How to APA format citation

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Published Date:02-07-2017
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APA Citation Basics th 6 EditionThis guide will provide information about: • Understanding the fundamentals of APA citations, including: o Capitalization rules o Author formatting o Organizing a reference list • APA citation examples of source types, including: o Popular and scholarly sources o Audiovisual media • Tips and examples for citing online sources • Creating parenthetical, in-text citations, including: o Formatting parenthetical citations and block quotes o Citing sources with multiple authors and corporate authorsTable of Contents Chapter 1: Citation Fundamentals pp. 1-3 Chapter 2: Examples of Popular Sources pp. 4-7 Chapter 3: Web Rules & Citations pp. 8-10 Chapter 4: Parenthetical Citations pp. 11-15APA Citation Fundamentals APA Citation Fundamentals 1APA Citation Fundamentals Generally, APA citations require some or all of the following bibliographic data: • Author• Publisher • Title• City and state of publication • Publication year• Page or paragraph numbers • Publication month and date Contributor Information & Titles The main contributors to the source, normally the authors, are placed first in the citation. All author names are formatted by last name, followed by the first and middle (if available) initial of the author. If there is more than one author, arrange them in the same order as found in the th source. (For more information, see the APA’s Publication Manual, 6 Edition, 6.27.) One author Last, F. M. Two authors Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. Three to seven authors Last, F. M., Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. Seven or more authors Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., . . . Last, F. M. For sources with 7+ authors: list the first six authors, insert ellipses, then insert the last author listed in the source. Sometimes there are other contributors to a work, such as an editor. If there is an editor but no author, place the editor’s name in the author’s position of the citation and add “(Ed.)” or “(Eds.)” after the last editor’s name. Editor, no author Editor, F. M., & Editor, F. M. (Eds.). (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher. For works with an author and an editor – such as an article in an edited anthology – place the editor’s name(s), uninverted, before the source’s title. Note: The name(s) should be preceded by “In” and followed by the source title. Author and editor Author, F. M. (Year). Title of chapter. In F. M. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (pp. xx-xx). Location: Publisher. Do not include author credentials (e.g., Ph.D, M.D.) in your citations. 2APA Citation Fundamentals Organizing Your Bibliography Arrange citation entries in a reference list alphabetically by author’s last name. Chan, D. Gover, E. Kalita, R. Parekh, R. Selleck, A. C. Multiple works by different authors with the same last name should be alphabetized by the author’s first initial: Kessman, J. Kessman, R. If a work is authored by a group or corporation, alphabetize it by the first main word in the group’s name. Alberto, A. Association of National Advertisers. Covert, K. Ikemoto, W. Capitalization Rules Capitalization in APA style varies based on the source you are citing. Article or chapter titles: • Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles after a colon, as well as the first letter of any proper nouns. Journal, newspaper or magazine titles (periodical works): • Include the entire title in uppercase and lowercase letters. • Italicize the title. Book or report titles (nonperiodical works): • Capitalize the first word in the title and subtitle, and any proper nouns. • Italicize the title. • If the work includes an edition or volume number, include it in parentheses after the title. 3APA Examples of Popular Sources APA Examples of Popular Sources 4APA Examples of Popular Sources Book APA Author, F. M. (Year of publication). Book title: Subtitle. City, State: Publisher. Ex: Green, J. (2012). The fault in our stars. New York, NY: Dutton Books. Chapter/Anthology APA Author, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In F. M. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Location: Publisher. Ex: Melville, H. (1989). Hawthorne and his mosses. In N. Baym (Ed.), The Norton anthology of American literature (pp. 5-25). New York, NY: W. W. Norton. Magazine APA Author, F. M. (Year, month of publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. Ex: Winerman, L. (2013, June). Breaking free from addiction. Monitor on Psychology, 44(6), 30-34. Newspaper Author, F. M. (Year, month date of publication). Article title. Newspaper title, APA pp. xx-xx. Ex: Bowman, L. (1990, March 7). Bills target Lake Erie mussels. The Pittsburgh Press, pp. A4. 5APA Examples of Popular Sources Journal (online) APA Author, F. M. (Publication year). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxOR Retrieved from journal URL Ex: Trier, J. (2007). “Cool” engagements with YouTube: Part 2. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50(7), 598-603. doi:10.1598/JAAL.50.7.8 Database name and retrieval date are not required in APA journal article citations. Journal (print) APA Author, F. M. (Publication year). Article title. Periodical title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp. Ex: Lin, M. G., Hoffman, E. S., & Borengasser, C. (2013). Is social media too social for class? A case study of Twitter use. TechTrends, 57(2), 39-45. Website APA Author, F. M. (Year, month date of publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL Ex: Limer, E. (2013, October 1). Heck yes The first free wireless plan is finally here. Retrieved from wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597 TV/Radio Show APA Writer, F. M. (Writer), & Director, F. M. (Director). (Year of airing). Episode title Television series episode. In F. M. Producer (Executive producer), TV series name. City, State of original channel: Channel. Ex: Dick, L. (Writer), & Yaitanes, G. (Director). (2009). Simple explanation Television series episode. In P. Attanasio (Executive producer), House, M.D. Los Angeles, CA: Fox Broadcasting Company. 6APA Examples of Popular Sources Film APA Producer, F. M. (Producer), & Director, F. M. (Director). (Release year). Title of motion picture Motion picture. Country of origin: Studio. Ex: Stiller, B. (Producer) & Ayoade, R. (Director). (2011). Submarine Motion picture. United Kingdom: Film4 Productions. Audio recording APA Songwriter, F. M. (Copyright year). Song title Recorded by F. M. Last (performer’s name). On Album title Medium of recording. City, State of label: Record label name. Ex: Turner, A. (2013). Do I wanna know? Recorded by Arctic Monkeys. On AM MP3 file. London, England: Domino Records. If the songwriter and performer are the same person, leave out the bracketed data Recorded by ____ following the song title. Online lecture slides APA Author, F. M. (Publication year). Name or title of lecture file format. Retrieved from URL Ex: Jacobson, T. E. & Mackey, T. (2013). What’s in a name?: Information literacy, metaliteracy, or transliteracy PowerPoint slides. Retrieved from Thesis/dissertation APA Author, F. M. (Publication year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.) Ex: Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from MLA International Bibliography database. (Accession No. 2013420395) 7APA Web Rules APA Web Rules 8APA Web Rules APA provides citation formats for many different source types found on the web, such as online newspapers, encyclopedias and blogs. Here are some tips for citing sources you find on the web: All sources • Only include retrieval date information if the source’s information is likely to change (i.e., wikis). o Format it as follows: Retrieved Month Date, Year, from http://xxxxx • If a URL runs across multiple lines of text in the citation, break the URL off before punctuation (e.g., periods, forward slashes) – except http://. Journal/newspaper articles • Include the DOI (digital object identifier) in the citation. o Format it as follows: doi:xxxxx • If no DOI is provided, include the URL of the homepage for the journal that published the article. o Format it as follows: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx • Do not include database information. th Note: Purdue OWL includes database information, but the APA Publication Manual (6 ed.) does not. Check with your instructor to see if they require database and/or retrieval information. General websites • If the source is not easily identified as an online: o Periodical o Review o Book/chapter o Audiovisual media o Reference work o Internet message board/mailing list post o Government document o Blog post o Conference paper/proceeding o Software, data set, training video or o Thesis/dissertation o Informally published work …cite it as a general website. • For example, websites like TechCrunch and Gizmodo regularly publish articles, but are considered neither a blog, nor an online newspaper. These would be general websites. • Only include retrieval date information if the source is likely to change over time (i.e., wikis). o Format it as follows: Retrieved Month Date, Year, from http://xxxxx 9APA Web Rules Examples of citations for a/an: General website article with an author Limer, E. (2013, October 1). Heck yes The first free wireless plan is finally here. Retrieved from 1429566597 General website article with no author India: Country specific information. (2013, October 3). Retrieved 2013, October 23 from Include the retrieval date and URL if the information on the site may change (this website includes information about laws, which can change over time). Online newspaper article Kaplan, K. (2013, October 22). Flu shots may reduce risk of heart attacks, strokes and even death. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from Include the homepage URL of the online newspaper at the end of your citation. Journal article (found in a database or elsewhere online) Trier, J. (2007). “Cool” engagements with YouTube: Part 2. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50(7), 598-603. doi:10.1598/JAAL.50.7.8 Online encyclopedia article Musser, G. (2013). Hedgehog. In Encylopædia Brittanica. Retrieved from Blog post Silver, N. (2013, July 15). Senate control in 2014 increasingly looks like a tossup Web log post. Retrieved from control-in-2014-increasingly-looks-like-a-tossup/ 10APA Examples of Popular Sources APA Parenthetical Citations 11APA Parenthetical Citations Why we include parenthetical/in-text citations Researchers include brief parenthetical citations in their writing to acknowledge references to other people’s work. Generally, APA parenthetical citations include the last name of the author and year of publication. Page numbers are also included when citing a direct quote . If some of this information is included in the body of the sentence, exclude it from the parenthetical citation. In-text citations typically appear at the end of the sentence, between the last word and the period. Parenthetical citation without author’s name in the text: Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late 1920s (Belafonte, 2008). Parenthetical citation when author is mentioned in the text: According to Belafonte, Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late 1920s (2008). Parenthetical citations with multiple authors Works with two authors: • Include both names, separated by an ampersand (&). Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart & Colbert, 2010). Works with three to five authors: • Include all names in the first in-text parenthetical citation, separated by commas and then an ampersand (&). • For all subsequent in-text parenthetical citations, include only the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year if it is the first citation in a paragraph. First in-text parenthetical citation: Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart, Colbert, & Oliver, 2010). All subsequent in-text parenthetical citations: The event resulted in thousands of participants flocking to the National Mall in support of the cause (Stewart et al. 2010). 12 Continued…APA Parenthetical Citations Works with six or more authors: • Include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year in all parenthetical citations. The study did not come to any definitive conclusions (Rothschild et al., 2013). Citing sources without an author If a work has no author, include the first few words of the bibliography entry (in many cases, the title) and the year. • Use double quotations around the titles of articles, chapters and/or websites Statistics confirm that the trend is rising (“New Data,” 2013). Note: Unlike in your reference list, parenthetical citations of articles, chapters and/or website should have all major words capitalized. • Italicize the titles of periodicals, books, brochures or reports The report includes some bleak results (Information Illiteracy in Academia, 2009). th See Table 6.1 in the APA Publication Manual (6 ed.) for more information on formatting parenthetical citations. Citing part of a work When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page number or section identifier, such as chapters, tables or equations. Direct quotes should always have page numbers. One of the most memorable quotes is when he says, “You are going to live a good and long life filled with great and terrible moments that you cannot even imagine yet” to Augustus (Green, 2012, p. 272). Continued… 13APA Parenthetical Citations If the source does not include page numbers (such as online sources), you can reference specific parts of the work by referencing the: • Paragraph number (if given) with the abbreviation “para. xx” He quickly learned that pandas were not considered good pets (Chan, 2011, para. 3). • Section or heading and the number of the paragraph in which the information is found o For lengthy headings, use the first few words of the title in the parenthetical citation The sample population included both red and giant pandas (Chan, 2011, Methodology section, para. 1). Citing groups or corporate authors Corporations, government agencies and associations can be considered the author of a source when no specific author is given. Write out the full name of the group in all parenthetical citations: The May 2011 study focused on percentages of tax money that goes to imprisonment over education funding (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 2011). However, you may abbreviate the group name if the group’s name is lengthy and it is a commonly recognized abbreviation in all subsequent parenthetical citations: The report found that over a half billion of taxpayer dollars went to imprison residents “from 24 of New York City’s approximately 200 neighborhoods” (NAACP, 2011, pp. 2). Citing classical works For classical sources, such as ancient Greek works, cite the year of the translation or version used. Precede this information with “trans.” or “version,” respectively. (Homer, trans. 1998). Continued… 14APA Parenthetical Citations When citing specific content from these sources, include the paragraph/line numbers that are used in classical works. This information is consistent across versions/editions, and is the easiest way to locate direct quotes from classical works. The Bible extols the virtues of love; “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud” (1 Cor. 13:4 New International Version). Remember, you do not need to create formal citations in your reference list for classical works. Citing and formatting block quotes When directly quoting information from sources in your writing, you may need to format it differently depending on how many words are used. If a quote runs on for more than 40 words: • Start the direct quotation on a new line • Indent the text roughly half an inch from the left margin o If there are multiple paragraphs in the quotation, indent them an extra half inch • Remove any quotation marks • Double-space the text • Add the parenthetical citation after the final sentence …here is some text from the book that clearly defines early on in the novel: He smiled understandingly-much more than understandingly. It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life. It facedor seemed to facethe whole eternal world for an instant, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor. (Fitzgerald, 2012, p. 44) 15APA Visual Guides Part 1 This guide will provide visual examples of citing the following in APA style: • Books • Journal articles • Newspapers • Reports • Scholarly projects (theses/dissertations) • Lecture notes • Encyclopedia entries • Religious/classical works Be sure to check out Part 2, which provides visual guides for citing multimedia and electronic source types. 1APA Visual Guides Part 1 Citing a book in print Structure: Author, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher City, State: Publisher. Title Page Much of the information you need to create a print book citation can be found on the title page. Title of work The title page is found within the first couple of pages of the book. Publisher Publisher city /state Author Year of publication Citation: James, H. (2009). The ambassadors. Rockville, MD: Serenity Publishers. Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles (the first word that follows a colon), as well as the first letter of any proper nouns. See our APA Citation Basics guide or the APA Publication Manual for more information. 2

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