How to do Research methodology for Thesis

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;Va`Ec\Za ' GEORG ECKERT INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK RESEARCH gZkhZYjeYViZYVcYZYidc cY GZkhdc IZmiWdd` VcY GZhZVgX IZmiWdd` dc JC:H8D jYZWdd`Introduction: Textbooks – instruments of education towards international understanding “Textbooks are one of the most important educational inputs: texts reflect basic ideas about a national culture, and … are often a flash -  point of cultural struggle and controversy.” Let us imagine that someone collects all the textbooks in use for one The socio-political The socio-political context of textbook context of textbook particular generation of compulsory school age students. Almost all of writing writing the officially recognized knowledge a society wants to transmit to its children to prepare them for life, as full members of that society, would now be available. What would we find in the books? They would cer - tainly contain an incredible amount of facts, data and other information but also fictional texts, fairy tales and stories. Above and beyond this, we would often find explicit references to a great number of rules, norms and patterns of behaviour that the adults believe in and wish to inculcate into the younger generation as well. Therefore, “in addition to transmit- ting knowledge, textbooks also seek to anchor the political and social norms of a society. Textbooks convey a global understanding of history  and of the rules of society as well as norms of living with other people.” They reflect the traditions a society has formed over decades or centu- ries; they contribute to developing the individual’s self-esteem but they also mark the borderlines of each society under consideration. This oc- curs particularly in history and geography books. Through the teaching of history and geography we create a mesh of reference points in time and space. Where we come from, where we live, are we allowed or are we entitled to live there? History and geography textbooks attempt to explain our roots, how and why we happen to be living in a certain place and how that place can be described and characterised – in other words, who we really are.  Short title references refer to books mentioned in the Reading List (see Annex C). Philip G. ALTBACH: Textbooks: The International Dimension. In: APPLE/CHRISTIAN-SMITH 1991, pp 242–258, quotation p. 257. I would like to thank my colleagues Roderich Henrÿ, Rainer Riemenschneider, Georg Stöber and Magda Telus for their support with expert knowledge and practical suggestions. Lars Müller and Brigitte Depner helped to prepare the revised edition. I am also grateful to Jean Bernard and Noro Andriamiseza Ingarao for her careful reading and useful comments. Michael Bacon checked the English language for the first edition; Liesel Tarquini and Wendy Kopisch translated the amendments for the second edition. 4 Hanna SCHISSLER: Limitations and Priorities for International Social Studies Textbook Re- search. In: The International Journal of Social Education, 4 (1989–90), pp. 81–89, quotation p. 81. 7 Unesco.indb 7 14.01.2010 10:26:58 Uhr“Perhaps the most important factor is to determine what goals the textbooks are designed to achieve. Are they to be primarily sources of information, builders of reading, writing and critical thinking skills, 5 purveyors of ethical models, or promoters of patriotism?” 6 The field of social studies is a sensitive subject. It cannot be taught without introducing value judgments. In fact, the learning objectives for social studies aim to develop the ability to argue, evaluate and form rational and reasonable opinions, as well as to understand and accept, but also to subject norms to critical examination. Textbook authors have not always been critical enough towards the society they live in. With the emergence of nation states in the last century it became quite obvi- ous that schoolbooks contain statements that glorify their own nation and disparage others, that glorify the ruling groups within one nation or society and disparage so-called minority groups. During this time con- cerned educationalists and politicians had already noticed that textbooks, especially history textbooks, didn’t and don’t only convey facts but also spread ideologies, follow political trends and try to justify them by imbu- ing them with historical legitimacy. They subsequently began searching for ways to revise these one-sided images in textbooks, thus establishing international textbook comparison and revision as a scholarly activity. Since their first tentative approaches, textbook researchers have created a solid basis from which to work; they have developed sound methods of examination and have amassed a con- siderable stock of experience in handling international textbook confer- ences on controversial and sensitive issues. Aims of the study Aims of the study International textbook analysis, with the aim of promoting interna- tional understanding, deals mainly with history, geography and civics schoolbooks, as these subjects in particular are relevant for education towards democracy, human rights and international, as well as intercul- tural, awareness. Over the last few decades, researchers have pointed out that language textbooks and readers also contribute considerably to what students know and how they think about others – not least because poetry, for example, makes no claim to being “objective.” This guidebook provides support and advice on how to conduct inter- national textbook projects in two ways: • in the practical analysis of textbooks, which requires certain metho- dological skills and • in the process of mediation, which determines the extent to which agreement on controversial issues can be reached and accepted by all parties involved. 5 Dan B. FLEMING: High School Social Studies Textbooks: Good or Bad Compared to What? In: The International Journal of Social Education, 4 (1989–90), pp. 7–9, quotation p. 7.  The field of social studies incorporates not only history and geography but also civics and moral education. 8 Unesco.indb 8 14.01.2010 10:26:58 UhrI. Textbook revision – its beginnings and achievements under the auspices of the League of Nations and UNESCO The historical background: How did it start? Textbook revision, as an international undertaking, dates back to the very T Textbook r extbook revision evision foundations of the League of Nations, the predecessor of the United Na- tions. The “Great War” – which was named the “First World War” only after the experience of even worse atrocities – had a shattering impact on nation states. Due to this, the League began to search for ways to combat mutual xenophobia and to help with avoiding stereotypes. Immediately after the war, politicians as well as teachers criticized the fact that the textbooks used by many of the former opponents tended to foster, rather than combat, national prejudices and portrayed misleading stereotypes of adversaries. • In the Nordic countries, a free association of concerned individuals and organisations (Föreningen Norden) appealed to educational pub- lishing houses to screen their textbooks and remove biased presen- 7 tations of neighbouring countries. • In 1925 the International Committee on Intellectual Co-Operation, the responsible body within the League of Nations, utilized the pre- liminary work of national teachers’ associations and certain private foundations, when it suggested that all national commissions initi- ate a reciprocal comparative analysis of textbooks in order to revise texts that were biased and flawed and which would thus help to avoid “essential misunderstandings of other countries” in the future. • In 192  the Committee passed a resolution to develop a model for 8 international consultation on textbooks. All of this stimulated further initiatives during the interwar period, main- ly between neighbouring countries. In addition, it convinced authors in many countries to take a more critical stand towards the way wars and conflicts have been presented in their textbooks. In line with internation- al textbook revision, textbook critique also gained ground at the national 9 level. Although international tensions increased considerably in the sec- ond half of the thirties, the year 1937 can be seen as a landmark in formu- lating principles for achieving deeper mutual understanding through the teaching of history. Twenty-six states signed a Declaration Regarding 7 A summary report offers Haakon VIGANDER: Gegenseitige Revision von Geschichtsbüchern in den Nordischen Ländern. Paris: UNESCO, 1950. 8 School Text-Book Revision and International Understanding. Paris: International Institute of In- nd tellectual Co-Operation, 2 , rev. ed., 1933; Daniel A. PRESCOTT: Education and International Relations: A Study of the Social Forces that Determine the Influence of Education. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press, 1930. 9 This also applies to the USA, which was not a member of the League of Nations; see Arthur WALWORTH: School Histories at War. A Study of the Treatment of Our Wars in the Secondary School History Books of the United States and in Those of Its Former Enemies. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press, 1938; Gerard GIORDANO: Twentieth-Century Textbook Wars. A His- tory of Advocacy and Opposition. New York: Peter Lang, 2002. 9 Unesco.indb 9 14.01.2010 10:26:58 Uhrthe Teaching of History (Revision of School Text-Books). Three princi- pals were central to the declaration: “1. It is desirable that the attention of the competent authorities in every country, and of authors of school text-books, should be drawn to the expediency: a) Of assigning as large a place as possible to the history of other nations; b) Of giving prominence, in the teaching of world history, to facts calculated to bring about a realisation of the interdepen- dence of nations. 2. It is desirable that every Government should endeavour to as- certain by what means, more especially in connection with the choice of school-books, school-children may be put on their guard against all such allegations and interpretations as might arouse unjust prejudices against other nations.  . It is desirable that in every country a committee composed of members of the teaching profession, including history teachers, should be set up by the National Committee on Intellectual Co- Operation, where such exists, in collaboration with other quali- fied bodies.…” What are the problems to be confronted? These principles are still valid today – but there are some inherent dif- ficulties. At the time of the declaration, the governments that were most powerful refused to co-operate. They gave different reasons for this ac- cording to their respective politico-educational systems: Ar Arguments against guments against 1. They had no wish to give representatives and experts from another international textbook international textbook state a say in their own educational matters. The time was not ripe to pr projects ojects openly discuss a subject that was often seen as part of the national heritage, defining the nation’s historical tradition, its geographical boundaries and its political norms. 2. Alongside governmental institutions and commissions, teachers’ as- sociations, like the International Federation of Teachers’ Associations, were also engaged in textbook studies. Often, however, governments with a highly centralized educational system were not willing to ac- cept the recommendations of non-governmental organizations.  . On the other hand, governments with a less rigid system did not want to interfere in the rights of teachers and textbook authors or could not do so as responsibility for the selection or revision of textbooks lay with regional authorities, the schools or with the teachers themselves. It can thus be seen that these principles were implemented in a relatively small number of countries and regions due not only to deteriorating in- 10 Unesco.indb 10 14.01.2010 10:26:58 Uhrternational conditions, but also to differences in the political systems of member countries. International textbook consultations were particularly successful in those cases where neighbouring states had already enjoyed peaceful relations over a considerable period of time, i.e. where an at- mosphere of confidence already existed – as in the Nordic countries and in Latin America. Often, however, the very task of textbook comparison is to create, rather than simply consolidate, such a peaceful atmosphere. It became clear that a preliminary conclusion had to be drawn in order to avoid further setbacks and disappointments: ‘ Textbook revision must be seen in a wider politico-cultural context. The Second World War put an end to all that had been achieved in the Starting anew after Starting anew after W World W orld War II ar II twenties and thirties. The destructive power of politics proved to be stronger than the negotiations over educational policies designed to ease tensions and to lay the foundation for peaceful co-existence in the minds of the younger generations and their educators. Although these various attempts must be regarded as having failed, they were not in vain. A more determined approach was adopted with the advent of UNESCO. After the Second World War, the founding members of UNESCO shared the conviction that the new world organization should continue to pursue and augment the League of Nations’ activities in textbook revision. In 194 the first UNESCO General Conference passed a resolution which established the Programme for the Improvement of Text-Books and Teaching Materials as Aids in Developing International Understanding. This programme was based on a careful examination of the experiences gained in this field during the decades between the two world wars. The principles were rapidly formulated and for the coming decades served as the guidelines for co-operation between Member States: • A Handbook for the Improvement of Textbooks and Teaching Materi- als as Aids to International Understanding was published in 1949, and for the first time presented a set of criteria for the revision and writing of textbooks with the aim of enhancing international under- standing. However, not all the ideas conceived in the post-war years could be put into effect – or at least, their implementation required more time than originally envisioned. The title of the preparatory report produced for the first UNESCO General Conference in 194 reflected the optimism concerning the crucial role that international relations should play in textbooks: Looking at the World through Textbooks. This title was wish- ful thinking. The focus was still on issues of national, rather than global, interest. Furthermore, budget restrictions dictated that the first short term plan be changed into a new Model Plan for the Analysis and Improve- ment of Text-Books and Teaching Material … as Aids to International Understanding. In the following years, UNESCO gradually began to put this plan into practice. 11 Unesco.indb 11 14.01.2010 10:26:59 UhrFrom declarations to concrete activities UNESCO was responsible for organizing or supporting seminars that • not only aimed at correcting obvious factual errors, • were also planned to develop an awareness of the multiplicity of re- gions and cultures in our world, an awareness which was not duly reflected in textbooks, particularly in those of the so-called industrial - ized nations. Older textbook studies Older textbook studies The Model Plan had already advocated the presentation of Asia in West- ern schoolbooks (and vice versa). These seminars were organized on a multilateral basis and the reports contain a vast array of information on textbook design and content that is still relevant today. Many of them have been more or less forgotten, but they represent valuable sources for enthusiastic researchers, who find a great deal of fascinating material concerning schoolbooks that were used all over the world during the fif - 10 ties and sixties. Although the multilateral approach was stressed in the fifties, a large number of bilateral projects came into being as well. The relevant Na- tional Commissions for UNESCO made a great effort to overcome tra- ditional barriers and bring together teachers, textbook authors and repre- sentatives of educational authorities. There can be no question about the significance of this work but it did have a most-likely unintended side- effect: The initiative shifted to national authorities, and again national issues – albeit issues between nations or states – were the main subjects of textbook projects. Of course, this undertaking was of paramount importance to recon- ciling former enemies, but the bilateral approach did not challenge the traditional structure of textbooks. Bilateral recommendations drew the authors’ attention to another country, with the advice to provide wider or more “balanced” coverage in the next edition – but the book would still concentrate on the history, geography or political system of the respec- tive different nations. We See the World through Our Nations would have been a more fitting title for a summary of textbook examination from that period. On the other hand, it was quite clear that many problems in the post- war world were influenced by supra-national factors and such problems cannot be solved by two nations alone. The Cold War divided the globe, as did the growing gulf between the industrialized world and the so- called “Third World.” Once again, multilateral consultations were need- ed; organisations engaged in textbook studies began looking for a fresh input of ideas and methods. 10 Carl August SCHRÖDER: Die Schulbuchverbesserung durch internationale geistige Zusammen- arbeit. Braunschweig: Westermann, 191. 12 Unesco.indb 12 14.01.2010 10:26:59 UhrTowards a global perspective: new topics and new methods In 1974, the UNESCO General Conference confirmed the importance of Important UNESCO Important UNESCO th r resolutions esolutions comparative textbook studies within its programme. By the 18 session, it had adopted the Recommendation concerning education for interna- tional understanding, co-operation and peace and education relating to 11 human rights and fundamental freedoms. This normative document un- derscores the importance of universal values and puts forward practical proposals for the production and dissemination of educational material designed to impart attitudes, not mere knowledge, into students in order to enable the learners to evaluate information. It states: “Member States should encourage wider exchange of textbooks, es- pecially history and geography textbooks, and should, where appro- priate, take measures, by concluding, if possible, bilateral and multi- lateral agreements, for the reciprocal study and revision of textbooks and other educational materials in order to ensure that they are accu- rate, balanced, up-to-date and unprejudiced and will enhance mutual 12 knowledge and understanding between different peoples.” The adoption and implementation of the 1974 Recommendation initi- ated a new series of international textbook consultations in Europe, Latin America and Africa. Furthermore, UNESCO was aware that many problems within present-day societies require a global approach. In co- operation with the German Commission for UNESCO, a conference was held in 1988 at the Georg Eckert Institute, entitled International Consul- tation with a View to Recommending Criteria for Improving the Study of Major Problems of Mankind and their Presentation in School Curricula and Textbooks. The final report identified criteria for the presentation of major problems facing humankind in curricula and textbooks: “The evaluation of the presentation of world problems in textbooks represents a new phase in international textbook research, which, until recently, has concentrated on the presentation of national im- ages and information on particular countries in textbooks. This new stage represents a widening of the scope and the educational impact of textbook research. Such textbook research by panels of discipline experts, educational researchers and experienced teachers is to be encouraged. Also to be encouraged is classroom action research in which teachers and pupils evaluate their own textbooks and seek im- proved ways of representing and learning about world problems.” 11 http://unescodoc.unesco.org/images/0001/000115/011563mb.pdf 12 It is interesting to note that the declaration referred also to “educational materials” and so widened the more narrow “textbook concept” without, however, reflecting the new role of educational media other than textbooks in more detail. 1 Unesco.indb 13 14.01.2010 10:26:59 UhrFor the first time an international textbook recommendation endorsed by UNESCO gave equal weight to knowledge, attitudes and skills. This opened up a new perspective on textbook studies: not only the content in the textbook, but likewise the textbook in the context of the classroom is to be the subject of examination. The conference addressed a further issue that is often found in con- nection with the importance of worldwide problems: ‘ The global approach must be complemented by a regional approach. Criteria lists Criteria lists Textbook authors have to be concrete, they have to give examples that relate to the students’ own experiences. The conference report advocated the preparation of detailed studies to meet regional needs, interests, pri- orities and realities. Following the conference in Braunschweig, a meet- ing of experts was held in Brisbane, Australia in 1991, in order to specify actions that could be undertaken by publishers, textbook authors and teachers to make use of these criteria in their practical work. The confer- ence represented a major step forward in implementing what otherwise would have remained only a declaration. They identified activities to be carried out by teachers, textbook authors and students to achieve the aims laid out in the Baunschweig report: • They provided criteria, guidelines and recommendations with an in- ternational dimension for the development, evaluation and revision of 1 curricula, textbooks and other educational materials. • They proposed to set up an International Textbook Research Network, which was established in 1992 at the Georg Eckert Institute, as a focal 14 institution under the responsibility of UNESCO. The criteria for textbook analysis as well as the aims and work of the network will be described in more detail below. On the European stage, mention should be made of another interna- tional organization that had been involved in the improvement of text- books and the promotion of history teaching from the outset: the Council of Europe. Against Bias and Prejudice is the programmatic title of a Council of Europe publication summarising the results and recommendations from textbook conferences on a European level. Since the breakdown of the communist system, Europe, in the wider sense, has had to confront a number of conflicting problems. Many states are reshaping their own political systems and redefining their place in the world. The Council of Europe strives to bring together experts from old and new member countries in order to stimulate a process whereby each can learn from the other in spite of their quite different political experiences in the past. 1  Guidelines and Criteria for the Development, Evaluation and Revision of Curricula, Textbooks and other Educational Materials in International Education in Order to Promote an International Dimension in Education; http://unescodoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001001/100178m.pdf 14 The Network is currently under review. It will be accessible on a new portal on Educational Media Research www.edumeres.net from 2010 on. 14 Unesco.indb 14 14.01.2010 10:26:59 UhrThe Council of Europe has published a number of useful booklets for textbook authors, publishers and teachers, who often are not able to base their work on official guidelines and well-established classroom prac- tices. Though designed for the European context, the content of at least some of the books is also relevant for other parts of the world undergoing 15 a period of profound and sometimes rapid transition. The changing political map represents new opportunities – as well as dangers and risks. Since the end of the Cold War, international textbook research has End of Cold W End of Cold War ar been offered a new field of opportunity and has had to respond to new challenges. New textbooks and curricula are currently being developed in many countries in transition to democracy all over the world – in East- ern Europe as well as in South Africa, for example. At the same time, old patterns and perspectives are being reviewed, even in countries with long-standing democratic traditions. In addition, new forms of aggres- sive nationalism, intolerance and xenophobia are emerging, bringing with them new dangers. Therefore, it should be examined: ‘ what perspectives textbooks offer to avoid the resurgence of national- istic attitudes and ‘ which values authors base their evaluation of international affairs on. The crucial role of providing all people engaged in educational activities with adequate teaching materials and resources was emphasized once again in the UNESCO Declaration and Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy (Paris, 1995). The General Conference considered that this Declaration and Frame- work “could represent the most relevant and most appropriate way of bringing up to date the objectives, strategies and approaches in the field of education for international understanding.” With regard to teaching materials and resources, the Framework in particular provides for carrying out the necessary revisions in textbooks in order to rid them of negative stereotypes and distorted views of “the other”: • International co-operation in producing textbooks should be encour- aged. Whenever new teaching materials, textbooks and the like are to be produced, they should be designed with due consideration of new situations. 15 Against Bias and Prejudice: the Council of Europe’s work on history teaching and history text- books. Recommendations on history teaching and history textbooks adopted at Council of Europe conferences and symposia 1953–83. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, 198; Maitland STOBART: Fifty Years of European Co-operation on History Textbooks: The role and contribution of the Council of Europe. In: Internationale Schulbuchforschung/International Textbook Research, 21 (1999), pp. 147–11. Additionally, the Council of Europe has produced conference reports on improving history and civics instruction. The Georg Eckert Institute contributed to some of the conference papers and is grateful to be able to particularly draw on the Council of Europe for chapter III of this guide. 15 Unesco.indb 15 14.01.2010 10:26:59 Uhr• The textbooks should offer different perspectives on a given subject and make the national or cultural background against which they are written transparent. • Their content should be based on scientific findings. • It would be desirable for the documents of UNESCO and other United Nations institutions to be widely distributed and used in educational establishments, especially in countries where the production of teach- ing materials is proving slow due to economic difficulties. Distance education technologies and all modern communication tools must be placed at the service of education for peace, human rights and democ- racy. Remarkably, a declaration on peace education refers here to new tools and technologies of instruction in order to strengthen peace education efforts and to reach as many social classes as possible. This was already indicative of the forthcoming UNESCO strategy on quality education as a means of also intensifying education towards international understand- 16 ing. The challenge of the cultural turn 17 Multicultural and Multicultural and The UNESCO Guidelines on Intercultural Education (2006) reflect the quality education quality education growing multicultural composition of classrooms worldwide and under- score the need to foster understanding of different cultural traditions. Multiethnic societies are not a new phenomenon, but more and more states who had the perception of themselves as being mono-ethnic and shaped by a singular, dominant culture can no longer retain this self-im- age because the awareness of already existing cultural or ethnic diversity has grown or because they are in fact the target of increasing cross- boundary migration flows. Though migration may contribute to intercul - tural attitudes, it often and primarily makes people aware of differences. Traditional stereotypes can be corroborated and new ones created. Where governments tend to play down the issue in order not to trigger a fierce debate on identity politics, separate spaces of culture and remembrance emerge, whose effects on the society as a whole only surface after inner cohesion is already on the line. Not only politicians, but also scholars have become conscious of cultural differences as one of the crucial dividing lines within and between societies and as replacing older social or class divisions. This culminated in the notion of a threatening “clash 18 of civilizations.” UNESCO responded to this challenge by propagating a culture of peace and by making this concept part of its Medium Term 16 See Education for All. Is the World on Track? EFA Global Monitoring Report. Paris: UNESCO, 2002; see also http://www.ineesite.org. 17 htpp://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001478/147878e.pdf 18 Samuel P. HUNTINGTON: The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. 16 Unesco.indb 16 14.01.2010 10:27:00 Uhr19 Strategy 1996–2001. Values education and the forming of worldviews that define self-images and images of the “other” through textbooks has again become a focus of international textbook revision. Following this trend, interregional working groups have been established with a particu- 20 lar emphasis on the Euro-Arab dialogue. The major shift in the approach to education reform with the aim of fostering international understanding and peaceful co-existence, how- ever, was initiated through the Education for All Dakar Framework for 21 Action (2000) adopted at the World Education Forum in Senegal. The framework was intended to assist governments to provide basic educa- tion of good quality for all. The six Education for All goals embedded in the Dakar Framework are firmly grounded on a holistic vision of qual - ity that is closely linked to education for international understanding, co-operation and human rights issues. Taking into consideration that protracted conflicts have a lasting negative effect on schooling as they destroy the material infrastructure, lower the reputation, salaries and qualifications of teachers and cause high drop out rates or absenteeism amongst pupils, international organisations active in the field of education came to the conclusion that speedy reconstruction of school buildings, teacher training and the provision of teaching materials is a precondition for any reconciliatory approach in education. Therefore, improving the quality of instruction also helps lay foundations for learning how to live 22 together. Defined as a learner-centred approach, the Education for All agenda: • strives to guarantee equal access to all students regardless of social or cultural background, • is inclusive rather than exclusive and • promotes universal values as well as the acknowledgement of indi- 2 vidual rights. Similar to the regional networks that mushroomed in the 1920s to dis- seminate the idea of international textbook revision, regional frameworks have spread out to implement the Dakar objectives. The efforts to combine quality education and the promotion of inter- cultural understanding through textbooks, curricula and other learning materials are being realized in the inter-regional expert group Thinking and Building Peace through Innovative Textbook Design which elaborates 19 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001263/126398e.pdf 20 A guidebook “On a Common Path. New Approaches to Writing History Textbooks in Europe and the Arab-Islamic World” is expected to come out in 2010; it has been drafted by a working group supported by UNESCO, the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Arab League, among other organizations; see also http://www.unesco.org/edu- cation/en/ev.php-URL_ID=537171&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. 21 http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/ed_for_all/framework.shtml 22 Jacques DELORS: Learning: The Treasure Within: Report to UNESCO of the International Com- mission on Education for the Twentieth-first Century . Paris: UNESCO, 199. 2 Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Paris: UNESCO, 2006. 17 Unesco.indb 17 14.01.2010 10:27:00 Uhr24 on guidelines for publishers, curriculum developers and teachers. In addition to documents which address experts in a number of regions or formulate general strategies, examples of best practices take into account the specificities of a particular region. Any curriculum that is based on general principles should nevertheless be locally relevant and meet the 25 particular needs of the students. The impact of the quality campaign on textbook issues became vis- ible when UNESCO launched its new Comprehensive Strategy for Text- books and Learning Materials in 2005. According to this document, it is UNESCO’s role: ‘ “to assist member states in developing policies, norms, and stand- ards for the provision of textbooks and other learning materials which facilitate quality education.” (p. 4) V Variety of methodological ariety of methodological This requires a more in-depth analysis of the way content is presented in appr approaches oaches textbooks: • The general structure (text, illustrations, assignments etc.) of a text- book and the sequencing of the lessons to be learned have to be treated more extensively when formulating recommendations. • The overall goal of “a rights-based, quality education for all” has to be broken down into specific local or regional conditions in order to be of practical value for concrete projects. Examples of best practice may help meet this goal. The Comprehensive Strategy links the development of high-quality educational material to international textbook revision. Furthermore, the UNESCO textbook strategy now underscores the importance of re- search-based activities in order to improve the quality of education and the effectiveness of multilateral projects. • This requires greater emphasis on the methodology of textbook re- search and textbook revision. • External factors that may influence the quality of learning materials, such as market conditions and types of dissemination, deserve greater 26 attention. 24 Guidelines for Enhancing Quality Education through Textbooks and Learning Media, Paris: UNESCO, 2010 (forthcoming). 25 See for example: A Plan for the Development of Education in the Arab Countries. General and Higher Education and Scientific Research. Tunis: League of Arab States/Arab League Educa- tional, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), 2008 (also in Arabic). For a critical evalu - ation of Teaching Islam see Eleanor Abdella DOUMATO/Gregory STARRETT: Teaching Islam. Textbooks and Religion in the Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2007; see also: Education and the Arab World. Political Projects, Struggles and Geometries of Power. Eds. André E. MAZAWI/Ronald G. SULTANA, World Yearbook of Education, 2010; Samira ALAYAN/Sarhan DHOUIB/Achim ROHDE (eds.): Al-Islah al-Tarbawi fi-sh-Sharq al-Awsat. Al- Dhat wa-l-Akher fil Manahij al-Madrassiyya Educational Reform in the Middle East. ‘Self’ and ‘Other’ in the School Curriculum. Amman: Dar ash-Shurouq, 2009. 26 Shobhana SOSALE: Educational Publishing in Global Perspective: Capacity Building and Trends. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1999; Pernille ASKERUD: A Guide to Sustainable Book Provision. Paris: UNESCO, 1997. 18 Unesco.indb 18 14.01.2010 10:27:00 UhrII. Methodology and pedagogy of bi- or multinational textbook projects Finding a compromise: Bi- or multi-national consultations in the post-war decades At first, textbook comparison focused on identifying and eliminating factual errors and obvious prejudices, as well as deliberate omissions and distortions. The main task was to analyse the texts, compare findings, relate them to acknowledged academic research and then to formulate recommendations which often gave a positive account of mutual rela- tions and listed the issues that were not dealt with, as well as unaccept- able views. When textbook revision became a major issue after the First World First textbook First textbook r recommendations ecommendations War it followed a concept that we like to call the consensus model. The idea is that a comparison of different or even conflicting depictions would lead to a compromise in opinions. Therefore, recommendations approved by the partners stress the points they have in common rather than the dif- ferences still in existence. The educational aim is quite clear: to show that there are a number of topics which are viewed in a more or less similar way and which provide a firm basis for solving any problems that might still be unsettled. Nevertheless, the partners were usually able to clearly identify certain areas where no shared interpretation could be reached and these areas were sometimes, but not always, mentioned or listed in the findings of the project; in some instances, however – and this often applied to very sensitive issues – topics on which the partners disagreed were simply omitted and not mentioned at all, so that the public was not made aware of fundamentally different views. The language of recommendations following the consensus model is more or less factual, very similar to the kind of statements well known from the textbooks themselves: they give a comprehensive account of a chain of events in a chronological order or summarize the most impor- tant geographical conditions of a certain region that is dealt with in the textbooks used by all the partners involved in the project. As a rule, they do not give any guidance to teachers or authors on how to deal with pro- tracted conflicts and different interpretations, particularly if they touch on national issues. This is often (and was all the more so in the past) in accordance with the structure of curricula and textbooks that offer only one interpretation and do not devote much time and space to discussing other views. The pupils are not confronted with subject matter that is ap- proached from several different perspectives, requiring them to find their own interpretations, but instead with statements of a factual character, which simply demand a true or false response. 19 Unesco.indb 19 14.01.2010 10:27:00 UhrMain achievements Main achievements Despite the obvious shortcomings of the consensus model, it produced remarkable results for a variety of quite different problems. To give just a few examples: • After the Second World War it started with the US-Canada textbook comparison. The main issue here was not a political but rather a cul- tural one: i.e. the fear on the Canadian side of being dominated by the 27 USA in this respect. • The Spanish-Portuguese textbook recommendations have advocated overcoming the age-old “white maps” in their respective represen- tations. In this case, the fact that ethnic groups and communities have been living side by side in peace for decades does not guarantee that 28 there will be a fair description of mutual relations. • The Polish-Israeli textbook recommendations – like the German- Israeli recommendations of some years before – are in favour of pre- senting a multifaceted picture of a minority group: i.e. to not only regard the Jews as victims or through the eyes of the majority group, 29 but in their own right and against their own cultural background. • Very few projects managed to cross the “Iron curtain,” as did the Ger- man-Polish textbook recommendations, which gave an assessment of German-Polish relations from the Middle Ages through to post-war times. This was a great achievement at a time when politicians and the media were still discussing where the border between Germany and Poland was to be drawn. But certain issues, hotly debated by the public, at least in Germany, could only be mentioned in diplomatic terms and were unlikely to be introduced by both sides in the same manner (e.g. the forcible expulsion of the German population after the war); some had to be left out entirely (e.g. the so-called Hitler-Stalin 0  Pact). • Another major East/West project was the US/USSR textbook study, carried out from 1977 to 1989. The title of the American project re- port was School Textbooks: Weapons for the Cold War and reflects 27 THE AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION/THE CANADA – UNITED STATES COM- MITTEE ON EDUCATION: A Study of National History Textbooks Used in the Schools of Cana- da and the United States. Washington D.C., 1947. 28 Dokumentation. Spanisch-portugiesische Kommission zur Revision der Geschichts- und Sozial- kundebücher. In: Internationale Schulbuchforschung, 17 (1995), pp. 231–235. Recently the Ital- ian-Slovenian consultations have dealt with highly sensitive issues including border-disputes and expulsions as well as massacres committed during the Titoist seizing of power at the end of the Second World War; these crimes have been silenced on both sides since they occurred; however, this bilateral commission did nor refer explicitly to textbooks, http://www.kozina.com/premik/ indexeng_poroclio.htm. 29 Deutsch-Israelische Schulbuchempfehlungen. Braunschweig: Georg-Eckert-Institut für interna- tionale Schulbuchforschung, 1985 (German-Hebrew; Frankfurt/Main, 2nd. rev. ed. in German only).  0 GEMEINSAME DEUTSCH-POLNISCHE SCHULBUCHKOMMISSION: Empfehlungen für Schulbücher der Geschichte und Geographie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und in der Volksrepublik Polen. Braunschweig: Georg-Eckert-Institut für internationale Schulbuch- forschung,1977 (German-Polish; rev. ed. 1995, in German only; see also Klaus ZERNACK: After the Wende: The German-Polish Textbook Project in Retrospect, htpp://www.gei.de/ fileadmin/bilder/pdf/Projekte/After_the_Wende.pdf). 20 Unesco.indb 20 14.01.2010 10:27:00 Uhrthe old ideological split between the two “superpowers.” The report listed the deficiencies in each other’s portrayals, some of which can be remedied simply by giving more coverage to the other’s history. However, the virtually opposing evaluations of each other’s politico- 1  economic system would still represent a problem. Nevertheless, the report’s conclusions contain a statement that is still valid today. It indicates the minimum standard of each other’s presenta- tion which should be achieved, regardless of how divergent the political and ideological background is: “Textbooks will continue to be written from the perspectives of each society. This need not impede accurate textbook treatment.” Of course, the crux of the matter lies in the somewhat vague terminol- ogy: What is accurate? Is the term only to be applied to factual state- ments? Is an accurate presentation in itself impartial? One can differenti- ate between different levels of accuracy or appropriateness: • factual accuracy, • balanced content selection, • unbiased presentation of value-loaded topics. Textbook consultations as mentioned above adopted a similar model of procedures until well into the 1980s: Stages of textbook consultations Working agreement Preliminary meetings with researchers/textbook authors/teachers to define aims/methods/duration of the project Textbook exchange Pretest Textbook consultations Analyses/Reviews Basic lectures Publication of recommendations Research and documentation of the effects of recommendations Follow-up conferences on specific topics; in-service teacher/textbook author training seminars; Production of teaching aids 1  Howard MEHLINGER: School Textbooks: Weapons for the Cold War, a report of the US/USSR textbook study project (1977–1989). US/USSR Textbook Study Project, 1992; the implementation of the project failed because of political objections; Howard MEHLINGER: International Text- book Revision: Examples from the United States. In: Internationale Schulbuchforschung, 8 (1985) pp. 287–298. 21 Unesco.indb 21 14.01.2010 10:27:01 Uhrth st New conflict patterns New conflict patterns The political changes that mark the turn from the 20 to 21 century have had a noticeable impact on international textbook revision. On the one hand, they broke down borders that had divided the world, broadly speak- ing, into two major blocks that adhered to different political ideologies and economic systems. On the other hand, new borderlines emerged with the foundation of new states and brought to the surface old national con- flicts, which had been covered and silenced during the bi-polar block period. No longer the former combatants of the two world wars, the great powers in Europe, Asia and America, fought the wars, but smaller states often marked by inner factions and long lasting ethnic, religious or cul- tural/linguistic divisions who sought for new patterns of identity in a seemingly multi-polar political context. International organisations and individual states took on an interventionist role sometimes drawing on 2  forceful measures in order to end hostilities. The “new wars” that char- acterised the conflicts often did not end with a lasting peace; violence was tamed by a kind of armistice without creating a new ground on which a sustainable, peaceful society could be built. Although wars between states are not a thing of the past, the dominant patterns of conflicts shift- ed from “external” to “internal” wars; so did the objects of textbook revi- sion. Since the 1990s, a move took place • “from controversies over the past to a debate of current, open and often still violent conflicts • from conflicts between states to conflicts between groups within a  state or society (or from war to civil war).” In these cases, education could not stay neutral, but was instrumentalised by the conflicting parties. This destructive role of education, and in par - ticular of history, geography and religious instruction, was discussed at the Dakar Forum and was one of the decisive factors in the decision to 34 put more weight on education in conflict ridden areas. The new domi- nant patterns of conflicts and the fragility of peace (or rather temporary absence of open violence) led to a re-definition of forms and methods of textbook consultation. ‘ Aside from the International Community, who represents individual states and international organizations engaged in peace-making and peace-keeping activities, NGOs, expert groups and agencies in civil 2  Herfried MÜNKLER/Patrick CAMILLER: The New Wars. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005; Mary KALDOR: New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. Stanford, CA: Stanford Uni- versity Press, 1999; see also the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute’s (SIPRI) Year- books; for a critical evaluation of the term “new wars” see Sven CHOJNACKI: Anything New or More of the Same? Wars and Military Interventions in the International System 1946–2003. In: Global Society, 20 (200) pp. 25–4.  Falk PINGEL: Can Truth Be Negotiated? History Textbook Revision as a Means to Reconciliation. In: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 2008, pp. 181–198, quotation p. 182. 34 See Kenneth D. BUSH/Diana SALTARELLI: The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2000. 22 Unesco.indb 22 14.01.2010 10:27:01 Uhrsociety become the main players and take over the role of the former bi- or multi-lateral, quasi-official commissions set up by educational authorities. The new forms of textbook consultations have obvious advantages, but Pr Pros and cons of new os and cons of new pr project designs oject designs are also hampered by clear shortcomings. Commissions, backed and financed by the ministries, can also rely on the ministries when it comes to the implementation of recommendations into curricula and textbooks. NGOs and other civil society agencies can only exert a limited influence on the government; the material or recommendations they produce rarely find their way into the standard textbooks and curriculum. If not sup - ported by funding institutions, they may collapse before a viable result can be achieved. They can, however, bring together people from conflict - ing parties, exchange information and make proposals, in situations when and where politicians are caught in a deadlock and official commissions are not able to act. They can set a new paradigm even if its innovative power only fully develops once the violent phase of a conflict is over and tools for a sustainable peace-oriented education are required. In this way, they are able to lay the foundation for peace education, even before real 5 peace has been established. ‘ The interplay between and the balancing out of external intervention and local ownership has become a decisive factor for the effective- ness of reform processes in many cases. Present textbook conflicts in East and Southeast Asia, in the Middle East, Latin America, Southeastern Europe and Northern Ireland have not been dealt with by bi- or multi-lateral textbook commissions exclusively, but rather a number of models have been applied to meet the needs of each particular case and to overcome obstacles within the political arena. In- ner tensions and wars between new political units have brought about a wide range of various peace implementation measures, which still draw on the traditional mechanisms of textbook revision, but which also in- 6  vent new forms of cooperation, pedagogy and remembrance. 5  Gavriel SALOMON/Baruch NEVO (eds.): Peace Education: The concept, principles and practic- es in the world. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002. For a critical evaluation of peace educa- tion research see Werner WINTERSTEINER: Peace education in Europe: Visions and experience, Münster: Waxmann, 2003.  6 Different case studies offered: Elizabeth COLE (ed.): Teaching the Violent Past. History Educa- tion and Reconciliation. London: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007; Stuart J. FOSTER/Keith CRAWFORD (eds.): What Shall We Tell the Children? International Perspectives on School His- tory Textbooks. Greenwich, Conn.: IAP-Information Age, 200; Jason NICHOLLS (ed.): School Textbooks across Cultures. International Debates and Perspectives. Oxford: Symposium Books, 2006; Sobhi TAWIL/Alexander HARLEY (eds.): Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion. Ge- neva: UNESCO International Bureau of Education, 2004; Hanna SCHISSLER/Yasemin Nuhoglu SOYSAL (eds.): The Nation, Europe, and the World. Textbooks and Curricula in Transition. New York: Berghahn Books, 2005; Laura HEIN/Mark SELDEN (eds.): Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2000. 2 Unesco.indb 23 14.01.2010 10:27:01 UhrFrom reconstruction to reconciliation Phases of conflict Phases of conflict As maintaining basic and impartial education in situations of open con- r resolution measur esolution measures es flict is now being regarded as an important tool for reconstruction as well, a sequence of different developmental phases has been worked 7 out to which different steps and forms of educational activities corre- spond: 8 • Emergency Education has become an established field of measures that aim firstly at material rebuilding (schools, classrooms, bringing teachers and pupils back to school) and at keeping basic standards in educational materials including the eradication of obvious hate speech, adversary stereotypes, etc. • Emergency measures should lead into a phase of broader reconstruc- tion that encompasses the renewal and in part modernisation of cur- 9  ricula, textbooks and teacher training. • Building on these measures a long-term multifaceted strategy of re- vising the content and methods of instruction should be implemented to safeguard an education that actively strives to overcome rifts in the past, to build trust between former “enemies” and to help pupils develop positive expectations for the future. Reconciliation is a big word for reaching this goal. Historically, it re- fers foremost to the process of rapprochement between Germany and its former adversaries after the Second World War. So far, it may be as- sociated with a certain cultural tradition and even tinged by a Christian 40 concept of forgiveness. Bearing this in mind, it has become one of the leading concepts for understanding long-term processes of overcoming cultural bias and political enmities, and it translates into different cultural and political contexts, moulding the aims and tools of the processes that evolve from it according to the particular case at hand. In past decades it developed well beyond textbook revision and includes judicial measures such as (international) trials, as well as amnesties, material restitution 41 and compensation, expressions of apology and processes of “healing” 7 Kathryn TOMLINSON/Pauline BENEFIELD: Education and Conflict: Research and Research Possibilities. National Foundation for Educational Research, 2005 (http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/ 3f/66/a4.pdf); Alan SMITH/Tony VAUX: Education, Conflict and International Developments. A report commissioned by the UK Department for International Development, 2002; David PHILIPS et al.: Education for Reconstruction – The Regeneration of Educational Capacity Following Na- tional Upheaval. Oxford: Symposium Books, 1998.  8 Also here the Dakar Forum set the standard, see WORLD EDUCATION FORUM: Thematic Study: Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis: Challenges for the New Century. Paris: UNESCO, 2000.  9 Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction. Paris: International Insti- tute for Educational Planning-UNESCO, 200. 40 John Paul LEDERACH: Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Socie- ties. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, December 1997; Rodney L PETERSEN/Raymond G. HELMICK (eds.): Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Religion, Pub- lic Policy, and Conflict Transformation. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2001. 41 Elazar BARKAN/Alexander KARN (eds.): Taking Wrongs Seriously. Apologies and Reconcilia- tion. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 200. 24 Unesco.indb 24 14.01.2010 10:27:01 Uhrincluding organized encounters between “victims” and “perpetrators” from all sides involved in a conflict. “Truth and Reconciliation Com- missions” have been at work in many conflict-ridden areas and often not only contribute to resolving questions of responsibility, guilt and reco- gnition of crimes, but also help to find new forms of remembrance that 42 unite rather than divide the memories of the people involved. The place of textbook revision in this array of reconstructive and reconciliatory efforts cannot easily be defined. Faced with formerly un - known violence and challenged by the emergence of pluralistic political structures, international intervention, elements of civil society grassroots work and domestic reconstruction policy often lead to a mixture of tools for pacification and reconciliation in which textbook revision is only one, but still an important, aspect. Regarding the three phases mentioned above, grassroots and inter-communal activities rarely have a say in the first phase, as considerable financial means and technical capacities must be made available here; they can, however, be most influential in the sec - ond and third phases when freedom of movement and basic security is guaranteed. In the first phase, the international community, together with local (or central, if functioning) governmental institutions, usually takes the lead; although being effective in material terms, they sometimes lack sufficient support by the population at large when ideologically conten - tious issues are at stake. For example, as part of emergency measures following the Textbook Quality Improvement Programme, UNESCO reviewed the existing textbooks in Iraq after the Second Gulf War in order to eradicate biased language and one-sided illustrations that did not conform to the principles of education towards democratic and mul- ticultural values. Similar activities were carried out in Bosnia and Herze- govina. Teachers, parents and pupils often did not accept these hastily implemented measures that seemed to be imposed on them without their consultation. It is often impossible, though, to invite all stakeholders in education to take part in the process from the very beginning, as some are not ready to acknowledge the opponents in the conflict as equal part - ners. To date, one can only refer to a few projects that take into account the political, pedagogical as well as social and cultural dimensions of reconstruction and reconciliation after violence. STOVER/WEINSTEIN (2004) and their team who did research on and were actively involved in rebuilding trustworthy community life in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Rwanda come to the conclusion that coordinated measures are needed to bring about sustainable results. According to their “ecological model 42 Priscilla B. HAYNER: Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror & Atrocity. New York: Routlege, 2001; Audrey R. CHAPMAN/Patrick BALL: .The Truth of Truth Commissions. Com- parative Lessons from Haiti, South Africa, and Guatemala. In: Human Rights Quarterly, 2 (2001) pp. 1–43. 25 Unesco.indb 25 14.01.2010 10:27:01 Uhr