Thesis by Publication example

how to write dissertations & project reports and how to prepare a thesis paper and how to prepare a thesis defense presentation and how to write a thesis comparative essay
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TEMPLE UNIVERSITY DISSERTATION AND THESIS HANDBOOK 2016-2017 Table of Contents Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…….… 1 General Overview ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...….… 3 E-Dissertation Initiative ……………………………………………………….………………………………………...….…… 4 Deadlines ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……… 5 Basic Manuscript Preparation …………………………………………………………………………………………......… 7 Arrangement of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………..……….…….….…… 10 Preparation of List Materials …………………………………………………………………….…………………...….…… 17 Publishing and Copyrighting ……………………………………………………………………….……………….…...…… 21 Summary Considerations ………………………………………………………………………………...……….……….….. 23 Graduate School Draft Review ……………….……………………………………………………………………....……… 25 Final Checklist …………………………………………………………………..….………………………………….….…..…… 27 Appendices …………………………………………………………….…………….…………………………………..…..……… 28 Introduction Writing a dissertation or thesis is a time-consuming but supremely rewarding experience. To guide you through manuscript preparation and to help you create a uniform and visually clear document, the Graduate School has developed the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook. It is a guide to Temple University's specific style requirements, which must be followed to receive approval from the Graduate School. Temple University requires that your research be made accessible to the academic community at large. This is effected by publishing your dissertation/thesis through ProQuest and making it available through both ProQuest and Paley Library. Further, your dissertation/thesis may be accessed via various internet search engines, such as Google. Making your research accessible to the academic community at large is a condition of Temple University's awarding research doctorates and master's degrees to those completing a degree that requires a dissertation/thesis as a culminating experience. Upon request, the Graduate School can embargo your dissertation for one year. A one-year embargo is typically granted to: • Delay disclosure of potentially patentable discoveries and/or products with potential commercialization. • Permit technology transfer to occur. • Allow time for an article to be accepted for publication and/or a book contract to be executed. Style Manual An essential reference tool when writing a dissertation or thesis is a department-approved professional style manual. You must consult a style manual recognized by a professional society in your field. To determine which professional style manual is appropriate for your discipline, consult with your advisor. Common manuals include those published by the American Psychological Association (APA), the Modern Language Association (MLA), and the University of Chicago Press. These and other approved style manuals are listed in Appendix A of the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook. Note that the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook is NOT itself a professional style manual. Rather, it is a guide outlining where your dissertation/thesis might diverge from a discipline's specifications. If a discrepancy between the instructions in a style manual and those in the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook exists, the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook takes precedence. Other Sources of Assistance The Temple University Computer Services Department offers training seminars throughout the year in using word processing and statistical tools for your dissertation or thesis. These seminars provide the building blocks for crafting your manuscript. Technical "How do I?" questions should be addressed to the Computer Services Help Desk at 215-204-8000 or helptemple.edu. Another useful resource is Lynda.com, which offers word processing tutorials. In addition, the Writing Center offers writing retreats that are designed to help graduate students with their writing projects, including dissertations, proposals, and articles for publication. These writing retreats offer 1 intensive and focused writing time, one-on-one mentoring, goal-setting support, fellowship, and motivation. A nominal fee is charged for each retreat to cover program costs. If questions arise while working on your dissertation or thesis that are not answered in the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook, contact Christa Viola, Coordinator of Graduate Student Services, in the Graduate School at 215-204-6924 or cviolatemple.edu. 2 General Overview Visit the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook early and often during the writing process. Do not wait to review the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook until the term you anticipate graduating or when you have already scheduled a defense date. It is NOT recommended that you print a copy of the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. This manual lays out Temple University's requirements for acceptable dissertations and theses. Individual departments or their schools/colleges may have additional requirements. It is your responsibility to learn of such special requirements and to prepare your manuscript in accordance with them, as well as with the instructions in this manual. Dissertations and theses not meeting the specifications of the Graduate School will not be accepted. Mechanics • The scholarly research you have performed and report on in your final manuscript is outside the scope of the Dissertation and Thesis Handbook. The Graduate School expects that your research has been reviewed and approved by your advisor and committee before allowing you to defend your dissertation/thesis or upload a final document. • Your dissertation/thesis must be legible, and all tables, figures, and illustrations must be of high quality. • Your manuscript must be written in clear, grammatically correct language; free of all spelling and typographical errors; and punctuated in a standard and appropriate manner. • It is best to NOT reference and model your manuscript after completed dissertations/theses on file in your department or Paley Library, no matter how recent. Current standards and requirements are subject to change without notice. 3 E-Dissertation Initiative Doctoral dissertation submissions evolved from paper to electronic submission of a PDF with the August 2008 graduation cycle. Submissions of master's theses followed suit with the May 2010 graduation cycle. Thus, submission of all dissertations and theses is mandatory through Temple University's ETD Administrator site. Beginning with the January 2012 graduation cycle, the diploma and publishing fees were eliminated. Account Access • Visit Temple University's ETD Administrator site at http://www.etdadmin.com/temple/ and bookmark for ease of repeated access. • Create an account and familiarize yourself with the resources available on the site. Reminders • The processing fee for doctoral dissertations and master's theses is currently 50 and must be paid to the Bursar for posting to FOAPAL 100000 24800 4981 04. It is recommended that doctoral and master's students take the Dissertation/Thesis Processing Fee form to the Bursar's Office when paying the fee. • If you choose to file for copyright through ProQuest, the fee is currently 55, whether doctoral or master's. It is payable online through the ETD system. Important Note Once the Graduate School has approved a dissertation or thesis submitted through the ETD system, REVISIONS of any kind are NOT PERMITTED. • Retain a copy of the final version of your dissertation/thesis, including signature page and permissions. ProQuest checks every page and frequently finds some pages missing or areas of potential copyright infringement. 4 Deadlines Apply for Graduation Where? • Access Self-Service Banner through TUportal. • Also visit EdPortal if you are a student in the College of Education. When? • See the University's Academic Calendar or the Graduate School calendar. Announce Dissertation Defense How? • Distribute an executed Announcement of Dissertation Defense to the Graduate School in 501 Carnell Hall and the dean's office of your school/college. • Provide all graduate faculty in your program with a flyer. • Post a flyer on public bulletin boards in and near your department. • Note that the Graduate School will announce the defense on its Upcoming Doctoral Defenses web page. When? • No later than 10 working days prior to the scheduled defense. • No later than 14 working days if an external examiner's curriculum vitae (CV) – accompanied by an executed Nomination for Service on Doctoral Committee form – must be reviewed by the Graduate School. Submit PDF of Approved Final Version of Dissertation/Thesis Where? • Upload to Temple University's ETD Administrator site at http://www.etdadmin.com/temple/. Anything else? • Return the original final signature page of the dissertation/thesis to Christa Viola, Coordinator of Graduate Student Services, in the Graduate School, 501 Carnell Hall. • Access, sign, and submit the Permission to Reproduce Dissertation or Thesis form – which is required of all doctoral and master's students who must produce a dissertation or thesis as a culminating experience – to grant Temple University license to reproduce the dissertation/thesis. 5 • For doctoral students only, submit your CV/résumé at http://www.etdadmin.com/temple/. • Complete the Survey of Earned Doctorates online, as delineated in Appendix B, if earning a doctoral degree. When? • Within 30 days post-defense OR by the due date specified below – whichever comes FIRST: GRADUATION CYCLE DIPLOMA DATE DISSERTATION/THESIS DUE DATE December 2016 December 22 December 5, 2016 May 2017 May 12 April 24, 2017 August 2017 August 9 July 17, 2017 Deadlines are firm. If you cannot meet the deadline for a particular graduation cycle, contact your school or college about applying for the following cycle. Note that graduating is not automatic – you must apply; it is the same with deferring graduation – you must notify your school/college and comply with its procedures. 6 Basic Manuscript Preparation Margins • Margins are consistently set at 1.5" at LEFT and 1" at RIGHT, TOP, and BOTTOM. • Margin requirements are the same for the entire manuscript, including front matter, body, notes, sources, and back matter. • Page numbers should NOT be set in the margin. Page Numbering • Every page of the manuscript is counted, BUT not all pages are numbered (e.g., the Title Page is page i, but does not show a page number). • Two page-numbering systems are used, including: o Consecutive lower-case Roman numerals (e.g., ii, iii, iv, v) for the front matter beginning with i. o Consecutive Arabic numbers (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5) for the text and all pages thereafter, beginning with 1 for the first page of Chapter 1. • Pages numbered 1a, 1b, and the like are NOT acceptable. • Page numbers may not be closer than 1" to the edge of any page. Headings • Headings differ in appearance based on level of importance, but all headings of the same level must look the same. See the sample Table of Contents in Appendix C. • Two formats for headings are accepted by the Graduate School: o The first is based on APA guidelines, as shown in Appendix D1. This style of heading can be used regardless of your discipline or style guide. o The second consists of designating subheadings with numerical prefixes that reflect the chapter and level of the subheading. This system may be used only by those in the "hard sciences," such as Engineering and Statistics, as shown in Appendix D2. • Only major division headings (i.e., Level 1) are totally capitalized. • The sections of the front matter, each chapter, and the sources section are all major divisions and begin on a new page. End the previous page with a page break to create a new page for the next major division. 7 • Formatting of headings must be consistently correct throughout the entire work, not just in one chapter. This includes but is not limited to: o Spacing between headings and text. o Spacing between text and headings. o Placement of same level headings (e.g., centered or flush left). o Appearance of same level headings (e.g., capitalization, italics). Line Spacing • Double spacing is used for the: o Abstract o Dedication o Acknowledgments o Preface o Body of the manuscript • Single spacing is used for block quotations, which are indented 1/2" from both the left and right margins. • A combination of single and double spacing is used for: o Table of Contents and Lists of Tables/Figures/Illustrations: Single-space within subheadings and titles of two or more lines; double-space between individual subheadings and titles. Align multiple-line subheadings and titles under the first word of the first line. o Notes: For numbered entries (as opposed to parenthetical entries in APA style), single- space within entries, and double-space between entries. Each first line must be indented 1/2". If an entry must split across pages, ensure a minimum of two lines of the entry appears on both pages. o Bibliography/References Cited: Single-space within entries, and double-space between entries — or double-space within and between entries. The first line begins at the left margin, and all subsequent turnover lines indent 1/2" — or the first line is indented 1/2", and all subsequent turnover lines align at the left margin. If an entry must split across pages, ensure a minimum of two lines of the entry appears on both pages. • Space between headings and text, text and block quotations, block quotations and text, etc. must be consistent throughout the manuscript. • No careless spacing or centered text should be utilized. 8 Widows and Orphans • Widows and orphans, which are single lines of text at the top or bottom of a page, are to be avoided. o "Widow" is defined as the last line of a paragraph when it is carried over to the top of the following page away from the rest of the paragraph. o "Orphan" is defined as the first line of a paragraph when it appears alone at the bottom of a page. • Starting a page with the last line of a list is also a widow and must be avoided. • Ending a page with a subheading is another type of orphan and must be avoided. Quoted Material • Long quotations (i.e., quoted material consisting of 40 or more words) are formatted as a free- standing block of type and must: o Be single-spaced. o Be indented 1/2" from the left and right margins. o Have NO surrounding quotation marks. o Have the source citation after the ending punctuation of the quoted material. • Short quotations (i.e., quoted material with fewer than 40 words) are integrated into the text and distinguished by surrounding the quote in quotation marks. The source citation is placed after the ending quotation mark, but before the ending punctuation of the sentence. PDF Preparation File Format Adobe PDF required. NO compression; NO password protection; NO digital signature. You are responsible for the appearance of your manuscript in PDF. It will appear and be downloaded exactly as you submit it. Print Quality Only black ink is acceptable – and the work must NOT contain touching or discontinuous characters. Fonts Embedded Post Script Type 1 fonts REQUIRED. Any legible font except script, italic, or ornamental fonts equivalent in scale to 10-point Arial or 12-point Times New Roman accepted. Italicized font may be used for non-English words and quotations. Applies to all text, including captions, footnotes/endnotes, citations, etc. Color PDF and print reproductions include all color material in color. Multimedia Files For digital preservation, upload multimedia content as supplemental files; do not embed multimedia in a PDF. Upload supplementary files during online submission – and provide a description of each file in the Abstract of your manuscript. ProQuest accepts multimedia content in the file types listed below and cannot guarantee that other file types will be migrated: • Audio: AIF (.aif); CD-DA; CD-ROM/XA; MIDI (.midi); MPEG-2; SND (.snd); WAV (.wav) • Images: GIF (.gif); JPEG (.jpeg); TIFF (.tif) • Video: Apple Quick Time (.mov); Microsoft Audio Video Interleaved (.avi); MPEG (.mgp) 9 Arrangement of Contents Every dissertation and thesis has three main parts: front matter, body, and back matter. Each of the three chief parts, in turn, consists of multiple sections. Front Matter Official Signature Page Dissertations. The Graduate School requires submission of one Signature Page with original signatures of all committee members. When your defense announcement is received and approved, the Graduate School will create the Signature Page and deliver it to the Chair of your Doctoral Advisory Committee. Note that your name must appear on your dissertation and all other documents as it appears on your Temple University transcript. If a name revision is required, make the change in Self-Service Banner or contact the Office of the University Registrar. No changes may be made to the Signature Page created by the Graduate School. Use of Wite-Out, cross- outs, tape, or the like to make revisions to the page render the Signature Page null and void. Following your defense, the hard-copy original must be submitted to Christa Viola, Coordinator of Graduate Student Services, in the Graduate School, 501 Carnell Hall. The Signature Page will NOT be included as part of the dissertation's PDF. Theses. The Graduate School requires submission of one Signature Page with the original signature of your Thesis Advisor. To create the Signature Page, follow the "script" in Appendix E to fill in the "writable" title page found at http://www.temple.edu/grad/forms/, adding a signature line beside the Thesis Advisor's department affiliation. Following your defense, submit the hard-copy original bearing your Thesis Advisor's signature to Christa Viola, Coordinator of Graduate Student Services, in the Graduate School, 501 Carnell Hall. Please note that the Signature Page will NOT be included as part of the thesis's PDF. E-Title Page Dissertations. The E-Title Page is similar to the official Signature Page with three alterations: • You generate the E-Title Page. • Typed names replace signatures of the committee members. • The E-Title Page is uploaded as part of your PDF. Theses. The E-Title Page is similar to the official Signature Page except: • It bears no signature, only typed names with titles and affiliations. • It is uploaded as part of your PDF. 10 Design Instructions. Access and fill in the Dissertation or Thesis E-Title Page, as relevant. • Follow the script version in Appendix F for dissertations or Appendix E for theses to ensure proper formatting and styling, such as bold and caps, on the writable versions of the title pages found at http://www.temple.edu/grad/forms/. • Use word substitutes for formulae, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, etc. in the title. While these are acceptable within the text of your manuscript, they may not appear in the title because they cannot be used in computerized keyword searches. • Indicate the month and year of the official University diploma date — not of your defense and not of your school/college ceremony. The ONLY options are December, May, or July. Copyright Page • The Copyright Page is optional and included only if the copyright fee is paid. • When included, the Copyright Page is the first page on which a page number actually appears. It is numbered with a small Roman numeral two (ii). • If included, the notification on the page is centered top to bottom and left to right and should read: © Copyright Year of Graduation (e.g., 2015) by Author's Legal Name All Rights Reserved • A template for the Copyright Page is included in Appendix G. Abstract • The Abstract, which has no set word limit but is an "abstract," should briefly: o State the problem discussed in the manuscript. o Describe the research procedures or methodology. o Summarize major findings and conclusions. • The Abstract is text only and may NOT contain any other element, such as tables, graphs, charts, illustrations, subheadings, or reference notes. • The Abstract is double-spaced. 11 • Page numbers continue Roman numeral pagination of the front matter. • A template for the Abstract is included in Appendix G. Dedication and/or Acknowledgments • The Dedication and Acknowledgments pages are both optional. • If one or both pages is included, double spacing is used. • Page numbers continue Roman numeral pagination of the front matter. • Templates for the Dedication and Acknowledgments pages are included in Appendix G. Table of Contents • "Table of Contents" is a major heading and should be set in that format. Below that, at the right margin, is the column label "Page." Next, at the left margin, the sections in the manuscript are listed. Leader dots follow, with respective page numbers listed under the "Page" column header. A template for the Table of Contents is included in Appendix G. • Front matter headings, including ABSTRACT, DEDICATION, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, LIST OF TABLES, LIST OF FIGURES, and/or LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, are listed in the Table of Contents in all capital letters, at the left margin, if these sections exist in your manuscript. In the Table of Contents, do NOT include a line entry for the Copyright Page or Table of Contents itself. • Below the front matter entries, still at far left, is the column label "CHAPTER." Under that, Arabic chapter numbers and chapter titles in all capital letters are listed. It is not required that subheadings be listed in the Table of Contents, but if they are, each level of subheading is indented 1/2" from the chapter title or subheading above. Do not list more than three levels of subheading on the Table of Contents — and if you list a level of heading for one chapter, list that level for every chapter in which it exists. Remember, this applies to the Table of Contents, not the text. • Chapter numbers (e.g., 1, 2, 3) should be uniformly spaced from chapter titles. Chapter titles and subheadings should be uniformly separated from page numbers. Thus, if a title comes within 1/2" of its page number, break it into two or more single-spaced lines, aligning turnover lines with the first word of the title/subheading. • Back matter headings, including BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES CITED and APPENDICES, are listed in the Table of Contents in all capital letters and at the left margin. If there is more than one APPENDIX, each is identified by a capital letter (e.g., A, B, C) assigned according to the order of mention in the text and aligned at the left margin. • Do not repeat the column labels of "Page" and/or "CHAPTER" on subsequent pages of the Table of Contents. • Page numbers for the Table of Contents continue Roman numeral pagination of the front matter. 12 List of Tables/Figures/Illustrations • Separate lists are necessary if there are tables, figures, and/or illustrations in your manuscript. Depending on the items in your manuscript, you may have a List of Tables, a List of Figures, and a List of Illustrations — or you may have just one or two. Identify the materials in your dissertation/thesis and sort them into the appropriate list. • The titles/captions listed in each list must match exactly the titles/captions in the manuscript. This includes wording, capitalization, abbreviations, punctuation, and the like. However, do not copy underlining (except in the case of statistical abbreviations) or bold to a list. The purpose of these lists is to allow the reader to locate easily the embedded table, figure, or illustration rather than have to page through the entire document. • "Table," "Figure," or "Illustration" must appear as the left column label in its respective list. At right is the column label "Page." Below, the number and its corresponding title or caption appears. Each entry's corresponding page number is right-aligned, with leader dots separating title/caption from page number. If the list breaks onto multiple pages, do not repeat the column labels. • If a title/caption comes within 1/2" of its page number, break it into two or more single-spaced lines that align under the first word of the title/caption. • Each title/caption is double-spaced, except when single spacing is used for turnover lines of long titles/captions. • Page numbers for Lists continue Roman numeral pagination of the front matter. • Templates for the Lists are included in Appendix G. Body Chapter Numbers and Titles • "CHAPTER " and "CHAPTER TITLE" are normally all caps and centered at the top of a new page. Arabic numbers – not words, not Roman numerals – designate chapter numbers. Line spacing should be consistent spacing, whether single or double. • Other placements and capitalization schemes may be accepted. The key is to be consistent on all headings with the same level of importance. Text • This is the substance of the dissertation/thesis. It includes all chapters and their sections and subsections, with a corresponding page number in the Table of Contents. • Page numbers begin with an Arabic number 1 for the first page of Chapter 1 and continue consecutively. • A sample first page of a chapter is shown in Appendix H, while a Chapter template is included in Appendix I. 13 Notes • Notes may be substantive or explanatory. Notes may identify sources or indicate keys to reading a table. Depending on your style manual and the purpose of the notes, they may be called footnotes, endnotes, notes, general notes, probability notes, etc. • Regardless of what your notes are called, each entry must have the same format: o Single- or double-spaced within notes. o Double spacing between notes. o Same font as the rest of the text. o Ideally, same point size as the rest of the text. o Under no circumstances, smaller than 10 point. Back Matter Bibliography/References Cited • A comprehensive list of sources must be titled either "Bibliography" or "References Cited." A template for the source list is included in Appendix J. • All books, articles, or other sources used in the manuscript, either in direct quotation or by reference, must be listed. o Citations in the text must correspond to those listed in the comprehensive source list. o Authors' names must be spelled correctly and, hence, consistently. o Dates that appear in the text should be the same as those listed in the comprehensive source list. • In-text citations, source citations, references, and notes may be ONE of the following: o Parenthetical author-date, as in the example in the table at the top of the next page. o Superscripted or bracketed numbers. o Classic footnotes at the bottom of the page. o Endnotes at the end of each chapter. o Endnotes at the end of the entire work. 14 EXAMPLE OF PARENTHETICAL AUTHOR-DATE APA CITATION In text As noted in the research (Huggard, 1998), the goal was... In Bibliography/Reference Cited Huggard, C. (1998). Clinical efficacy of dexamethasone iontophoresis in the treatment of patellar tendonitis in collegiate athletics: A double-blind study. Unpublished master's thesis, Temple University. Philadelphia, PA. • Ordering within the list of sources varies by discipline: o Works in education, the humanities, and the social sciences are alphabetically ordered by author's family name, which begins each entry. o Works in the hard sciences are usually ordered numerically. • Two spacing options exist: o Single-space within individual entries and double-space between. o Double-space within and between entries. • Two indentation options exist: o With hanging indentation, the first line of every entry is on the left margin and every turnover line is indented 1/2". o With paragraph indentation, the first line is indented 1/2" from the left margin and the turnover lines are at the left margin. • Page numbers continue consecutive Arabic pagination of the text. Appendices • Appendices contain supplementary material or explanatory data too lengthy to be included in the text or not immediately essential to the reader's understanding of the text. To determine whether to include material as an Appendix, consider: o Does the material truly need to be included? That is, does it add to the understanding of your research? o Is the author's written permission needed to include it? That is, is it copyrighted? o Does it fit Temple University's margin, clarity, and type requirements — or do you have to retype it? For example, letterhead cannot be included without adjustment. o Have you made reference to the material in the text? No material can be included as an Appendix if it is not referred to in the text. • Appendixes are designated by capital letters (e.g., A, B, C); are lettered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text; and are listed in the Table of Contents as Level 1 headings, fully 15 CAPITALIZED with their Appendix letter on the left margin directly under the "A" in Appendix. See the sample Table of Contents in Appendix C. • Each Appendix is titled with a centered Level 1 heading "APPENDIX ___" followed on the next line by its title in ALL CAPITAL letters. These are positioned at the top of the first page of each new Appendix like a Chapter title. • Original material in an Appendix must be double-spaced and typed the same as all other text. Copies of correspondence, forms, computer programs, printed questionnaires, surveys, testing instruments, etc. may be included in their original format ONLY if they adhere to the established margins (i.e., 1.5" on the left side and 1" on all other sides), print size, and quality specifications. It is not important that the "original" document be included, but it is important that included documents be readable. Material that will not fit or is difficult to read must be reduced, recopied, retyped, or removed. Letterhead must be either cut-and-pasted or retyped. • Appendices follow the Bibliography/References Cited section. • Page numbers continue consecutive Arabic pagination of the text. This applies to both new and previously paginated materials that you include. • A template for Appendices is included in Appendix K. 16 Preparation of List Materials Graphic elements that can be utilized in dissertations and theses include: • Tables, which organize information into discrete rows and columns. • Figures, which are other illustrative material, including charts, graphs, diagrams, schematic illustrations, and the like. Drawings and photographs can be included, if desired. • Illustrations, which are typically drawings and photographs. General Style of List Materials • Font and font size should be consistent between tables/figures/illustrations and the text unless there is a compelling reason to do otherwise. • Every table, figure, and illustration must be unique and have its own unique title. That is, each item may appear only once in your manuscript. • Tables, figures, and illustrations are integrated into the text: o An element that is larger than half a page should be placed on a page by itself centered within the margins on the first page following its first mention in the text. o An element that is half a page or smaller should be merged onto a page with text and set off from the text by a double or triple space above and below. o Each element must appear in its entirety on one page, if it will fit. If it will not, it should begin at the top of a page and continue on succeeding pages as necessary. • Do not leave substantial blank space on a page because a graphic element has been mentioned and will be placed on the following page. Continue the text to the bottom of the page, and then insert the table/figure/illustration at the top of the next page, and resume the text on that page after the graphic element. • Number tables/figures/illustrations sequentially with Arabic numbers throughout the manuscript (i.e., 1, 2, 3) according to the order in which they appear in your text. o Begin numbering each different type of graphic element at 1. Thus, you could have a Table 1, Figure 1, and Illustration 1 in your manuscript. o The only acceptable alternate numbering system is to use both the chapter number and the number of the graphic element together (e.g., "Table 3-6" or 3.6 for the sixth table in the third chapter, "Figure 5-2" or 5.2 for the second figure in Chapter 5). o Whichever numbering system you choose for the text must be reflected in the respective LIST in the front matter. That is, if you choose to include the chapter number in your numbering system, the "chapter number-graphic element number" must appear in the list. 17 o Graphic elements may NOT be numbered according to section. o Graphic elements may not be differentiated with letter suffixes (e.g., Table 6A, Table 6B, etc.) to indicate a relation between two or more graphics. If the tables/figures/illustrations are related, then they can be combined into one. • Any graphic element set up in landscape orientation should be on a page by itself. o Landscaped materials must be placed reading outward (i.e., with the top of the graphic at the binding or left side of the page). o The page number on the landscaped page must, however, have portrait orientation like all other page numbers. • Consistency in style, placement, numbering, spacing, and punctuation used for the graphic elements in your manuscript is key. Tables • Data that would require only two or fewer columns and rows in tabular form should be presented in the text because tables are reserved for more complex data. To present quantitative data clearly and efficiently, it must be arranged logically: o Data to be compared must be presented next to one another. o Statistical information (means, standard deviations, N values) must be presented in separate parts of the table. o If possible, canonical forms (ANOVA, regression, correlation) should be used. • The "Table" feature in your software should be utilized to create tables. If you choose to not use the "Table" feature, columns should be aligned using tabs, not the space bar and your eye. • Initial caps, italics, and single spacing are used for the table title. Align the second line of the title directly under the first word of the title. • Column headings within the table should be clear and concise. They should not be much wider than the widest entry in the column. • All columns must have a heading, even the "stub" column, which customarily lists the major independent variables in the left-hand column. • Numerical data should be expressed in a consistent number of decimal places, as determined by the precision of measurement, within a column. Do not vary the unit of measurement or the number of decimal places in the same column. 18