APA style reference article

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Library and IT Services Citing Sources According to A PA G uid el in e s A C ON C I SE GUI D E Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands CONTENTS 1 IN-TEXT CITATIONS ..................................................................................... 3 1.1 One or two authors ................................................................................................................ 3 1.2 Three, four or five authors .................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Six or more authors ............................................................................................................... 4 1.4 Two or more works with different authors ............................................................................ 4 1.5 Two or more works with the same author ............................................................................ 4 1.6 Authors with the same surname ........................................................................................... 4 1.7 Organizations as authors ...................................................................................................... 4 1.8 Works with an anonymous author ........................................................................................ 4 1.9 Works with no author ............................................................................................................ 5 1.10 Works with an unknown publication year ............................................................................. 5 1.11 Specific parts of a source ..................................................................................................... 5 1.12 Entire websites or webpages ................................................................................................ 5 1.13 Web content / Web documents ............................................................................................. 5 1.14 Personal communications ..................................................................................................... 5 1.15 Citations in parenthetical text ............................................................................................... 6 1.16 Secondary sources ................................................................................................................ 6 2 DIRECT QUOTATIONS .................................................................................. 7 2.1 Formatting direct quotations ................................................................................................. 7 2.1.1 Short quotations ................................................................................................................................. 7 2.1.2 Long quotations .................................................................................................................................. 7 2.2 Online material without pagination ....................................................................................... 7 2.3 Changes from the source ...................................................................................................... 8 2.4 Reproducing an image (figure) from another source ........................................................... 8 2.4.1 Citation in the text .............................................................................................................................. 9 2.4.2 Citation information in the figure caption ........................................................................................ 9 2.4.3 Reference list entry .......................................................................................................................... 11 2.5 Reproducing a table from another source .......................................................................... 11 2.5.1 Citation in the text ............................................................................................................................ 11 2.5.2 Citation information in the table caption ....................................................................................... 11 2.5.3 Reference list entry .......................................................................................................................... 12 3 THE REFERENCE LIST ................................................................................ 13 3.1 Construction of the reference list ....................................................................................... 13 3.2 Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................... 13 3.3 Order of references ............................................................................................................. 13 3.4 Reference components ....................................................................................................... 14 3.4.1 Author................................................................................................................................................. 14 3.4.2 Publication date ................................................................................................................................ 15 3.4.3 Title ..................................................................................................................................................... 15 3.4.4 Publication information .................................................................................................................... 16 3.5 Digital sources ..................................................................................................................... 17 3.5.1 The Digital Object Identifier ............................................................................................................ 17 3.5.2 Formatting references for digital sources: DOIs and URLs ....................................................... 18 Version 2014 1 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 1 IN-TEXT CITATIONS Within the Social Sciences , the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines for citing sources are commonly used. The APA requires brief citations in the body of the text, using an author-date system. Every source cited in the text must be listed in the reference list , which appears at the end of the text . Likewise every source in the reference list must be cited in text. What an in-text citation looks like depends on the construction of the sentence in which it appears. ■ When the author is mentioned in the running text, place the year of publication in parentheses. Wainwright (2012) found the more time students had spent on Facebook, the less happy they felt over time. ■ When the author is not mentioned in the running text, include the author’s name in the parenthetical citation - along with the year. Separate author and year by a comma. The more time students had spent on Facebook, the less happy they felt over time (Wainwright, 2012). ■ When the author and the year are both mentioned in the running text, do not add parenthetical information (this method is less customary). In a follow-up study from 2014, Wainwright focused on how Facebook use influenced subjective well-being and academic success among university students. Within a paragraph, you need not include the year after the first citation - provided that the name of the author is part of the narrative and appears outside of parentheses. Parenthetical citations, however, must always include the year. In an older study by Davison (2003), it was reported that frequent exposure to violent media increased physical aggression in adolescents. Davison also found . . . . Furthermore, the study showed that video games had a greater adverse effect than television and movies (Davison, 2003). 1.1 One or two authors For a single author, see the examples above. For a work with two authors, give both names separated by: ■ ‘and’ if the names of the authors appear in the narrative; In a recent study by Fallon and van der Linden (2014), 161 adults diagnosed with ADHD were compared . . . ■ an ampersand (&) if the names of the authors do not appear in the narrative. A recent study (Fallon & van der Linden, 2014) compared 161 adults diagnosed with ADHD . . . For surnames with freestanding prefixes (van, de, van de(r), von) the author’s spelling is retained. Dutch authors typically use lower-case letters (van der Linden) while American authors use capital letters (Van Nuys). 1.2 Three, four or five authors Provide all authors’ names the first time you cite the work, placing a comma after each name. ■ Precede the final name by ‘and’ if the names are part of the narrative; use ‘&’ in parenthetical citations. Grier, Johnson, Green, Smith, and Hyde (2013) analyzed 65 studies of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) . . . . An analysis of 65 studies of mindfulness-based therapy (Grier, Johnson, Green, Smith, & Hyde, 2013) . . . . ■ In second and subsequent citations, give only the first author’s name followed by ‘et al.’ (the abbreviation for ‘et alii’: ‘and others’ in Latin). Grier et al. (2013) found that MBT was more effective in treating psychological disorders than it was in . . . . MBT proved to be more effective in treating psychological disorders than it was in . . . (Grier et al., 2013). In the reference list, ‘et al.’ is not used. For examples see § 3.4.1. Version 2014 3 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 1.3 Six or more authors Cite only the first author for the first and subsequent citations, followed by ‘et al.’ (the abbreviation for ‘et alii’: ‘and others’ in Latin). Huizinga et al. (2014) show a positive correlation between life expectancy and gross domestic product per capita. In the reference list, ‘et al.’ is not used. For examples see § 3.4.1. 1.4 Two or more works with different authors Arrange the citations alphabetically and separate them with a semicolon. Other studies (Bradfield & Lewis, 2014; Pearson, 2010; Smeets, 2011) focus on pre-adolescent children. This guideline may not always provide sufficient direction. When in doubt, consult § 3.3. The same rules apply. 1.5 Two or more works with the same author Cite the author one time, then give the years (separated by a comma). ■ List the citations chronologically, according to earliest date of publication. Recent research (McDaniel, 2012, 2014, in press) showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. In the reference list, list the references not listed chronologically, but alphabetically by title (excluding ‘A’ and ‘The’). See § 3.3. ■ Identify citations with the same author(s) and with the same publication year by the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth. Assign the suffixes alphabetically by title (consistent with the order in the reference list). Stress can adversely affect our health (James & Singh, 2012a, 2012b; 2012c). In the reference list, alphabetize titles beginning with ‘A’ or ‘The’ by the first significant word. 1.6 Authors with the same surname If a reference list contains works by two leading authors with the same surname, provide initials of both authors in all text citations. Among studies, we review M. A. Smith (2010) and J. Smith (2007) . . . . 1.7 Organizations as authors Spell out the names of groups or organizations that serve as authors the first time they appear in the text. In the second citation you may abbreviate the name of the group or organization if the abbreviation is familiar or readily understandable. ■ Use parentheses if the name of the organization appears in the running text. The United Nations (UN, 2011) published a report stating that Internet access is a basic human right. ■ Use brackets if the name of the organization is included in a parenthetical citation. Internet access is considered a basic human right (United Nations UN, 2011). In subsequent citations, the abbreviation will do. 1.8 Works with an anonymous author Cite an author as ‘Anonymous’ only if that author is specifically designated as such in your source. In the reference list, alphabetize the work under ‘A’. (Anonymous, 2014). Version 2014 4 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 1.9 Works with no author When the author of a work is unknown, use the first few words of the title and then the year. Capitalize the first and all significant words. ■ Enclose the title of articles, book chapters, and web pages in double quotation marks: Most American universities use plagiarism software (“Fighting Plagiarism,” 2012). The full title of the web page was: ‘Fighting plagiarism in American universities: The need for intellectual honesty’. Note that in the reference list the full title is provided, not capitalized and without quotation marks. ■ Italicize the title of periodicals (e.g., journals, magazines, newspapers), books, or reports. Couples who marry young report lower levels of marital satisfaction (Marital Instability, 2009). The full title of the report was: ‘Marital instability: Trends and prospects for marriages in the United States’. Note that in the reference list the full title is provided, not capitalized and not italized. 1.10 Works with an unknown publication year When the publication year of a work is unknown, use the abbreviation ‘n.d.’ (no date). (Walker, n.d.). 1.11 Specific parts of a source The APA recommends (but does not require) that authors clearly indicate where the part of the source that is discussed can be found. This allows the reader to easily locate the passage referred to, especially when it concerns long or complex documents. When citing a specific part of a source, give location information - such as page (abbreviate as p.), pages (abbreviate as pp.) or Chapter (do not abbreviate). (Spencer & Buchanan, 2011, p. 332) (Nguyen, 2009, pp. 13-14) (Atkinson, 2007, Chapter 8) (Jones & van der Meijden, 2013, Appendix) (Gallo, Chen, Wiseman, Schacter, & Budson, 2007, Figure 1, p. 560) (Dexter & Attenborough, 2013, Table 3, row 5, p. 34) Always provide location information for direct quotations from other sources (see Chapter 2). 1.12 Entire websites or webpages If you discuss any website or webpage in general in your text (and not specific content on that website or webpage), it is sufficient to give the URL the first time the source is mentioned. The website of the American Psychological Association (http://www.apa.org/) provides information about . . . . No entry in the reference list is needed. 1.13 Web content / Web documents In-text citations to information from the web are formatted like citations to any other type of source. Web content, however, can sometimes be difficult to cite because some information (like authorship or publication date) is not available or hard to find. How to adapt your in-text citation when information is missing is explained in § 4.32. 1.14 Personal communications Personal communications may be private letters, memos, e-mail, (telephone) conversations, content from private Facebook pages, personal interviews (i.e., not conducted in the context of research), and so on. Version 2014 5 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 1 Personal communication is cited only in the text, because it is not recoverable by the reader. Provide initials and surname (in that order) of the person you are citing, and give the exact date (month/day/year). According to K. M. Kendall (personal communication, April 26, 2014), the results will be available by late-2014. The results will be available by late-2014 (K. M. Kendall, personal communication, April 26, 2014). No entry in the reference list is needed. 1.15 Citations in parenthetical text In a citation that appears in parenthetical text, use commas to set off the year. Use the word ‘and’ (not ‘&’) to join the names of authors. . . . (see Russell, 2012, and Chapter 6 of this volume). . . . (but see a conflicting study by Fisher, Hogarty, and Kline, 2014). . . . (see Table 16 of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008, for complete data). 1.16 Secondary sources Sometimes you read about a potentially relevant work in another work. For example, a book may be discussed in a journal article you are reading. The book is the original (primary) source; the journal article citing it is the secondary source. Avoid citing secondary sources when possible. Only works that you have actually read should appear in your reference list. However, if you are unable to get hold of the original source - e.g., if it concerns an out-of-print book, a print older report, or a work not available in English - you may cite the secondary source. Suppose Smith's work is cited in Jones, and you did not read Smith. In your text, name the original work (Smith) and provide a citation for the secondary source (Jones). Use the phrase ‘as cited in’. Smith (as cited in Jones, 2012) found significant differences between the younger and older age groups. However, results from another study suggested that significant differences . . . (Smith, as cited in Jones, 2012). Include only the secondary source (that you actually read) in the reference list - Jones in this example. 1 Archived personal communications (e.g., letters, clippings, recordings or transcriptions of interviews, historical newspaper articles, or photographs stored in archives), however, do appear in the reference list. For citing archived materials, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010), section 7.10. Version 2014 6 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 2 DIRECT QUOTATIONS Academics incorporate findings, concepts, and theories from other researchers in their publications to support their argumentation. Usually this is done by paraphrasing someone else’s words. In some cases, however, quoting directly is a better choice. For instance, when the original passage is so well-phrased or characteristic that it might be misinterpreted if expressed in other words. 2.1 Formatting direct quotations How a direct quotation is integrated in the text depends entirely on the construction of the sentence that introduces (and provides context to) the cited material. ■ When the author appears in the narrative, the parenthetical citation need only contain the year. Provide the relevant page number(s) in parentheses at the end of the quotation. ■ When the author does not appear in the narrative, include the author's name in the parenthetical citation at the end of the quotation - along with the year of publication and the page number. Page numbers are indicated by the abbreviation p. (‘page’). If the quoted material spans more than one page, the abbreviation pp. (‘pages’) is used. 2.1.1 Short quotations Include a quotation of fewer than 40 words in the running text; use double quotation marks. Lindgren (2001) defines stereotypes as “generalized and usually value-laden impressions that one’s social group uses in characterizing members of another group” (p. 1617). Earlier results indicated that “the bonding process among infants and caretakers exhibits an unparalleled feature within the 14-day postpartum period. During this time, infants can identify and later recognize characteristics unique to the caretaker” (Mitchell & de Groot, 2013, p. 51). 2.1.2 Long quotations A quotation of 40 or more words is displayed in an indented, freestanding block of text (block quotation). Cowie et al. (2002) describe negative effects of bullying at work: People who have been bullied report that it affects them physically and mentally, with stress, depression, and lowered self-esteem as the most common complaints. In extreme cases, bullied employees may require counseling or psychiatric treatment (Niedl, 1996). Bullying may go beyond colleague-on-colleague abuse and become an accepted, or even encouraged, aspect of the culture of an organization. (pp. 34-35) ▪ End the sentence introducing the block quotation with a colon. ▪ Start the block quotation on a new line, and indent the block 0.5 inch. ▪ Include citations embedded within the passage you are quoting. Embedded citations however do not appear in the reference list. ▪ Indent the first line of any paragraphs within the quotation an additional 0.5 inch. ▪ After the final punctuation mark, provide the citation. ▪ Do not add a period at the end of the citation. 2.2 Online material without pagination Online sources often lack page numbers. When citing a direct quotation from a web page, include as much information as needed for the reader to find the quoted passage. Provide a chapter number (if available), a section heading (if available), and a paragraph number within the section. Version 2014 7 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands ■ Capitalize the first word and all significant words of the section heading. Use the abbreviation ‘para.’ (paragraph). One of the author’s main points is that “people don’t rise from nothing” (Lewis, 2012, Chapter 1, Facts about Social Mobility section, para. 2). ■ If the source has only section headings without page or paragraph numbers, indicate the paragraph under the appropriate heading. Bradley and Richardson (2011) state that “workplace bullying does not occur in a vacuum” (Practical Approaches to Bullying section, para. 4). ■ If the section heading is long, use a short version enclosed in double quotation marks. The study revealed that “children whose parents smoke are twice as likely to smoke as children of nonsmokers” (Conron, Smith, & Janzen, 2007, “Childhood Smoking,” para. 3). (The heading was “Childhood Smoking as an Independent Risk Factor for Addiction to Tobacco.”) 2.3 Changes from the source Material from another source must be reproduced literally. Some modifications, however, are allowed: ■ Changing the first letter of sentences into an uppercase or a lowercase letter. ■ Changing punctuation marks at the end of a sentence. ■ Inserting the word sic, italicized and bracketed, immediately following an error in the quoted text. ■ Omitting parts of the text. Use three spaced ellipsis points to replace the omitted text. Rose (2001) predicted that “restrained eaters confronted with diet products and slim images . . . will be reminded of their restricted eating behavior and eat less” (p. 273). If you omit material between sentences, put the three spaced ellipsis points after the period at the end of the preceding sentence. “Stress becomes negative, resulting in strain. . . . Typically, burned-out patients are 40+” (Vos, 2001, p. 5). ■ Emphasize one or more words by italicizing the word or words, and insert immediately after the italicized word(s) ‘emphasis added’. Use brackets. Furthermore, “the behaviors were never exhibited again emphasis added, even when real drugs were administered” (Mattingly, 2000, p. 58). ■ Add text within brackets to fit the syntax of your sentence, or for clarification. Long (2009) indicated that “they drivers are increasingly engaging in secondary tasks while driving” (p. 18). Camphuyzen and van Dijk (2014) found that parent’s education and occupational status were strong predictors of the amount of time school-age children spent watching television” (p. 248). 2.4 Reproducing an image (figure) from another source An image is worth a thousand words. If it makes sense to use an image, do so. Keep in mind, however, that all images (including those found on the web) are copyright protected unless indicated otherwise. As a student writing an essay, you may incorporate a copyrighted image into your work without asking the creator for permission (that is, if the image is relevant to your argumentation). For reproducing images for other purposes (e.g., illustrating the title page of your thesis), however, you do need the copyright owner’s permission. Version 2014 8 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands Instead of using copyright, which restricts the spreading of a work, more and more creators are choosing a ‘Creative Commons’ license. There are six licenses, each granting a different set of freedoms to the public. You can recognize Creative Commons (CC) licensed works by icons such as or . Some images however are excluded from copyright protection and are considered to be in the public domain: - Images created and published by government bodies (including laws and regulations). - Images that are no longer protected by copyright (the creator must have died more than 70 years ago). - Images dedicated to the public domain by the creator. In the research literature, images are called ‘figures’ (the more common types of figures are graphs, charts, maps, drawings, and photographs). When you are including a figure in your text that has been copied (or adapted) directly from another source, you must cite the original source three times: 1. in the text; 2. in the caption, underneath the figure; 3. in the reference list. 2.4.1 Citation in the text Number the figure, depending on the order of appearance. Introduce the figure in the text, explaining why it is there, and include an in-text citation (which contains the page numer). Capitalize the word ‘figure’. Experiments like the one depicted in Figure 1 (Eitel, Scheiter, Schüler, Nyström, & Holmqvist, 2013, p. 53) . . . . 2.4.2 Citation information in the figure caption ■ Centre the figure on the page. ■ Provide the original figure caption. ■ Write ‘Reprinted from’ (if you adapted the figure: ‘Adapted from’), followed by citation information. Depending on the type of source in which the figure appears, different formats are used for the citation information in the figure caption. A figure from a journal article General format for the figure caption Figure X. Original caption of the figure. Reprinted or Adapted from “Title of Article,” by author’s First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, year, Journal Title, volume number, p. page number. Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted or adapted with permission. If you are reproducing the figure for preparation of a writing assignment or thesis, you do not need to obtain permission from the copyright holder. You can omit the last sentence of the caption. Example Figure 1. Design of Experiment 2. Each column represents an experimental condition. Reprinted from “How a Picture Facilitates the Process of Learning from Text: Evidence for Scaffolding,” by A. Eitel, K. Scheiter, A. Schüler, M. Nyström, and K. Holmqvist, 2013, Learning and Instruction, 28, p. 53. Copyright 2013 by Elsevier. Version 2014 9 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands A figure from a book General format for the figure caption Figure X. Original caption of the figure. Reprinted or Adapted from Book Title (page number), by author’s First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, year, Place of publication, US Postal Service abbreviation for the state or Country: Publisher. Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted or adapted with permission. If you are reproducing the figure for preparation of a writing assignment or thesis, you do not need to obtain permission from the copyright holder. You can omit the last sentence of the caption. Example Figure 1. Relationship between accumulated and current community cohesiveness as a function of time. Reprinted from The Group Effect: Social Cohesion and Health Outcomes (p. 95), by J. Bruhn, 2009, New York, NY: Springer. Copyright 2009 by Springer. The location of the book publisher is indicated by the city and the U.S. Postal Service Abbreviation for the state (NY in this example) or, if the publisher is not located in the U.S., city and country. (Check the Appendix for more abbreviations.) A figure from the web General format for the figure caption Figure X. Title of Figure. Reprinted or Adapted from Title of Website website, by creator’s First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, year, retrieved from URL Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted or Adapted with permission. If you are reproducing the image for preparation of a writing assignment or thesis, you do not need to obtain permission from the copyright holder. You can omit the last sentence of the caption. Example 1: A photograph from an organization’s website, no title, no creator Figure 2. University Library, first floor. Reprinted from Tilburg University Library website, by Tilburg University, 2011, retrieved from http://www.tilburguniversity.edu/students/study/library/ Copyright 2011 by Tilburg University.  Try to find out what the image’s title is by hovering your mouse over the figure (without clicking) and see if a caption comes up. If no caption appears, give a brief description of the image (in brackets) on the title position.  Capitalize only the first word of the description.  If there is no specific creator attribution, you can safely assume the organization to be the creator.  Do not add a period at the end of the URL. For the corresponding reference list entry see p.33, 3th example. Version 2014 10 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands Example 2: A drawing found on Flickr, title known, creator’s real name not known (only creator’s nickname known), image licensed under a Creative Common License Figure 4. Pigzipper CD label. Reprinted from Flickr website, by Danny PiG, 2007, retrieved from http://www .flickr.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/dannypigart /177121059/sizes/o Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license.  Provide the creator’s name (in this case: the nickname, since his/her real name is unknown).  Do not add a period at the end of the URL.  You are advised by the author to provide the name of the Creative Commons License (and the link to the license) on the position of the copyright information. For the corresponding reference list entry see p. 33, 1st example. 2.4.3 Reference list entry In the reference list, include a reference to the source in which the figure appears. Examples can be found in § 4.1 (journal articles), § 4.6 (books), and § 4.31 (web content/web documents). 2.5 Reproducing a table from another source When you use a table in your paper or thesis that has been reproduced (or adapted) from another source, you must cite the original source three times: 1. in the text; 2. in the table caption, underneath the table; 3. in the reference list. 2.5.1 Citation in the text Number all tables consecutively in Arabic numerals. Introduce the table, explaining why it is there, and include an in-text citation. Capitalize the word ‘table’, and avoid wordings such as ‘the table above’/‘the table below’. The results in Table 1 (López-Vicente, Sunyer, Forns, Torrent, & Júlvez, 2014, p. 207), however, show . . . 2.5.2 Citation information in the table caption Centre the table on the page, and use lettering between 8 and 14 points. Put the name of the table (e.g.,Table 1) on top of the table. Under the name, give the title of the table (in italics). ■ Begin the caption with the word ‘Note’ in italics. ■ Then provide the original general table note. (More about table notes on the next page, underneath the example table.) ■ Give citation information about the source in which the table appears (see the sample table on p.13). Use one of the following formats for the table caption: Version 2014 11 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands Format for a table from a journal article Note. Original general table note. Reprinted or Adapted from “Title of Article,” by author’s First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, year, Title of Journal, Volume, p. page number. Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted or adapted with permission. Format for a table from a book: Note. Original general table note. Reprinted or Adapted from Book Title (page number), by author’s First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, year, Place of publication, US Postal Service abbreviation for the state or Country: Publisher. Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted or adapted with permission. If you are reproducing the table for preparation of an assignment or thesis, you do not need to obtain permission from the copyright holder. You can omit the last sentence of the caption. Example: Table taken from a journal article Table 1 Adjusted Associations Between Preschool DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms and CPT-II Outcomes at 11 Years General ADHD Hyperactivity symptoms Inattention symptoms symptoms Omissions (IRR 95% CI) a Partially adjusted 1.04 1.01, 1.07 1.07 1.02, 1.12 1.04 0.99, 1.10 b Fully adjusted 1.02 0.98, 1.07 1.03 0.95, 1.11 1.03 0.97, 1.09 Commissions (IRR 95% CI) a Partially adjusted 1.01 1.00, 1.01 1.01 0.99, 1.03 1.00 0.99, 1.02 b Fully adjusted 0.99 0.98, 1.01 0.98 0.96, 1.00 1.00 0.98, 1.02 HRT (β coefficient 95% CI) a Partially adjusted 1.69 0.14, 3.24 3.27 0.72, 5.81 1.51 -1.24, 4.26 b Fully adjusted 2.73 0.59, 4.88 6.59 2.66, 10.51 1.65 -1.47, 4.77 HRT (SE) (IRR 95% CI) a Partially adjusted 1.02 1.01, 1.03 1.03 1.01, 1.05 1.03 1.01, 1.05 b Fully adjusted 1.02 1.00, 1.04 1.02 0.99, 1.06 1.03 1.00, 1.05 Detectability (β coefficient 95% CI a Partially adjusted -0.006 -0.01, 0.003 -0.01 -0.03, 0.003 -0.004 -0.02, 0.01 0.002 -0.01, 0.01 0.005 -0.02, 0.03 0.002 -0.02, b Fully adjusted 0.02 Note. DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.); ADHD = attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; CPT-II = Continuous Performance Test (2nd ed.); IRR = incidence rate ratio; HRT = hit reaction time; HRT (SE) = hit reaction time (standard error). Reprinted from “Continuous Performance Test II outcomes in 11-year-old children with early ADHD symptoms: A longitudinal study,” by M. López-Vicente, J. Sunyer, J. Forns, M. Torrent and J. Júlvez, 2014, Neuropsychology, 28, p. 207. Copyright 2014 by American Psychological Association. a b Adjusted for child age and gender + covariates showing a p value 0.2 in bivariate analyses of Table 2. Adjusted for child age and gender + covariates showing a p value 0.2 in bivariate analyses of Table 2 and CPSCS and MSCA. p 0.05. (2.1) ▪ After the original general table note , provide specific citation information, i.e. the source from which the table is taken (in this example: an article published in the journal Neuropsychology), and the page on which the table appears. Write ‘Adapted from’ instead of ‘Reprinted from’ if you made any changes to the table. (2.2) ▪ On a separate line, give the specific note to the table (if one is provided). Specific notes are a, b, c indicated by superscript lowercase letters; e.g., . Subsequent specific notes are run in. (2.3) ▪ On a separate line, give the probability note to the table (if one is provided). Probability notes are indicated by an asterisk. Subsequent probability notes are run in. 2.5.3 Reference list entry In the reference list, include a reference to the source in which the figure appears. Examples can be found in § 4.1 (journal articles), and § 4.6 (books). 2 Three kinds of notes may be placed below tables (in this exact order): 1. A general note qualifies, explains, or provides information about the table as a whole, and is designated by the word ‘Note’ in italics. 2. A specific note refers to a particular column, row or cell. 3. A probability note explains how asterisks and other symbols are used to indicate p values. Version 2014 12 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 3 THE REFERENCE LIST The reference list contains all references cited in your text. Some sources types are cited only in the text and do not appear in the reference list A . ncient classical works, religious texts numbered systematically 3 across all editions (such as the Bible), entire websites, and personal communications are not included in the reference list. 3.1 Construction of the reference list ■ Begin the reference list on a new page. ■ Centre the title: References. ■ Use Times New Roman (12-points), double-spaced. 4 ■ Guidelines for breaking URLs and DOIs between lines are given in § 3.5.2. ■ Use a hanging indent (the first line of each entry is even with the left margin, all subsequent lines of the line are indented 0,5 inch). ■ Add a period after abbreviations (see § 3.2), after an initial, and after each component of reference list entries (see § 3.4). When the entry ends with a URL or a DOI, omit the period. 3.2 Abbreviations Acceptable abbreviations in the reference list include: ed. edition Rev. ed. Revised edition 2nd. ed. second edition Ed. / Eds. Editor / Editors n.d. no date p. (pp.) pages (pages) Vol. / Vols. Volume (as in: Vol. 4 / Vols. 1-4) No. Number Pt. Part 3.3 Order of references ■ Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the last name of the (first) author, followed by the initials. ■ Alphabetize letter by letter. ‘Nothing precedes something’: Brown, J. R. precedes Browning, A. R.. ■ Alphabetize the prefixes M’, Mc en Mac literally. MacArthur precedes McAllister, MacNeil precedes M’Carthy. ■ Alphabetize author surnames with freestanding prefixes (such as: van, de, van de(r), von) by the prefix. Use the same spelling as the author does in the work you are citing. Dutch authors typically use lower-case letters (van der Linden), while American authors use capital letters (Van Nuys). ■ When ordering several works by the same (first) author, apply the following rules: - One-author works are arranged by publication year (the earliest first). - One-author entries precede a multi-author entry, even if the multi-author work was published earlier. - Works with the same first author and different second authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author; works with the same first and second author and different third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the third author, and so on. - Works with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year, the earliest first. - Works by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding A and The). Add lowercase letters - a, b, c, etc. - immediately after the year. Hayward, K. H., & Green (2012a). Media images and social roles: Toward a media theory. Hayward, K. H., & Green (2012b). A sociological approach to self and identity. ■ Arrange works by different first authors with the same surname alphabetically by first initial. ■ List works with group authors alphabetically by the first significant word of the name. Do not 3 Examples of personal communications include: private letters, memo’s, e-mail, conversations, and information from private social media pages. For example of in-text citations to personal communication: see § 1.14. 4 See § 3.5.1: The Digital Object Identifier. Version 2014 13 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands abbreviate names of groups and organizations. ■ Arrange works specifically listing the author as ‘Anonymous’ under ‘A’. ■ Move the title of works with no author to the author position. Alphabetize titles by the first word, excluding ‘A’ and ‘The’. In the text, the first few words of the title are used. Depending on the source type, the truncated title is either enclosed in double quotation marks, or italicized (see § 1.9). 3.4 Reference components A reference list entry is made up of four components: author name (or editor name), date of publication, title of the work, and publication data. 3.4.1 Author ■ Give last names first, followed by the initial(s). Use comma’s to separate an author’s surname and initials. Use an ampersand before the last author of a given work. Precede the last author’s name by an ampersand (&). List up to seven authors. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author C. C. Notice the comma preceding the ampersand. ■ If there are more than seven authors, list the first six followed by three ellipsis dots and the last author’s name (which is not preceded by an ampersand). For an example reference, see § 4.5. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., . . . Author, Z. Z. In text, the abbreviation ‘et. al.’ (Latin for ‘and others’) is used. (See § 1.2 and § 1.3) ■ Retain hyphens in first names (e.g., Jean-Paul): Sartre, J.-P. ■ Write prefixes in surnames exactly as presented by the author in the work you are citing. Dutch authors, for example, typically use lower-case letters, while American authors use capital letters. van Calmthout, J. R. Van Nuys, H. G. ■ Use the full name of groups and organizations. When the group author is part of a larger organization, mention the larger entity first. United Nations Children's Fund. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. In text, you may abbreviate the organization’s name if the abbreviation is familiar. For guidance on how to introduce the abbreviation in your text: see § 1.7. ■ Move the title of a work with no identified author to the author position: Title of publication. (2000). In text, the title (truncated if long) is either italicized, or enclosed in double quotation marks (depending on the type of v source). For examples see § 1.9. ■ When referencing an (entire) edited book, place the editor’s name in the author position, followed by the abbreviation ‘Ed.’ (or ‘Eds.’) in parentheses: E. E. Editor (Ed.). (2008). Title of edited book. ■ When referencing a chapter in an edited book, give the chapter author’s name first, followed by the publication date and the title (not italicized) of the chapter. Then give the initial(s) and surname (in that order) of the book editor(s). Precede the name of the (first) editor by the word ‘In’. Version 2014 14 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands Author, A. A. (2008). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor, & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of edited book, . . . . For reference examples see § 4.12. 3.4.2 Publication date Immediately after the author name, give in parentheses the year the work was published (or, for unpublished or informally published works, the year the work was created). ■ For magazines, newspapers and newsletters: give the year and the exact date publication date (month or month/day). (2008, May). (1999, September 12). ■ For manuscripts accepted for publication but not yet published: write ‘in press’ (not capitalized). Author, A. A. (in press). ■ If no date is available: use ‘n.d.’ (for no date). Author, A. A. (n.d.). 3.4.3 Title ■ The format of the title depends on the type of source. - Articles and chapters Capitalize the first word of the main title, the subtitle (if any), and proper names (if any). Place a colon between main title and subtitle. Social cohesion in the time of crisis: Early evidence of wider impacts of financial shocks. - Periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers, newletters) Italicize the title and capitalize the first word and significant words in the title. Omit subtitles. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, . . . - Books and reports (and other stand-alone, nonperiodical works) Italicize the title. Capitalize the first word of the main title and the subtitle (if any), and proper names (if any). In search of “likes”: Adolescents’ Facebook use. ■ After the title, provide any form-specific information that is important for identification and retrieval of the work. Capitalize only the first word, and use brackets. Global treaty on climate change much-needed Press release. Formatting a research paper in APA style Video file. Sample of form-specific information that can be added to the title: Facebook status update Datafile and codebook PowerPoint presentation Lecture notes Audio file Press release Letter to the editor Blog post or Blog comment Supplemental material Measurement instrument Brochure Television series episode Mobile application software Demographic map Tweet or Twitter update Painting, Photograph Facebook page Video file Version 2014 15 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 3.4.4 Publication information Which publication information must be provided depends on the nature of the source: print or digital. The instructions and examples given below relate to print works. For digital works, see § 3.5.2: Formatting references for digital sources: DOIs and URLs. ■ Periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers) - Give the periodical title and the volume number (both italicized), followed by inclusive page numbers on which the cited material appears. Notice that commas following italicized text are also italicized. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 1136-1147. ▪ Include the issue number (if available) only if the journal is paginated separately by issue. Give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number (not in italics). Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82. Most academic journals are paginated continuously. ▪ Precede page numbers for newspapers articles by ‘p.’ (if the article appears on one page) or ‘pp.’ (if the article appears on a range of pages). Give all page numbers (separated by a comma) for articles printed on discontinuous pages. Financial Times, pp. 6-8. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. ■ Books and reports (and other stand-alone, nonperiodical publications) - Give the location (as noted on the title page) of the publisher. When there are two or more publisher locations, give the location listed first or the location of the publisher’s home office (if specified). - After the publisher location, add a comma. 5 - Give the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviation for the state if the publisher is located in the U.S.; for publishers located outside of the US, give the country. Malden, MA: Blackwell. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. London, England: Routledge. Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa. There is one exception to this rule. When the publisher is a university, and the name of the state or the province is included in the name of the university, the publisher location suffices. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Claremont: University of Western Australia Press. - Give the name of the publisher (preceded by a colon and a space), without superfluous terms such as ‘Publishers’, ‘Publishing’, ‘Co.’ and ‘Inc.’. Retain the words ‘Press’ and ‘Books’. - When the publisher is also the author, use the word ‘Author’ to indicate the publisher. American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. 5 You can find the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations in the Appendix. Version 2014 16 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 3.5 Digital sources References to digital sources must provide information about the location of the source on the web. This is either a Digital Object Identifier, or a URL. 3.5.1 The Digital Object Identifier The digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric label for a digital object (text document, image, video, audio, data set, sofware, etc.) in an online environment. Since the DOI stays with the object the , DOI can be used to create a persistent link to the object on the web. Access is therefore guaranteed, even when the object is transferred to another website. Millions of scholarly journal articles - even those from the pre-Internet era - now have a DOI. More and more books, conference papers, book chapters, and many other source types are published online and provided with a DOI. Because DOIs are much more reliable and stable than URLs, the APA has decided to start using DOIs in references. Two formats for the DOI In the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010), DOIs are displayed as doi:10.xxxx/xxxxxx. In 2012, the APA changed the format for the DOI to a more user -friendly one in the form of a working link. The DOI itself remains the same, but is now preceded by http://dx.doi.org/. For example, the DOI for the article Testing social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework to predict smoking relapse among daily smoking adolescents, written by Van Zundert, Nijhof, and Engels, published in 2009 in the journal Addictive Behaviors, was initially displayed as doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.11.004. The new ‘URL format’ is http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.11.004. The DOI URL leads directly to the 6 article concerned. Syntax of the DOI A DOI is made up of two elements, the prefix and the suffix, separated by a forward slash. Prefix Suffix http://dx.doi.org / 10. 1016 / j.addbeh.2008.11.004 The DOI, displayed in the new URL format, begins with the website (http://dx.doi.org) that looks up what the current URL is for the DOI, and redirects your browser there. The prefix starts with the number 10 (all DOIs do), followed by a period, and a number representing the publisher. These numbers are assigned by CrossRef, a DOI registration agency for scientific publications. In this example, the publisher is Elsevier (1016). The suffix is determined by the publisher. Existing identification systems may be used (such as ISBN for books en ISSN for journals), as well as internal numbering schemes. In this example, the suffix consists of the abbreviated journal title (j.addbeh), the year the article was published online (2008), and a number for the actual article (11.004). How to find a DOI? The DOI is often listed in the database citation information about the article: 6 A DOI name links to a specific location (this will typically be the website of the publisher). If the TiU library does not subscribe to the journal at that location, you will not have access. To check if the library subscribes from another provider, look up the journal title via the link ‘Journals’ on the Library webpage ‘Searching for information’. Version 2014 17 DOI proxy server No. for all DOIs Publisher Article Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands It is also common to find the DOI on the title page of the article, usually near the copyright notice. CrossRefs DOI lookup If you cannot find a DOI for a given item, (for instance, if the DOI is not available in an older print article), go to the CrossRef website at http://www.crossref.org. ■ Click on the tab ‘For Researchers’ at the top of the page. ■ Select ‘free DOI name lookup’ from the drop-down list. ■ Use the search option ‘Search on article title’ - not only for journal articles but also for other types of publications, such as books, book chapters, and reports. ■ In the appropriate text boxes, type the first author’s surname (do not omit free-standing prefixes in author names, e.g., not ‘zundert’, but ‘van zundert’), and the title of the work. ■ Hit the Search button. The DOI will appear (that is, if one is assigned). An alternative, which is much simpler, but which requires you to register first, is the Simple Text Query Form, available at CrossRef SimpleTextQuery. This form allows you to retrieve DOIs for journal articles, books, and book chapters by simply copying and pasting your reference (or the entire reference list) into the Simple Text Query Form. CrossRef will return all available DOIs at once. 3.5.2 Formatting references for digital sources: DOIs and URLs In references to digital sources, either a DOI or a URL must be provided. Publications with DOI If a DOI is assigned to a publication, you must provide it at the end of the reference. The original format for displaying DOIs, recommended in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010), is: doi:10.xxxx/xxxxxx Version 2014 18 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands In the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (American Psychological Association, 2012), the APA introduced an updated DOI format. The new DOI format is as follows: http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx ■ Both DOI formats are acceptable. The APA recommends that authors provide the DOI according to the format used in the cited work. ■ Do not place a period after the DOI because it might invalidate the DOI. ■ If you need to break the DOI across lines, do not add a hyphen. Instead, break the DOI before punctuation marks. The exception to this rule is http://. doi format (old) URL format (new) doi:10.1037/1089 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037 -2680.10.4.377 /1089-2680.10.4.377 It is crucial that DOIs are correctly cited. If possible, copy and paste the DOI into your document. The updated DOI is displayed as an active link; always check if the link works If you use the old format, prepend the DOI with the URL http://dx.doi.org/ and click on the link to make sure that it leads to the right publication. Works without DOI If no DOI is assigned to a given work, include the home page URL of the journal (for articles) or the home page URL of the publisher (for books and reports). ■ Precede the URL by the words ‘Retrieved from’. ■ Avoid typo’s by copying and pasting the URL into your document. ■ Do not underline the URL. ■ Make sure that the URL is not active. ■ Do not add a hyphen if you need to break the URL across lines. Instead, break the URL before (most) punctuation. The exception to this rule is http://. ■ Do not add a period after the URL because it might invalidate the URL. Retrieved from http://www Retrieved from http://www.crossref.org .crossref.org/guestquery/ /guestquery/ The database in which a publication was found is not specified, except when it comes to archival documents such as articles from discontinued journals, and dissertations or papers not officially published. Such documents can only be found in databases. Give the home page URL (on the web, not on your library’s website) for the database. Keep in mind that several versions of a document may circulate on the web. Cite the most recent version, and preferably the final version. Content on blogs, forums, social media, and wiki’s ■ Provide the specific date (year/month/day) for content that is published frequently (e.g., blog posts, online forum messages, social media updates). For an example see § 4.27. ■ Include the name of the website (e.g., an online forum or a discussion group) to which a message was posted in the retrieval statement if this information is not (or not clearly) part of the URL. Retrieved from American Adult Education website: http://www.aae/publ/comments/aaeforum/comments/23 ■ Do not include retrieval dates, unless the source is likely to change over time (such as Wikis, social media pages, and unarchived posts on social media sites). If you need to provide a retrieval date, format it as follows: Retrieved Year, Month Day, from URL (see § 4.27, 4th and 5th example). ■ Provide the URL for the archived version of the social media message. On Facebook and Twitter, for example, you can access the archived message URL by clicking on the date. When the archived version of a social media message is provided, no retrieval date is needed. Version 2014 19 Citing Sources According to APA Guidelines Tilburg University, Netherlands 4 REFERENCE EXAMPLES This chapter contains examples of references to the most common types of sources. For more reference examples, refer to the official APA Style guide, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010). Several copies are available in the library of Tilburg University. In addition, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (6th ed., 2012), offers up-to-date information on citing digital sources. On the APA Style website and the APA Style Blog new examples will be added in response to technological innovations. 4.1 Journal article with DOI – original and updated DOI format What is a DOI? See § 3.5.1: The Digital Object Identifier. doi format (original format) Kieruj, N. D., & Moors, G. B. (2010). Variations in response style behavior by response scale format in attitude research. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 22, 320-342. doi:10.1093/ijpor/edq001 URL format (updated format) López-Vicente, M., Sunyer, J., Forns, J., Torrent, M., & Júlvez, J. (2014). Continuous Performance Test II outcomes in 11-year-old children with early ADHD symptoms: A longitudinal study. Neuropsychology, 28, 202-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000048 ▪ After the journal title, give the volume number. ▪ No issue number is needed if the journal is continuously paginated. If the journal is paginated by issue (i.e., if each issue begins with page 1), include the issue number. (See § 4.2, 2nd example.) ▪ Both DOI formats are acceptable. The APA recommends that authors use the format as it appears in the cited article (typically on the title page). 4.2 Journal article without DOI What is a DOI? See § 3.5.1: The Digital Object Identifier. Print Curry, S., Thompson, B., Sexton, M., & Omenn, G. S. (1989). Psychological predictors of outcome in a worksite smoking cessation program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 2-7. Digital Downey, L. A., Godfrey, J.-L., Hansen, K., & Stough, K. (2006). The impact of social desirability and expectation feedback on emotional intelligence in the workplace. E-journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 12-18. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap ▪ If the journal is not continuously paginated (i.e. if each issue begins with page 1), include the issue number in parentheses immediately (without a space) after the volume number. (See the 2nd example.) ▪ For print articles, the reference ends with the page numbers. ▪ If you retrieved the article online: add the home page URL of the journal, preceded by the words ‘Retrieved from’. No retrieval date is needed. 4.3 Journal article, advance online publication What is a DOI? See § 3.5.1: The Digital Object Identifier. Linden, S. C., Jackson, M. C., Subramanian, L., Wolf, C., Green, P., Healy, D., & Linden, D. E. J. (2008). Emotion -cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression. Neuropsychologia. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.11.023 ▪ Volume number, issue number and page numbers may not be available yet. ▪ The article may not be copy-edited yet. Version 2014 20