C Video on the topic C Consult the appropriate Library Subject Guide for a listing of encyclopaedias, dictionaries, and specialized reference material. While doing this background preparation be sure to make notes and jot down ideas that occur to you during your reading. Make note of various terms or phrases that define your topic; these will be useful search terms later when looking for books and articles. If, after your general reading, you feel you do not have a handle on your topic, consult your professor. 1.4 DEVELOPING THE TOPIC While doing background reading on your topic you should have been thinking about and developing ideas you wish to explore in your paper. These ideas are key to determining the focus of your topic and to developing your thesis. Think of a list of questions you want to consider in your paper. Ask yourself: C What do I want to say? THESIS: A statement to be C What are the important points to develop? proved or to be maintained C Is there an aspect of the topic that I find against objections. interesting or puzzling? Finding out more about the subject will help you create the thesis of your paper. Asking yourself the standard journalistic questions is a useful method for arriving at a thesis: Why, Who, What, Where, When, How A thesis statement is a proposition that tells the reader what your paper will discuss. Later, as you begin to research and then write your paper you may revise your thesis. In some disciplines the thesis statement is not developed until after the research has been done. This allows the researcher to be open to information that will support or disprove a thesis. Your professor should advise you on the preferred method of developing your paper. As you develop the focus of your paper keep in mind any restrictions applied to the assignment and the expectations for the assignment. 41.5 PRELIMINARY OUTLINE Once your topic is established you are ready to create a preliminary outline for your paper. The outline is your guide to developing the contents of your paper; it will help you maintain a logical path to the topic you are exploring. The outline allows you to break your subject into manageable sections; it helps you keep to the point and to avoid omitting key sections. The outline should name specifically the contents of each section (i.e., introduction, topical headings, conclusion) of your paper, even if you do not include these headings in the final paper. An outline is a flexible tool, and it is likely that you will make changes to it as you go along. The outline could be considered a work in progress. There are several different ways to develop an outline. Unless you are instructed to use a certain method choose one that best allows you to organize your paper. More information can be found in the books listed at the end of this guide. REM EM BER: This is your paper: a chance to investigate a topic of interest to you, an opportunity to learn more about it, to research and analyze the topic, and to present your interpretation of the topic supported by arguments and quotes. 2. RESEARCH After planning your preliminary outline you are now ready to begin your research. You will have to find books, articles, and other material suggested to you by your professor to assist you in writing your paper. You will be seeking material that experts in the field have published on the topic. You will be reading the material, evaluating it, analyzing it, and thinking about how your reading relates to your ideas about the topic. As you gain new information and knowledge about the topic you may need to revise your outline. While doing research you may find material that supports your topic and material that refutes your argument. Do not ignore material with which you disagree. Both types of material are useful. It is important to be comprehensive when researching a topic. Only a portion of the research material you accumulate will end up in your paper. 2.1 PLAGIARISM Mount Saint Vincent University has a strict policy on plagiarism. The following policy is taken from the University’s Academic Calendar: Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s words, ideas or information as though they were one’s own. Specific offenses include but are not limited to: C using copied material without enclosing that material in quotation marks and without appropriately acknowledging its source; C paraphrasing or summarizing too close to the original wording; 5C omitting acknowledgement of the source of paraphrases and summaries; C submitting work that has been written in full or in part by someone else; C borrowing, selling, purchasing, or lending academic work for submission for academic credit. When using documents downloaded from the Internet, you must provide a citation. Please contact the library for specific information on the correct citation format to use. Strict procedures, as outlined in the academic calendar, address the offense of plagiarism. There is a video, Avoiding Plagiarism A Guide for Students, available in the library. The call number is PN 167 A86 1991. 2.2 COLLECTING RESOURCES Every book, article, document or web site that you find on your topic may not be entirely useful. You must evaluate the resources you find to determine which are appropriate to the argument you are making. Some assignments will require only scholarly resources; for others you will need a combination of scholarly and popular material. If you are unsure, check with your professor. To determine if a book is useful: C Scan the table of contents to determine the topics it covers C Check the index at the back of the book for keywords that describe your topic C Scan the chapters that pertain to your topic C Read through the introduction to the book to get an idea of what it covers To determine if a periodical article is useful: C Read the abstract (summary) of the article C If there is no abstract, read the first paragraph and conclusion of the article C review charts, tables, footnotes, references To determine if a web site is useful, try to determine: • to what depth the topic is explored • the qualifications of the author or page editor • the reliability of the information • the bias of the page • when the page was updated (is the information current?) • if the page is accessible free of charge, or requires payment 2.3 ORGANIZING RESOURCES It is very beneficial to organize the resources you find. Methods of organizing your resources include using a notebook, sending yourself an e-mail detailing the sources you’ve found and using 3" x 5" index cards. Whichever method you use it is essential to note every book, article, document, essay or web site you use when researching and writing your paper. It is frustrating to waste time later relocating ambiguous or incomplete references. Be sure to record the following information for each: 6BOOK BOOK: C Author name (last name, first name) Dunlop, Dale C The full title of the book (underlined or in italics) Exploring Nova Scotia C Place of publication (usually found on the title Halifax, NS page or the back of the title page) Formac Publishing 2000 C Publisher Novanet - MSVU C Date of publication F 1037.7 D86 2000 C Include the call number for each book so you know where you found it PERIODICAL ARTICLE PERIODICAL: C Author name (last name, first name) Kimber, Stephen C Title of the article An Island’s Ever Shifting Fate C Name of the journal or magazine (underlined or Canadian Geographic in italics) volume: 124, issue: 5 C Volume number and issue number (if there is Sept/Oct 2004 pages:111- one) 112 Academic Search Premier C Date of publication database C Page numbers of the article C Note where you found the reference to the article for your own records WEB SITE WEB SITE C Author or person(s) responsible for the intellectual content of the page (if available) Chou, L., McClintock, R. C Title of page (underlined or in italics) Technology and Education C Date of last update of page, if available August 2004 Columbia University C Place or location of page, if available 15 November 2004 C Date you retrieved/viewed the page www.ilt.columbia.edu/pubs C URL You may want to label each source with the author’s name, part of the title, or a number. Then, when you start reading through the sources, making notes and taking quotations, you can easily cross reference the author, title or number between the source and your notes. In this way you will know exactly where you got the information. This method will help to keep your own thoughts and notes, and the author’s ideas and direct quotations, separate and organized. At the outset this might seem like a time-consuming task. In the long run this type of organization will save you a lot of time - time you might not have at the end while you are writing up the final draft of your paper. 72.4 USING THE NOVANET CATALOGUE TO FIND BOOKS Novanet is the library’s computerized catalogue. It gives you access not only to the material located in the Mount library, but also to material available at the following university libraries: AST Atlantic School of Theology DALKIL Dalhousie Killam Library DALLAW Sir James Dunn Law Library DALPHM Dalhousie Pharmacy Library DALSXT Sexton Design & Technology Library (Engineering and Architecture) DALWKK Dalhousie W K Kellogg Health Sciences Library KINGS University of Kings College MSVU Mount Saint Vincent University NSAC Nova Scotia Agricultural College NSCAD Nova Scotia College of Art & Design NSCC Nova Scotia Community College Libraries SFX St. Francis Xavier University SMU Saint Mary's University CBU Cape Breton University To access the Novanet Catalogue go to: http://aleph1.novanet.ns.ca Novanet Catalogue features: • This catalogue lists books, serials (journals, magazines, newspapers), government documents, videos, maps and other material held in the Novanet libraries. • Login to your library account to access your patron record and to use the Novanet Express delivery service. • E-mail and save search results. • Search by Format from the Advance Search screen. Limit your search to Visual Material for videos and DVDs. • Results appear in date order (most recent first) and can be sorted by title and author. • Capitalization is not necessary. You can search the Novanet Catalogue by: • Title • Call number C Author • Medical Subjects C Subject • ISSN/ISBN Browse an alphabetical list when you know: C the exact author’s name (last name, first name) C the exact title of a book or journal C the correct Library of Congress (LC) or Medical (MeSH) subject heading 8Examples: Update on Adult Learning in title Merriam, Sharran B. in author Adult Learning in subject Do a Keyword Search when you know: C only some of the words in the title or subject headings C only part of the author’s name This search looks for the keywords you enter IN ANY ORDER Examples: learning adult in title merriam in author learning in subject If your keyword search results in too many items, you can refine the search by adding additional terms to your search statement. See the green brochure on searching the Novanet Library Catalogue for further details. Finding material on the shelves: Depending upon your search type, you will be presented with a Browse List or a list of Results. The Results table shows you an item’s Location, with Library and Call Numbers indicated. To determine if an item is available to borrow, click on your preferred library Location and a screen will open that shows “Due date”. If the status says “In Library” the book is on the shelf; if a date is listed, the item is checked out to someone else and is due to be returned on that date. Copy down the Location/Call number information (e.g., PS 3545 H16 C5 1982) to retrieve the item from the stacks. Novanet Express Request a book or photocopied article from another Novanet library. Books: Find the book in the Novanet Catalogue that you wish to have delivered to the MSVU Library, then follow these steps: 1. Click on All Locations in the full record display, or click on the holdings of an individual library in the brief record display. 2. Click on Novanet Express/Hold to request a book. (If the book is available for borrowing, a Novanet Express request is placed; if the book is checked out, a Hold will be placed on the book for you. Note: Holds are available only on items checked out; you must pick items up at the owning library; there is no charge for Holds.) 3. When the login box opens, enter your 14 digit barcode number (found on your student/faculty/OCB card) and your password (default is the last four digits of your phone number.) 94. When the Novanet Express/Hold Request screen opens, confirm the Pickup/Deliver to option and then click Go. . 2.5 FINDING PERIODICAL ARTICLES Definition of ‘periodicals’ The term ‘periodical’ is used to describe any publication that is published on a regular, or periodic, basis. There are several types of periodicals: Scholarly/academic journals: The main purpose of a scholarly journal is to report on and disseminate original research or experimentation. The language of scholarly journals is that of the discipline. It assumes some scholarly background on the part of the reader. Authors are usually affiliated with research institutions like universities or government agencies, although in the sciences some authors may be employed by private industry. Many scholarly journals are published by scholarly or academic associations. All articles published in scholarly journals go through a formal peer review process and the authors will always cite their sources in a list of references, a bibliography, endnotes or footnotes. Professional or trade journals: The purpose of these journals is to inform members of a particular industry or profession through the publication of profession-specific content that may combine fact, anecdote or opinion. Readers require some professional or industry vocabulary. Authors may or may not have an academic affiliation, but they will have expertise in the area in which they are writing. These publications are usually colourful and have advertising geared to the profession, and they are published by trade or professional organizations. Articles published in professional or trade journals are not peer reviewed, though editors may invite submissions from known experts. Authors will rarely cite their sources. Magazines and newspapers: The goal of magazines is to entertain and inform. Authors are often professional writers rather than scholars or industry experts. The content may be factual, but may also be biased by editorial or publishing policy. Language should be easy to understand by all readers. Magazines are colourful, and have many pictures and advertisements. Magazines are not peer reviewed and authors almost never cite their sources. Indexes and Databases: Most articles can be located using sources called periodical indexes. Traditionally these indexes were only available in print. Today, our library has access to a variety of electronic periodical indexes (available via the Internet) called databases. Some databases include a summary (or abstract) of the article, while others will include the full-text of the article. Articles can also be located in specialized encyclopedias and bibliographies. While these sources are not used as frequently today, they are still excellent sources. Also review the references and footnotes/endnotes in textbooks, in the readings provided by your professor, and in the books and articles you have already located. If you find an article that looks promising, follow the steps outlined under Accessing articles below. Choosing a Database: 10You will choose a database based on the subject of your research. Browse the various databases listed on our web site at: www.msvu.ca/library/datab.asp or, speak to a librarian for some suggestions. Searching Databases: While all databases are set up a bit differently, there are usually some common elements: C Search by keyword C Don’t use “quotation marks” or the plus sign (+) C Use AND to combine concepts: C e.g., children AND language development C If a “Thesaurus” or “Subject Terms” button is available consult it for a list of standard keywords or ideas on alternate phrasing C Resist limiting your search to Full-Text. The Library may have a print subscription. C Limiting your search to “Peer Reviewed” or “Scholarly Journals” may still result in uncited articles. Look for references to be sure. C Check the “Help” function for assistance. Accessing articles: After you have searched a database, the next step is to find out how you can get a copy of the article(s) you have found. Many databases provide only citations (author, title, date, name of periodical) and not the full- text articles. In other cases a publisher may provide full-text for past issues but imposes a full-text embargo on the current month or year. If there is no full text-link available but the citation or abstract looks promising, try these options: 1. From the Library’s homepage click on E-journals and search for the title of the periodical to see if we have an electronic subscription. Not there? Go to step 2. 2. Search the Novanet Catalogue to determine if the Mount or another Novanet Library has a print subscription. Follow these steps: Open the Novanet Catalogue: www.msvu.ca/library -click on Novanet Do a Title search on the name of the periodical (not the title of the article.) Check all titles that match. Novanet may display multiple titles that match your source. You are looking for the word SERIAL in RED. Your source may be at the Mount. If it is at another Novanet library you can place a Novanet Express request to have articles faxed to you or copied and delivered to the Mount Library for pick up. Not there? Go to step 3. 3. Students and faculty may request an interlibrary loan for items not in Novanet. Ask for a form at the Reference or Circulation Desk or use the Web form at: www.msvu.ca/library/ill.htm. Costs vary and delivery can take up to 3 weeks. 112.6 FINDING WEB PAGES Search Tools The amount of information available via the World Wide Web continues to grow at an exponential rate. Because the Web is not organized in any way, the task of locating information you want can seem overwhelming. Search Engines and Subject Directories are two of the tools available to help you retrieve the information you want. Search engines are best for researching more specific or obscure topics. They function by performing full- text searches of web pages and therefore frequently return an exceptionally large number of results. Some examples of search engines include: Google (http://www.google.com) Teoma (http://www.teoma.com) AltaVista (http://www.altavista.com) Alltheweb (http://www.alltheweb.com) HotBot (http://www.hotbot.com) Meta-search engines search several search engines simultaneously. Although intuitively this seems a very efficient way to search the web, it is important to bear in mind that by using a meta-search engine you will lose access to the advanced search features of the individual search engines. Furthermore, some must be downloaded before they can be used. Some examples of meta-search engines include: Metacrawler (http://www.metacrawler.com) ProFusion (http://www.profusion.com) Ixquick (http://www.ixquick.com) SurfWax (http://www.surfwax.com) Dogpile (http://www.dogpile.com) Copernic (http://www.copernic.com) Subject directories are best for researching broad topics. They will direct you to lists of entire sites (not just pages) relevant to your topic. These lists are often (though not always) compiled by experts. Some examples of subject directories include: Yahoo (commercial) (http://dir.yahoo.com/) Librarians' Index (http://lii.org/) Infomine (http://infomine.ucr.edu/) AcademicInfo (http://www.academicinfo.net/) Internet Public Library (http://www.ipl.org/) Search Strategy The following search tips will apply to many (though not necessarily all) search engines. The best way to determine the specifics for each search engine is to consult the ‘Help’ file provided. C Use Boolean operators to combine keywords in your search. The basic operators are: AND: will retrieve results containing both terms OR: will retrieve results containing either one, or both terms 12NOT: will exclude results containing the term following ‘NOT’ C Use the ‘+’ symbol to force the inclusion of a common word which a search engine may usually ignore (e.g., where). Often it is considered the equivalent of the ‘AND’ term. C Enclose a phrase in quotation marks in order to retrieve results containing the phrase as is (e.g., “global warming”, “dietary fiber”) Google search example: “primary sources” “social history” NB: In the absence of any other Boolean operator, Google assumes there is an ‘AND’ between terms or phrases. The ‘AND’ is referred to as the default operator. Evaluating Web Pages All information on the Internet is not necessarily valuable for your research paper. Be cautious with the material you seek out. You must use the same critical and analytical skills with Internet resources that you use to evaluate traditional print resources. Unlike library resources the Internet is not regulated or quality controlled. The quality of material on the Internet is unpredictable. For more information see the Library guide entitled Tips for Evaluating Web Pages 2.7 OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION C Personal Interviews: You may be able to get information through letters and personal interviews. There are many directories of organizations, agencies and businesses in the library’s reference section. You could write to an appropriate organization for additional information on your topic. If you are interviewing someone be sure to prepare a list of questions beforehand. If the interviewee agrees, you may wish to record your conversation. Any research involving interviews requires departmental ethics approval. To be sure you are meeting the ethics standards of the discipline, you must contact your professor before doing any interviews. C Government Documents: All levels of the Canadian Government (federal, provincial, and municipal) publish a wealth of information. At the Mount library uncatalogued government documents are located on the main level. There is a separate index for government documents at the Reference Desk. Ask a librarian for help locating government documents. Many government reports and census data are now available on the Internet. Go to: www.msvu.ca/library/gov.asp for a list of useful government web sites. C Radio and television programs: The CBCA Current Events database contains transcripts of many popular CTV and CBC radio and TV programs. C Lectures 2.8 TAKING NOTES Once you have collected the resources, skim each one to determine if it has information useful for your paper. If the item does have appropriate information, begin reading carefully while making notes about the 13most important points. Consult your outline as a guide. Taking notes is a crucial part of research. You will develop your own preferred method of taking notes: you may type up notes using a computer, use a notebook, or use 3" x 5" index cards. When taking notes it is important to make a clear distinction between your own thoughts and those derived from the sources you are reading. Read the material carefully, think about what you have just read and then summarize your thoughts. Record fully the source of all information that is paraphrased or summarized, using quotation marks to indicate clearly any direct copying. As you take notes, you may want to group them by subject to keep your research and thoughts on a specific aspect of your topic organized together. Occasionally review your notes to ensure you are staying within the guidelines of your outline. You may choose to modify your outline and thesis based on material you find. Discard research that is not entirely relevant, no matter how interesting it is. When taking notes consider: C ideas that describe the issue, topic, argument you are investigating C ideas that support or refute the thesis you claim at the opening of your paper C factual or statistical information to enhance your argument C quotations from another’s work that support your argument If you quote from a source be sure you quote exactly, even punctuation must be identical to that in the original source. 3. WRITING Once you have read and made notes on most of your sources, review your outline and thesis. As a result of your research your original topic may have changed and it may need to be rephrased. You can now finalize your outline. The outline will help to keep your thoughts on track as you write your first draft. The real work of the first draft has been done in the collecting and organizing of the material. If you have taken careful and complete notes and have organized them into a coherent outline, the first draft will be straightforward. 3.1 WRITING THE FIRST DRAFT OF YOUR PAPER The first draft of your paper will be just that. It is not meant to be perfect. It will be one of several drafts before you have your final draft. Use your thesis, outline and notes to start your first draft. Begin by filling out the sections of your outline with your ideas and notes. Although you should attempt to maintain fluency and coherence, giving proof and evidence of your generalizations and conclusions, don’t strive for perfection in the first draft. It is more important to begin writing than to labour over the perfect opening sentence or paragraph. Skip a section if you are having particular trouble with it; go back to it later. Leave space where you could use a quotation to support your argument. Keep a good dictionary and thesaurus nearby to use while you write your first draft. 14Ensure that your paper has the basic elements: NOTE: These are just basic C Introduction: outlines your thesis, explains what you elements. Some disciplines will discuss in the paper, and how the paper is require very specific sections organized. (such as Method, Results, Discussion). If you are unsure of the elements your C Main body: provides arguments and evidence to paper should contain, consult support the thesis in the introduction. your professor. C Conclusion: reinforces your argument and ends the paper on a firm, convincing note. No new evidence or information is added. The first draft will help you to identify any gaps in your paper. You will have to do further research to fill any gaps. Perhaps some factual information, such as statistical figures or quick facts, would be useful to fill a gap. 3.2 REVISING/EDITING THE DRAFT Even the most accomplished writers take time to revise their first draft. It is a good idea to wait a few days before you begin to revise your paper so that you will be able to examine it more objectively. When revising your paper, consider the content, organization and logical flow of the words and paragraphs you have written. Ensure that the thesis of your paper is supported by the arguments and evidence presented in the main body. The conclusion should finalize the arguments you have laid out in the paper. When revising your paper: C Fill in any informational gaps C Read your paper aloud or have someone else read it. Is it interesting, coherent, organized? C Acknowledge sources used C Check for logical progression of arguments, consistency of tone and expression, full development of ideas When editing your paper: C Check grammar, spelling, punctuation, and typographical errors C Rewrite unclear passages C Cut out irrelevant words and sentences C Beware of using sexist language C Use appropriate vocabulary: avoid slang and inappropriate words 3.3 WORKS CITED & BIBLIOGRAPHY Whenever you refer to a source for ideas or information to build an argument in your paper, you must acknowledge your source. You must cite all direct quotations AND sections of an author’s work that you have paraphrased in your own words. Citations may take the form of parenthetical references, footnotes or endnotes (be sure to know if there is one citation style your professor requires). Check any quotations against the source document to ensure you quoted correctly. The citation style you use will dictate whether you include both a bibliography and works cited list or just one 15of these. A bibliography will list all of the sources you used in preparing your paper, even the ones you did not cite. The works cited or reference list will list all of the sources you cited, either with a direct quotation or paraphrasing, in your paper. The bibliography and/or the works cited lists should be arranged alphabetically by author (last name first) at the end of the paper. Three common citation styles are: C MLA style (Modern Language Association) - commonly used in the humanities. C APA style (American Psychological Association) - commonly used for social sciences C Chicago style - commonly used in history and fine arts disciplines It is important to understand which style, if any, your professor recommends. In any case, use a single style consistently. For detailed descriptions on these styles the following are available for consultation: th • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (APA Style Guide). 5 ed. 2001. Call Number: Ref. & Reserve BF 76.7 P82 2001 th C MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6 ed. 2003. Call number: Ref. LB 2369 G53 2003 th C The Chicago Manual of Style. 15 ed. 2003. Call number: Ref. LB 2369 C478 2003 3.4 FINAL DRAFT The final draft of your paper should be presented in a word processed format: C Double spaced C Long quotations should be single spaced and indented (quotations 4 or more lines in length), without quotation marks C Short quotations should be enclosed in quotation marks C An inch margin around the page C Arabic numerals should be used to number the pages. Roman numerals are used to number introductory pages (table of contents, etc.) Your paper should have a title page which includes: C The title you have given your paper C Your name C The name and number of the course C Your professor’s name C Date the paper is due As a precaution, always keep a print copy of your paper. On campus computer facilities available for typing your paper: 16C Information Commons on the main level of the EMF Centre C Seton computer labs: S315, S316, S345 C Evaristus 137 C EMF 127C (this is a staff training lab that is open to students when it is not booked) For further information or more detailed discussion on writing research papers consult some of the following: C Avery, Heather. Thinking It Through : A Practical Guide to Academic Essay Writing. Peterborough, Ont. : Academic Skills Centre, Trent University, 1989. Call number: PE 1471 T45 1989 C Buckley, Joanne. Fit to Print: The Canadian Student’s Guide to Essay Writing. Toronto: Harcout Brace & Co., 1995. Call number: Ref. LB 2369 B83 1995 C Coyle, William. The Macmillan Guide to Writing Research Papers. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990. Call number: Ref. LB 2369 C646 1990 C Davis, James. The Rowman & Littlefield Guide to Writing with Sources. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. Call number: PE 1478 D37 2002 C Hacker, Diane. The Canadian Writer’s Reference. Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Thomson Learning, 2001. Call number: Ref. PE 1408 H33 C Harvey, Michale. The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing. Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett Pub. Co., 2003. Call number: PE 1408 H 3927 2003 C Schwartz, Marilyn. Guidelines for Bias-Free Writing. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Call number: Ref. PE 1460 S474 1995 C The three manuals listed in the WORKS CITED & BIBLIOGRAPHY section of this guide. C Contact the Writing Resource Centre, Evaristus 219, Department of Student Affairs. You can attend a study skills session on writing papers, get help with developing a thesis statement, learn how to prepare an outline, and improve a first draft of a paper. 17

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