How to Thesis statement for a Research paper

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Thesis and Dissertation Preparation Guide THESIS & DISSERTATION PR EPARATION AND PROPOSAL GUIDE INTRODUCTION Earning a doctoral degree or a master’s degree with thesis option requires the graduate student, in collaboration with a faculty research advisor and thesis or dissertation committee, to design and conduct an original research project. Scholarly activity and research should be encouraged from the outset of the student’s graduate program and should continue to play an important role until completion. The process of designing, writing, and completing the thesis or dissertation affords the student an opportunity to draw upon and consolidate knowledge obtained from classroom lectures, research projects, teaching, and other experiences. However, the thesis or dissertation should be viewed as the beginning of the student’s scholarly work, not its culmination. Thesis or dissertation research should provide the student with hands-on, directed experience in the primary research methods of the discipline and should prepare the student for research and scholarship that will be expected after receipt of the degree. This preparation guide includes specific format requirements for the thesis or dissertation, as well as information about related policies and procedures. In most disciplines, a professional manual is acknowledged as the accepted format guide for publication manuscripts. Graduate students are encouraged to use professional manuals for their disciplines in preparing the thesis or dissertation. However, the format requirements outlined in this guide take precedence over those in professional manuals for disciplines. This policy ensures uniformity for Graduate School documents. INTEGRITY IN RESEARCH The graduate student is expected to adhere to the highest standards of academic integrity in research and scholarship. Plagiarism, falsification of data, or other unethical behaviors will not be tolerated. The following sections will help students understand the rights and responsibilities with regard to their own work and procedures and policies which must be followed to observe the rights of others. Compliance with federal regulations governing the use of human subjects, animal care and use, radiation, drugs, recombinant DNA, or the handling and disposal of hazardous materials in research is monitored by a number of federal agencies. Because of these regulations, research compliance is another area of importance to graduate students and to the conduct of their research. If approval is relevant to the research, a student must verify that he or she has complied with the appropriate approval procedure(s) prior to the initiation of the thesis- or dissertation- related research. This will include review and approval by the Institutional Review Board for use of human subjects, the Animal Care and Use Committee if the research involves animals, or the Radiation Safety Committee if the research involves radioactive materials. Specific information regarding procedures for obtaining appropriate review of proposed research projects involving human subjects is available http://uca.edu/sponsoredprograms/researchcompliance/ Graduate students conducting research involving any of the areas listed above should consult with the research advisor, department chair, and/or the UCA Research Compliance Officer to determine the required compliance. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n Pr e p a r a t i o n a n d Pr o p o s a l G u i d e 2 RESPONSIBILITIES The thesis or dissertation represents a capstone project for many graduate students. Although the graduate student must assume primary responsibility for content and format of the thesis or dissertation, faculty members are expected to provide guidance. The University of Central Arkansas offers many avenues of help for the graduate student writing a thesis or dissertation. Accesses to computers and printers, Torreyson Library, laboratory equipment, and assistance from the thesis or dissertation committee are available to students who choose to take advantage of these opportunities. The responsibility for maintaining a high level of scholarship and writing and for producing a quality document rests with the student as the author of the thesis or dissertation. Departments offering a Ph.D. must prepare handbooks for Ph.D. students and faculty advisors of dissertations that codify the departmental and disciplinary expectations of graduate education in general and the dissertation in particular. Guidelines should focus on the mutual responsibilities of advisors and students and on a time-frame for completing each major stage of doctoral studies. Similar handbooks are recommended for master's programs, particularly those with a thesis option. The goal of the Graduate School, as well as the student’s thesis or dissertation committee, is to ensure that a manuscript has been produced that will reflect positively on the student, the student’s committee and department, the Graduate School, and the University of Central Arkansas. GENERAL INFORMATION Departments determine whether they require, or provide an option for, master’s students to submit a thesis. All Ph.D. candidates will complete a dissertation. The following sections outline the general timeline, policies, and procedures for producing a thesis or dissertation at the University of Central Arkansas. It is important to read and understand fully the contents of this manual. The student must allow sufficient time for the logistics of conducting the research and writing the thesis or dissertation. Graduate School Deadlines It is the student’s responsibility to complete the following requirements according to the established schedule: Master’s Degree Candidates  A thesis proposal (generally containing the first three chapters of the thesis) should be completed and filed with the department chair as early in the thesis process as T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n Pr e p a r a t i o n a n d Pr o p o s a l G u i d e 3 possible, but at least by the end of the first semester in which the student registers for thesis credit.  Continuous Enrollment: Master’s students must register for at least one hour of graduate thesis credit each semester (Fall, Spring, and Summer) after enrolling in their first thesis course, whether the student is in residence or away from the campus.  Application for Graduation must be completed by the deadline set for each term. This is typically very early in the term and includes payment of a graduation fee. The Application for Graduation specifies the title of the student’s thesis.  The thesis, in final form with signatures of all committee members, must be submitted to the Graduate Dean at least three weeks prior to the date of graduation. One routing form (Sample Document page 39) signed by the Thesis Committee Chair, Department Chair and College Dean must accompany the two final copies of the thesis.  Verification of successful completion of the comprehensive examination and/or the defense of the thesis must be submitted to the Graduate School office two weeks prior to the date of graduation.  Two final copies of your thesis must be submitted to the Graduate School and electronic submission to ProQuest must be complete before your degree will be awarded. Ph.D. Candidates  Approval of the dissertation topic by the major research professor/advisor and a dissertation committee is recommended as early as possible within the guidelines established by the department and a notice of appointment of the dissertation committee. (Sample Document page 9). Following approval, dissertation work can proceed at any time during a doctoral student’s course of study.  Continuous Enrollment: Doctoral students must register for a least one hour of dissertation credit each semester (Fall, Spring, and Summer) following approval of dissertation proposal until the work is completed, whether the student is in residence or away from the campus.  Application for Graduation must be completed by the deadline set for the term in which the dissertation is expected to be completed. This is typically very early in the term and includes payment of a graduation fee. The Application for Graduation specifies the title of the student’s dissertation. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n Pr e p a r a t i o n a n d Pr o p o s a l G u i d e 4  The dissertation, in final form with signatures of all committee members, must be submitted to the Graduate Dean at least three weeks prior to the date of graduation. One routing form (Sample Document page 39) signed by the Dissertation Committee Chair, the Department Chair, and the College Dean must accompany the two final copies of the dissertation.  Verification of successful completion of the comprehensive examination, scholarly project, and/or the defense of the dissertation must be submitted to the Graduate School office two weeks prior to the date of graduation.  Two final copies of your dissertation must be submitted to the Graduate School and electronic submission to ProQuest must be complete before your degree will be awarded. Selecting a Topic Selection of a thesis or dissertation topic is the responsibility of the student. The student is advised to consult with an advisor and other faculty members to explore possible fields of interest and available resources and expertise that may exist within the discipline and the University. The potential contributions of faculty members to the development of the student’s thesis or dissertation should be thoroughly investigated before the topic is selected. The thesis or dissertation topic must be approved by the major professor and committee. The student will submit a written statement outlining the scope of the proposed study and procedures to be followed for approval. These procedures must be in compliance with University policies regarding research and the use of human subjects, animals, and radioactive materials in research. The original approval statement and outline are to be maintained in the department office with copies distributed to the Graduate Dean, college dean, major professor, and student. Selecting a Committee Every graduate student who is writing a thesis or dissertation works under the direction of a committee of graduate faculty at the University of Central Arkansas. The committee should be selected within the timeline of the particular degree program in which the student is enrolled. The student should investigate the interests and abilities of faculty and their ability to assist in the particular project which the student proposes to undertake and may suggest faculty for consideration as members of the committee. Appointments are made by the chairperson of the academic department after considering the student’s recommendations. Master’s Thesis Committee. A Master’s student who is planning to complete a thesis must indicate his/her intent by filing a “Thesis or Dissertation Committee Selection Form” with his/her department chair. The committee shall be composed of a minimum of three members: the major professor, a second member of the graduate faculty of the discipline involved, and a third T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n Pr e p a r a t i o n a n d Pr o p o s a l G u i d e 5 graduate faculty member who may be from outside the student's department. Following approval of the thesis committee by the department chair, the form will be submitted to the Graduate School. Doctoral Dissertation Committee. The dissertation committee shall be established according to departmental guidelines. The committee will consist of a minimum of five members of the graduate faculty, at least one from outside the student’s department. Following the appointment of the committee, the form, Notice of Appointment of Dissertation Committee (Sample Document page 9), will be submitted to the Graduate School. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n Pr e p a r a t i o n a n d Pr o p o s a l G u i d e 6 THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL When the student has selected a topic, a formal proposal is prepared and must be approved by the thesis or dissertation committee. The proposal details the student’s proposed research and provides the opportunity for review and feedback from the committee. The committee may require revisions prior to approval. Following approval, the student has reasonable confidence that the committee will approve the thesis or dissertation if it is carried through competently according to the proposal. Copies of the approved proposal are to be distributed to the department chair for the departmental file, the major professor, and the student. Any modifications to the proposal require the approval of the student’s committee. MFA students please refer to the Thesis and Dissertation Alternate Format Guide for required elements of the Script and Proposal. Format for the Proposal Chapter Format - Quantitative Research. Proposals that are written in chapters are the most common but will differ in their content by disciplines and also by the type of proposal (i.e. quantitative or qualitative research). Students should work closely with the research advisor to determine the specific content required for the type of research to be conducted and for the discipline. The proposal is often the first three to four chapters of the student’s thesis or dissertation. The proposal is discussed in terms of what “will be” done in conducting the research. Table 1 (page 7) presents an example outline of contents generally found in a proposal for quantitative research organized in chapter format. Chapter Format - Qualitative Research. Qualitative research proposals may vary considerably, yet they do contain some common features. The specific theoretical framework selected for qualitative studies significantly influences the content of the proposal. Table 2 (page 8) presents a sample outline of components for a qualitative research proposal organized in chapter format. Alternate Formats. A department may choose to allow the student to submit portions of a thesis or dissertation in a format ready for submission to a journal in the student’s field. If an alternate format will be used for the final thesis or dissertation, the student may also submit the research proposal in the form of a publishable article; however, it must include comparable information to the examples given for the chapter formats described above. Furthermore, this format may be adapted as appropriate for historical or analytical research. The emphasis in this guide is primarily on scientific/social-scientific research reporting. A typical thesis or dissertation in the humanities or arts may not be described in these terms. It is assumed, however, that various parts of a thesis or dissertation in the humanities or arts are mostly analogous to the parts described in this manual. It may be necessary for departments in these areas to assist students in making the necessary conversion in terminology. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n Pr e p a r a t i o n a n d Pr o p o s a l G u i d e 7 Table 1 Sample Outline for Quantitative Research Proposal Using a Chapter Format CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Introduction (provides a brief orientation to the reader) B. Statement of the problem C. Significance of the problem (addresses the importance of the problem to the discipline) D. Statement of the purpose (a clear, concise statement of the purpose of the study) E. Theoretical/Conceptual framework (provides a framework for examining the problem and for linking it to relevant literature) F. Objectives, hypotheses, research questions (to be derived from the purpose and framework and provide specific direction for data analysis and interpretation) G. Assumptions/theoretical limitations H. Definition of relevant terms (subparts E - H are sometimes contained in a single chapter) REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE (Provides an overview of essential CHAPTER II information that will guide the study and illustrates that the researcher has a command of current knowledge regarding the proposed problem.) A. Review of relevant literature B. Review of relevant research literature C. Summary CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES Description of the research design (the general strategy for conducting the study) A. Population and sample (population to which the findings will be generalized and from which the sample will be selected, how the sample will be selected) B. Setting (where the study will be conducted) C. Protection of subjects’ rights (illustrates recognition and protection of rights and welfare of subjects) D. Measurement methods (methods of measuring study variables described, including instruments) E. Plans for data collection (the procedure by which the data will be collected, and who will collect it) F. Plan for data analysis (statistical analysis techniques which will be used) G. Limitations (methodological limitations) H. Study budget and timetable (might be in an appendix) REFERENCES APPENDICES T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n Pr e p a r a t i o n a n d Pr o p o s a l G u i d e 8 Table 2 Sample Outline for Qualitative Research Proposal Using a Chapter Format CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Identification of the phenomenon B. Study purpose C. Theoretical framework or philosophy D. Study questions or aims E. Significance of the study F. Identification of assumptions G. Limitations CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Relevant literature reviewed (as appropriate for the type of qualitative study planned). CHAPTER III METHODS A. Researcher’s credentials (demonstration of researcher’s ability to conduct the type of study proposed) B. Site and population (description of site for study and population to be used) C. Sample (description of sample and its selection) D. Data collection process E. Data analysis (techniques to be used to analyze data) F. Study budget and timetable (might be located in appendix) REFERENCES APPENDICES Formal Presentation of the Research Proposal Graduate students conducting a thesis or dissertation are required to present their proposal to their committee, providing members the opportunity to evaluate the student’s knowledge and understanding of the proposal as well as the student’s ability to reason and present logical explanations to questions related to the research. The presentation is conducted as a scholarly seminar. The student provides an overview of the proposal highlighting salient points of the proposed research. Audio-visual aids may assist in communicating essential points. Following the presentation, there is normally a period for questions and answers. For example, the student might be asked to explain the rationale and considerations used in selecting particular theoretical frameworks, instruments, or data analysis techniques. As a result of the meeting, committee members may suggest changes in the proposal and will approve or disapprove the proposal for implementation. A committee may ask for revisions to a proposal before approval. THESIS & DISSERTATION FORMAT GUIDE THESIS/DISSERTATION ELEMENTS AND STYLE This section of the guide is designed to be a basic source of information for thesis or dissertation preparation. It establishes the technical parameters within which all students should work, such as quality of paper, margins, the sequence of pages within the manuscript, and the number of copies to be submitted. Since many graduate students will publish during and after their graduate education, they are encouraged to use leading professional publications to help establish specific formatting conventions. Students are also encouraged to use publications within their field — journals and textbooks — to assist them in establishing the format, bibliographic form, use of numbers, and other conventions that are discipline oriented. However, in cases where disciplinary conventions contradict this guide, the guide always takes precedence. Style Guides The student preparing a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation will use the style manual acknowledged in his/her discipline as the guide for notes, bibliographies, charts, figures, etc. Departments will inform students which style manual is appropriate. Manuals frequently used include the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers; the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association; Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations; The Chicago Manual of Style; the American Medical Association Manual of Style; and The American Physical Society’s AIP Style Manual. These manuals may also offer guidance on grammatical questions. In contrast, previously accepted theses and dissertations should never be used as the final guide to style. Examples taken from other theses or dissertations may be out of context or may be incorrect. The existence of a particular style or usage in a previously accepted thesis or dissertation does not establish a precedent for its continuation. It is the responsibility of the student and the thesis or dissertation advisor to ensure that the thesis or dissertation meets standards required by this manual and, at the same time, recognizes the conventions of the student’s discipline. Regardless of the discipline-specific format selected for the thesis or dissertation, certain format requirements are mandatory and are outlined in the following paragraphs. In addition to the mandatory requirements, suggestions are also provided. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 10 The chart below provides a summary of page assignments for components of the thesis or dissertation. Outline and Pagination for the Thesis or Dissertation Components of the Thesis or Dissertation Page Assignment Lower Case Roman Numeral Title Page Approval Sheet (Assigned, Not Typed) Statement of Permission to Use Copyright Acknowledgment Vita Lower Case Roman Numeral Abstract (Typed -Bottom Center) Table of Contents List of Tables if applicable List of Figures if applicable List of Symbols and/or Abbreviations Arabic Numerals Main Text of Thesis or dissertation Starting with 1 Bibliography or Literature Cited (First page of each chapter – and Appendices Subsequent pages - bottom center. Suppress page numbers on title pages for appendices) Denotes components that are optional. All other components are mandatory. Please note: Sample Documents are for margin and spacing guidelines only. The typeface should match your thesis or dissertation. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 11 Typeface The typeface is to be clear, non-distracting, and consistent throughout the thesis or dissertation. Note that although there are specific formats to follow for title pages, appendices, etc., the FONT MUST BE CONSISTENT THROUGHOUT THE TEXT. Exceptions to the selected typeface are allowed for graphs or other illustrations and appendix materials. Script, Old English or other decorative typefaces are not acceptable. A 10 to 12 point font size is required. Italics may be used, consistent with the style being followed. Margins and Justification To allow for binding, all left-hand margins, including those of appendices, must be 1½ inches wide. The other margins should conform to the recommendation of the discipline style being followed. If margins are not provided in the selected style guidelines, use 1 inch for each of the top, bottom, and right margins. Right-hand justification is not allowed. Full or left justification may be used, following the selected style guide. Justification must be consistent throughout the manuscript. Hyphenating words between lines is to be avoided. Line Spacing The body of the text must be double spaced, except for blocked quotations, references, footnotes, and similar elements. In the case of these elements, follow the selected style manual. If the selected style manual does not specify line spacing for references, single space within the item and double space between items. Do not split an item from one page to the next. Ink Color Black ink is to be used for the thesis or dissertation. Though colored ink may be used for graphs and illustrations, it will fade over time and so is not recommended. If used, it must be used for all copies. Paper The Graduate School requires two (2) copies be submitted, one on twenty (20) pound weight acid-free or equivalent bond paper, 8½ by 11 inches and one copy may be good grade photocopy. The thesis or dissertation may either be printed initially on this type of paper or may be professionally photocopied onto it. Consult your department to determine whether the copies for committee members and the department’s copy must be on the same paper or if a good grade photocopying paper will be acceptable. Erasable paper is not acceptable, nor is a carbon copy. Illustrations Follow the selected style manual for the titling and formatting of illustrations, including tables, graphs, figures, drawings, and photographs. In theses or dissertations using a chapter format, illustrations are normally placed in the text as close as possible to the first narrative referencing them. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 12 Computer Generated Tables and Graphs Tables and graphs generated from a statistical program may be integrated into the thesis or dissertation. Margins of tables must be consistent with the main body of the thesis or dissertation, and reproductions must be clear and distinct. Photographs Photographs may either be reprinted for each copy or professionally photocopied showing all of the shading, colors, and clarity of the original. Affix photographs securely with mounting fixative. Do not use tape or photo corners. Original Documents Original letters or other similar documents, such as permission to use an instrument or to collect data in a certain institution, are not normally submitted in the thesis or dissertation. They should be photocopied on the required paper and the copy submitted as part of the thesis or dissertation. The originals are retained by the student with the primary research records. The documents may need to be reduced in order to maintain required margins. Oversized Documents, Tables, Tapes, Computer Discs, Maps Oversized materials should be photocopied and reduced to fit within the required margins. Horizontal (landscaped) orientation is allowed. If necessary, oversized pages may be used, providing when folded they are no more than 11 inches vertically and do not fold into the binding margin (½ inch on the left). A pocket envelope affixed to the thesis or dissertation may be used for materials that cannot be folded within the constraints of the thesis or dissertation. Printing The thesis or dissertation is to be printed one-sided, using a laser printer, another letter-quality printer, or typewriter. Dot matrix printing is not acceptable, nor is poor photocopying, poor ribbon, or uneven toner. Pagination Follow the requirements of the selected style manual for numbering the pages. If the style manual does not provide guidelines for documents with chapters, title pages, and similar elements, use the following guidelines: a) do not print the page number on title pages, but count them in the sequence of numbers; b) number the additional pages before the text in the lower center of the page, using lower case Roman numerals; c) beginning with the first page of the text through to the end of the text, use Arabic numbers starting with the number 1; d) the number is placed at the bottom center of the page; e) do not number the title pages of appendices, but count them in the sequence of numbers. Continue using Arabic numbers for the appendices, progressing from the last number of the text, placing them in the bottom center of the page. Numbers of landscaped pages must also show the page number in the bottom center of the page when bound. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 13 Elements of the Thesis/Dissertation Elements which were included in the proposal (introduction, review of the literature, methodology, references, and appendices) are also included in the final thesis/dissertation. In the proposal, these were discussed in terms of what “will be” done in conducting the research but are now discussed in terms of what “was” completed in the research. Also included are a summary of the results of the research and a discussion of the implications of the research. These sections appear as chapters 4 and 5 in a chapter format document. The following are brief descriptions of the common elements of a thesis or dissertation. Preliminary Pages Title Page. This page marks the beginning of the actual thesis or dissertation. The wording and format of the title page must conform exactly to that shown in Sample Document page 18. The title of the thesis or dissertation should clearly describe the contents of the thesis/dissertation and should facilitate ease of location on a subject index through the use of keywords. The student must use the same name that he/she uses to register at the University. The title page is considered page “i” in the front matter Roman numeral sequence but is left unnumbered. The first line of the title is typed in the center of the general page margins in all- capital letters on a line two inches from the top of the page. The remaining title page copy is centered, as illustrated in Sample Document page 18, and is spaced vertically to present an optical balance on the page. The date indicated on this page must correspond to the month and year of official graduation (commencement) even if this does not correspond exactly with the actual date of completion of the thesis. Approval Sheet. The approval sheet documents that the student's advisory committee has recommended the approval of the thesis or dissertation to the Graduate School. Each copy of the thesis or dissertation submitted to the Graduate School must have an original approval sheet conforming to the same paper and format requirements as the main text of the thesis or dissertation. The first line of the approval page rests on a line two inches from the top of the page and is flush with the left margin. The second line begins six spaces in from the left margin. Three spaces separate the first signature line (typed as a solid underline) from the last line of the approval statement and each subsequent signature line from the name above it. Names of the committee members are typed one space below the signature lines. The approval page must be exactly as shown in Sample Document page 19 and must have a number of signature lines equal to the number of thesis or dissertation committee members. All copies must bear the original signatures of the thesis or dissertation committee. Approval sheets are not numbered but are counted in the Roman numeral numbering sequence. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 14 Statement of Permission to Use. Torreyson Library is the only avenue of access to complete theses/dissertations at the University of Central Arkansas. The Statement of Permission to Use allows the library to provide copies of the thesis or dissertation for scholarly purposes without the need to secure further permission from the author. All copies of the thesis or dissertation submitted to the Graduate School for consideration must include a completed and signed Statement of Permission to Use. The wording and format shown in Sample Document page 20 must be adhered to strictly. (See Thesis/Dissertation Defense Guide section for information on copyright.) See Sample Document page 21 for formatting information. Acknowledgment. This page provides the author an opportunity to thank those who have assisted in the attainment of the graduate degree. In addition to mentioning individuals, this section may also include acknowledgments to agencies that have provided financial support for the project. Bear in mind that the thesis or dissertation is a professional document and that the tone of the acknowledgment must be appropriate for scholarly work. Vita. The vita provides the reviewer with academic and professional information about the author. The inclusion of the vita is optional. Abstract. The abstract provides a brief summary of the main text of the thesis or dissertation. Appropriate components of the abstract include a statement of purpose of the project, brief summary of the methodology used during the course of the project, a concise summary of the findings, and conclusions reached based upon the results obtained. As previously noted, it is strongly recommended that the main text of the thesis or dissertation conform to the manuscript guidelines for an appropriate disciplinary journal to facilitate submission of the work for publication. In line with this recommendation, the abstract should also conform to the same guidelines. Abstracts should fall within the range of 100 to 200 words. Table of Contents. The Table of Contents should include a list of all preliminary pages to which page numbers have been assigned and all other components included in the thesis or dissertation. Subsections and individual chapters corresponding to the main text should be listed individually. Page numbers must be included for all listed items. An example can be found in Sample Document page 22. List of Table/List of Figures. All tables appearing in the document (including those located in appendices) should be listed by title and page number. Similarly, on a separate page, all figures appearing in the document should be listed. The titles used should correspond exactly to the titles given to the tables and figures in the body of the thesis or dissertation. List of Symbols and/or Abbreviations. Definitions of special symbols or abbreviations are of significant benefit to the reader of the thesis or dissertation. While this does not relieve the author of the responsibility of defining abbreviations and symbols within the text the first time they are used, it does provide a convenient source of reference. T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 15 Main Text “Text” is a generic term to refer to the main body of the thesis or dissertation. The manuscript must be divided into a logical scheme that is followed consistently throughout the work. Chapters are the most common major division, but sections and parts are also permissible (see Alternate Format Guide Section page 25). Any logical system of subdivision within chapters or sections may be used, but the scheme must be consistent throughout the manuscript. Bibliography/List of References The thesis or dissertation must include a list of materials used in the preparation of the manuscript. This may consist only of references cited in the text (List of References) or it may include works consulted as well (Bibliography). The format for citations is determined by the style guide selected by the department. Appendices In carrying out any research endeavor, many activities are conducted that may not be reported as part of a formal manuscript but may provide additional insight as to the completeness of the project. The number and type of appendices that are to be included should be determined by the thesis candidate in consultation with his/her thesis advisor and advisory committee. The title page of each appendix should include a brief explanatory bridge statement that links the information contained in the appendix to the main text of the thesis. The format of the appendices should be consistent with that used throughout the remainder of the text. Discipline- and Project-Specific Appendices. The following example appendices are listed to illustrate instances where the inclusion of additional information in the thesis/dissertation may be mandatory. This list is not comprehensive and should not be used to justify the omission of information required by a particular discipline. 1. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. All protocols involving the use of warm- blooded vertebrate animals must receive approval from this committee prior to the initiation of the experiments. Include the approval letter. 2. Institutional Review Board for the Use of Human Subjects. All research involving human subjects must be approved by this committee. Do not include materials that would allow human subjects to be identified. Include the approval letter. 3. Letter of Permission to Collect Data. (If privacy/confidentiality needs to be maintained, white out the site name, address, etc.) 4. Data Collection Instruments. 5. Others as required by discipline and/or by unique characteristics of the individual study. Sample Documents SAMPLE TITLE PAGE .................. 18 SAMPLE APPROVAL PAGE ......... 19 SAMPLE PERMISSION PAGE ...... 20 SAMPLE COPYRIGHT .................. 21 SAMPLE TABLE OF CONTENTS . 22 T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 17 2 inch top margin 1 ½ inch Title in all left margin CAPITALS, (for binding) A DISCRIMINATIVE STUDY OF METHODS FOR THE double spaced, QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FLUORINE same font size as main body by William Harold Robert A thesis presented to the Department of Biology and the Graduate School of University of Central Arkansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biology Conway, Arkansas Month & Year May 2009 of commencement, not defense 2 inch bottom margin T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 18 2 inch top margin TO THE OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES: The members of the Committee approve the thesis of insert name of student here presented on insert date of thesis defense here. 1 ½ inch insert name, Committee Chairperson left margin (for binding) insert committee member name here insert committee member name here insert committee member name here T h e s i s & Di s s e r t a t i o n F o r ma t St y le G u i d e 19 2 inch top margin PERMISSION Title A Discriminative Study of Methods for the Quantitative Determination of Fluorine Department Biology 1 ½ inch Degree Master of Science left margin (for binding) In presenting this thesis/dissertation in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a graduate degree from the University of Central Arkansas, I agree that the Library of this University shall make it freely available for inspections. I further agree that permission for extensive copying for scholarly purposes may be granted by the professor who supervised my thesis/dissertation work, or, in the professor’s absence, by the Chair of the Department or the Dean of the Graduate School. It is understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to the University of Central Arkansas in any scholarly use which may be made of any material in my thesis/dissertation. your signature goes here type your name here April 15, 2009 today’s date