What are the Types of Reference Sources

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Edith Cw o an univE rsity REFERENCING GUIDER Ref eferencing guide erencing guide. . (17th (19th R Rev ev. . ed.). (2014). J ed.). (2014). Joondalup, oondalupAustr , Australia: Edith Cowan Univ alia: Edith Cowan University ersity . . Copyright Notice Copyright Warning Copyright © 2014 Edith Cowan University. All rights reserved. This document and all works comprised in it are copyright and no part of it may in any form or by any means (including without limitation, electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise) be modified, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, published, broadcast, distributed or transmitted without prior written permission of Edith Cowan University. No express or implied licence to use any part of these works is granted to any person without the express prior written consent of Edith Cowan University and any implied licence to use any part of these works is expressly negatived. CRICOS IPC 00279B Personal communications .............................................. 9 Contents Interviews...................................................................... 10 Introduction ....................................................................... 3 End text references......................................................... 10 Additional reference sources ...................................... 3 How references are constructed .................................. 10 Referencing at ECU ........................................................ 3 Reference list format .................................................... 10 Plagiarism and academic misconduct ........................ 3 More than one item by the same author ....................... 10 APA style ........................................................................ 3 Group / Corporate author’s name ................................. 11 Crediting Sources ....................................................... 3 Group or Corporate author as publisher ....................... 11 In-text citations ........................................................... 3 Authors with ‘Jr.’ or ‘numbers’ ...................................... 11 Quotations .................................................................. 3 ‘Junior’ in the name .................................................. 11 Short quotations (less than 40 words)........................ 3 A number in the name .............................................. 11 Long quotations (40 words or more) .......................... 4 Different types of referencing sources ......................... 11 Brackets .......................................................................... 4 Journals/articles ............................................................ 11 Omitting material from a quotation ............................. 4 General form of end-text reference .......................... 11 Inserting material into a quotation .............................. 4 Journal article without a DOI (Print) ......................... 12 Emphasising words within a quotation ....................... 4 Journal article with a DOI (Print or Online) .............. 12 Correcting a quote ...................................................... 4 Journal article with one author ................................. 12 Ambiguous place names ............................................ 4 Journal article with two authors ................................ 12 Paraphrases, summaries, or syntheses ......................... 5 Journal article with three to five authors .................. 12 Variations in in-text citations ........................................... 5 Journal article with six authors ................................. 12 A source written by one author ....................................... 5 Journal article with seven authors ............................ 12 A source with multiple authors ........................................ 5 Journal article with eight or more authors ................ 13 Two authors ................................................................ 5 Magazine article ....................................................... 13 Three, four or five authors .......................................... 6 Newspaper article .................................................... 13 3 or more authors exception to the rule ..................... 6 Article or lecture published independently ............... 13 Six or more authors .................................................... 6 Books, brochures and book chapters ........................... 13 Groups as authors .......................................................... 7 General form of end-text reference .......................... 13 Author as publisher ......................................................... 7 Publication details (city and publisher) ..................... 13 Works with no author ...................................................... 7 Book with one author ............................................... 13 Referring to the titles of books and articles in-text ......... 7 Book with two authors .............................................. 14 Stand-alone sources: General rules ........................... 7 Book with three to five authors ................................. 14 Title of a book, brochure, report, periodical or any stand-alone source: in narrative ................................. 7 Book with six or seven authors ................................ 14 Title of any stand-alone source: In parentheses (no Book with eight or more authors .............................. 14 author) ........................................................................ 7 Edited book .............................................................. 14 Sources that are part of a greater whole ........................ 8 No date, classical work, or date uncertain ............... 14 General rules for in-text citations ............................... 8 Republished book ......................................................... 15 Title of an article or chapter ........................................ 8 No author .................................................................. 15 Authors with the same surname ..................................... 8 Book whose title includes the title of another work .. 15 Author referred to by another author .............................. 9 Book with foreign title ............................................... 15 No publication date available .......................................... 9 Editor or translator named in addition to author ....... 15 Citing specific parts of a source (chapter, pages, Book chapter or article in an encyclopedia .............. 16 paragraphs etc.).............................................................. 9 Chapter in an edited book with one editor ............... 16 Page number .............................................................. 9 Chapter in a book with two or more editors ............. 16 Chapter ....................................................................... 9 Reference works ........................................................... 16 Electronic document, no pagination ........................... 9 Entry in an encyclopedia .......................................... 16 Section and paragraph ............................................... 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-DSM-5 ................ 16 1 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Dictionary .................................................................16 Unpublished paper/manuscript ..................................... 24 Brochure/Fact sheet/Template .....................................17 Doctoral dissertations & master’s theses ..................... 25 Play ...............................................................................17 Dissertation or thesis from a database .................... 25 Poem ............................................................................17 Unpublished dissertation or thesis ........................... 25 Music scores .................................................................17 Doctoral dissertation from an institutional database 25 Music liner notes ......................................................17 Reports ......................................................................... 25 Audiovisual media.........................................................18 Government report ................................................... 25 Music recording ........................................................18 Research or University report .................................. 25 Video recording / film / motion picture ......................18 Australian Bureau of Statistics (Online) ................... 25 Video recording / film / motion picture (no author) ...18 Standards (Technical report) .................................... 26 Electronic media .............................................................18 Figures and tables ........................................................ 26 General information ..................................................18 Figure (Image in a book, caption only) ..................... 26 Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ...................................18 Table ........................................................................ 26 Article assigned a DOI..............................................19 Publications of limited circulation ................................. 26 Article not assigned a DOI .......................................19 Leaflets and handouts .............................................. 26 Articles from a database ...............................................19 Appendix A: Legal materials ......................................... 27 Cochrane database report using DOI ......................19 Guidelines ................................................................ 27 Article from JSTOR or ERIC database .....................19 Legal authorities (cases) .............................................. 27 Citing PsycTESTS database ...................................20 Legislation..................................................................... 27 Electronic media: in-text entries ...................................20 Parliamentary debates (Hansard): electronic ............... 27 Chapter or sections in a Web document ......................20 Reference list for legal materials .................................. 27 E-journal article .............................................................20 Appendix B: Accounting standards & regulations ..... 28 Web document (not a journal) ......................................20 Guidelines ..................................................................... 28 Lecture notes or PowerPoint online..............................21 Accounting standards and regulations (AAS)............... 28 Material only available on an intranet or Blackboard Appendix C: Referencing examples ............................. 29 ..................................................................................21 Appendix D: Common abbreviations & non-routine Material which is available publically online .............21 notations .......................................................................... 38 Daily newspaper article, electronic version ..................21 Non-routine notations ................................................... 38 eBooks ..........................................................................21 Appendix E: Referencing checklists ............................. 38 eBook from an online (ebook) library .......................21 In-text citation checklist ................................................ 38 Video files: ....................................................................22 End-text reference checklist ......................................... 38 Streaming video database ............................................22 Appendix F: Sample reference list ............................... 39 Data set ........................................................................22 Acknowledgements ........................................................ 40 Software, apps, or programs ........................................22 References ....................................................................... 40 Software ...................................................................22 Mobile application software ......................................22 Blog ...............................................................................23 Email .............................................................................23 Electronic mailing list message ....................................23 Podcasts .......................................................................23 Wiki ...............................................................................23 Web pages ....................................................................23 Web page with no author .........................................24 Conference presentations/proceedings ........................24 Poster session ..............................................................24 Review ..........................................................................24 2 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. It isn’t plagiarising to use common knowledge. Introduction Whether unintentional or deliberate, plagiarism is Caution: Check for current version unacceptable. Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct and can lead to the rejection of an assignment The ECU Referencing Guide is regularly updated. and exclusion from the course. Students are responsible for checking that the content of this document matches the latest version online at APA style http://ecu.au.libguides.com/referencing Crediting Sources In the APA style, crediting sources is done both as in-text APA 6th style referencing citations (that is, sources cited in the written text itself) and At ECU we use the APA referencing style. This guide as end-text references (that is, in the list of references on a follows the principles and examples given in the 6th edition separate page at the end of your assignment). of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010), as well as the APA Style Guide to In-text citations Electronic References (2012). These are subsequently Types of in-text citations include direct quotes, referred to in this document as “APA 6th” and “Electronic paraphrases, summaries and syntheses. References,” respectively. This guide has been developed for undergraduate students and contains examples from Quotations commonly asked referencing questions. (APA 6th, pp. 92, 170-173) Additional reference sources All direct quotations from published work should be reproduced word for word, keeping the original spelling For additional information not included in this referencing and internal punctuation, even if it is not correct. guide, consult the following: Short quotations (less than 40 words) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010) which is found in the ECU Short quotations must be incorporated into the text and Library, in both the Reserve and Main Collection areas, at enclosed within double quotation marks. At the end of the the shelf number 808.06615 PUB. quote place the author’s surname(s), the year of publication and the page number of the quotation, APA Style Guide to Electronic References (6th ed., 2012), separated by commas, in parentheses (round brackets). available through the library catalogue: http://library.ecu.edu.au/record=b2276292S7 Example 1: “Psychologists have long observed that the physical act of Need more help? writing gives birth and shape to thought and is the process APA Style website: http://www.apastyle.org/ by which you truly know what you think” (Putnis & Petelin, APA Style Blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/ 1999, p. 300). APA Style Experts: styleexpertapastyle.org Example 2: Referencing at ECU According to Putnis and Petelin “Psychologists have long At ECU, all undergraduate and masters students, with the observed that the physical act of writing gives birth and exception of the Bachelor of Laws students, are expected shape to thought and is the process by which you truly to use the APA 6th referencing style for all assignments, know what you think” (1999, p. 300). theses, and other publications. A Head of School may decide to adopt another referencing format. Example 3: Referencing in theses for doctoral studies and master by Putnis and Petelin (1999) assert that “Psychologists have research courses should be in a style used by a major long observed that the physical act of writing gives birth international journal in the candidate’s area of study, to be and shape to thought and is the process by which you truly determined in consultation with the Principal Supervisor. know what you think” (p. 300). Advice on thesis preparation, formatting and presentation Example 4: can be obtained from the Graduate Research School. Butler (2000) finds the most significant difference is “age Plagiarism and academic misconduct and place of origin” (p. 27). In your university work, it is expected that you will support your opinions and arguments by referring to other people’s Note. In short quotations the full-stop is placed after the ideas. You will need to acknowledge these sources by brackets of the citation. correctly referencing them. Failing to acknowledge other writers’ words, ideas or theories, either intentionally, or unintentionally, is called plagiarism. Intellectual integrity requires that the work of others be duly attributed where it is quoted or used as a source of ideas or paraphrasing. Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct and includes, but isn’t limited to, failure to acknowledge sources and passing off others’ work as one’s own. 3 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Example 5: Short quotations . . . single quotation marks Example: Omitting material from a quotation within double quotation marks The . . . APA system . . . adopted in social science (APA 6th, p. 92) writing by way initially of anthropology, sociology and psychology, has certain advantages. By using Miele (1993) found that “the ‘placebo effect,’ which had an abbreviated form of citation in the text it obviates been verified in previous studies, disappeared when most of the labour and unsightliness of giving behaviors were studied in this manner” (p. 276). complete citations in individual footnotes. As it does not require citations to be numbered it enables Note. Use single quotation marks to show words/phrases references to be added or removed in the course of that are presented within double quotation marks in the drafting with the minimum of inconvenience. It original source. automatically provides every article or chapter or book with a formal list of sources referred to in the Long quotations (40 words or more) text. (Parker, 1978, p. 9) (APA 6th, p. 92) Inserting material into a quotation Long quotations must be displayed in block format without the use of quotation marks. The quote should start on a Use square brackets to show material inserted into a new line and be indented by about a 1.2 cm tab space quotation by some person other than the original author. from the left margin. If there are additional paragraphs You may need to do this to make a sentence read properly within the quotation, indent the first line of each additional or be understandable. paragraph by a further 1.2 cm tab space. The entire Example: quotation (in the block format) should be similar to the rest of your document. Do not change the font size or use In discussing the advantages of cooperative small group learning, Jongeling (1988, p. 76) stated that “one would italics. Use double quotation marks to show words/phrases that were presented within quotation marks in the original. expect children to modify their attitudes toward other ethnic groups through participating in cooperative small When citing quotations, supply the author’s surname, year group learning.” and page number. In the case of electronic sources, supply Example: the paragraph number/section heading instead of the page number. “Who will write the . . . history of the ‘examination’ – its rituals, its methods, its characters and their roles, its play Example: of questions and answers, its system of marking and Nature should be avoided in such vague expressions classification?” (Foucault, 1978, p. 183). as “a lover of nature,” “poems about nature.” Unless more specific statements follow, the reader cannot tell Emphasising words within a quotation whether the poems have to do with natural scenery, Use italics to emphasise specific words in a direct rural life, the sunset, the untracked wilderness, or the quotation. At the end of the emphasis add ‘italics added’. habits of squirrels. (Strunk & White, 2005, p. 80) Example: Note. The full-stop is placed at the end of the quotation in Jongeling (1990) indicated that “although the GHQ block quotations. General Health Questionnaire was designed primarily as a measure of minor psychiatric disturbance italics added, Brackets the instrument has been used in several studies to (APA 6th, p. 94) measure psychological stress” (p. 4). Use square brackets , not parentheses ( ), for the Correcting a quote following alterations to quotations: Sometimes you may quote a passage that contains a  inserting material typing or grammatical error. Do not correct the error; copy  emphasising words it as in the original words and add the word sic italicised  correcting errors and in square brackets to indicate the error.  clarifying ambiguous place names Omitting material from a quotation Example: It was emphasised that “a reel sic distinction must be (APA 6th, p. 172) made between goal structures and reward structures” Use an ellipsis (. . .) to indicate that some material has (Jones, 1993, p. 6). been omitted from the original text. An ellipsis, consists of three points with a space before and after each point. To Ambiguous place names show you are omitting material between sentences, use a If referring to the name of a place where the precise full-stop at the end of a sentence followed by an ellipsis location is ambiguous, use square brackets to clarify the (typing four periods in total). Only use an ellipsis at the matter. beginning or end of a quotation to show that the quotation begins mid-sentence. This will prevent misinterpretation. Example: They spent that winter in Perth Scotland. 4 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Author as part of the sentence Paraphrases, summaries, or syntheses (APA 6th, pp. 174-177) (APA 6th, p. 171; See also p. 177 for a table of basic in- text citation styles.) Example: First mention in a paragraph When paraphrasing, summarizing, or synthesising an idea In-text citation: contained in another work, you must provide the author’s Jones (2001) examines the effectiveness of . . . surname, and year of publication. If you are discussing an In 2001, Jones’s study of high protein diets found that . . . entire work, no page numbers are necessary. However, you are encouraged to provide a page number (or in the Note. For subsequent mentions: If the citation is part of case of electronic sources, a paragraph number, or section the text, date the source in the first citation in a paragraph. heading) if this information will help the reader locate the You need not include the year in subsequent citations in relevant passage in a long, or complicated text. It will also the same paragraph. If you start a new paragraph then help you to keep track of your sources. again include the year in the first citation in that paragraph. (APA 6th, p. 174) Here are some examples of paraphrasing: Example: Subsequent mentions Citing the author’s name in parentheses ( ) End-text reference: (APA, 6th, p. 174) In a recent study of reaction times, Brown (2002) described Example: the method . . . Brown also finds . . . A recent publication indicated a potential connection A source with multiple authors between DNA damage and the immunostimulatory (APA 6th, pp. 175, 177) cytokine IL-12 (Schwarz, 2002). Example: Citing multiple authors in-text: ‘and’ or ‘&’? (See APA 6th, p. 178 for more examples.) A recent publication (Schwarz, 2002) indicated a potential connection between DNA damage and the When the names in a multiple-author citation occur within immunostimulatory cytokine IL-12. the text (or narrative) they should be joined by using the word ‘and’, but if they occur within parentheses (round Citing the author’s name as part of a sentence brackets) captions to tables/diagrams, or in the reference (APA 6th, p. 174) list, they must be joined by an ampersand (&). Example: Example: Authors in the text or narrative A potential connection was found between DNA damage and the immunostimulatory cytokine IL-12 in a recent study In-text citation: by Schwarz (2002). Davidson and Porter (1996) demonstrated that . . . Example: Note. Use ‘and’ within a sentence. In his recent study, Schwarz (2002) indicated a potential Example: Authors in parentheses connection between DNA damage and the In-text citation: immunostimulatory cytokine IL-12. These findings support the view that . . . (Davidson & Porter, 1996). Note. Use an ampersand (&) within parentheses. Variations in in-text citations (APA 6th, pp. 174-179. See also p. 177 for a table of basic Two authors in-text citation styles.) (APA 6th, pp.174-177) A source written by one author When a source has two authors, cite both names every Insert the surname of the author, and the year of time the source is cited in-text. publication into the text at the appropriate point. When both the name and the year are in parentheses, include the year in subsequent citations within the Examples: paragraph In a recent study of the effects of high protein diets (Jones, Two authors as part of the sentence 2001) . . . Jones (2001) also found . . . Example: ‘and’ Note. When both the name and the year are in Wallace and Alenby (2004) parentheses, include the year in subsequent citations Two authors in parentheses within the paragraph. Example: ‘&’ (Wallace & Alenby, 2004) 5 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Three, four or five authors 3 or more authors exception to the rule (APA 6th, pp. 174, 175, 177) (APA 6th, p. 175) When a source has three, four or five authors, cite all If two references of more than three surnames, published authors the first time the source occurs in the document, in the same year, shorten to the same form, cite the first but in subsequent citations include only the surname of the surname, and as many of the subsequent authors’ first author followed by “et al.” Include the year of surnames as necessary to differentiate the two references, publication at the first mention in a paragraph. followed by a comma and et al. Example: First mention Three, four or five author/s as part of the sentence (APA 6th, pp. 174, 177) In-text citation: Ireys, Chernoff, De Vet, and Kim (2001) . . . a. First mention in a paragraph: for the first in-text citation, Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, De Vet, and Silver (2001) . . . if the authors are part of the sentence, cite the year in parentheses. As an in-text-citation, both shorten to Ireys et al. (2001), Example: which does not distinguish between the two references in- text. In-text citation: Smith, Grierson, Malthus, and Nicholson (2000) found . . . Example: Subsequent mention b. Subsequent mention in a paragraph: Once this source In-text citation: has been cited in a paragraph you need not include the Ireys, Chernoff, De Vet, et al. (2001) year for subsequent citations within that same Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, et al. (2001) paragraph, unless it causes confusion with other cited sources. Note. To tell the references apart, cite as many authors as Example: necessary. In-text citation: Smith et al. found that . . . Six or more authors c. Mention in new paragraph (include date): for citations of (APA 6th, pp. 175-177) this source within any new paragraph, after the first citation in the document, include date in parentheses: General rules Example: Note: The rules governing in-text citations for six or more In-text citation: authors differ from those for end-text referencing. Smith et al. (2000) suggest . . . When a work has 6 or more authors, at the first mention, cite only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” d. If both author and year are given as part of the and the year. In subsequent mentions, you need not sentence: do not include parenthetical citations include the year within the same paragraph unless it causes confusion with other cited sources. Example: In-text citation: In 2000, a study conducted by Smith, Grierson, Malthus, Six authors as part of the sentence and Nicholson concluded . . . (APA 6th, pp.175-177) Example: First mention 3-5 authors in parentheses (round brackets) (APA 6th, pp. 174, 177) In-text citation: According to Abercrombe et al. (2008) . . . When the citation is placed within parentheses: include all the authors’ names. Separate each author and the year Example: Subsequent mentions within the same with a comma. Include the year in all parenthetical paragraph citations within a paragraph. In-text citation: Abercrombe et al. conclude . . . Example: In-text citation: First mention Six authors in parentheses According to evidence . . . (Smith, Grierson, Malthus, & Example: Nicholson, 2000) In-text citation: In-text citation: Subsequent mention within the same (Abercrombe et al., 2008) paragraph The study concluded . . . (Smith et al., 2000) End-text reference: Bentley, M., Peerenbom, C. A., Hodge, F. W., Passano, E. B., Warren, H. C., & Washburn, M. F. (1929). Instructions in regard to preparation of manuscript. Psychological Bulletin, 26(2), 57-63. doi:10.1037/ h0071487 6 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Groups as authors Anonymous as author (APA 6th, pp. 176-177; APA Style Blog ‘Group Authors’) (APA 6th, p. 177) The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. When an author is given as “Anonymous,” cite in-text the corporations, associations, government agencies, and so word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date.In the on) are usually written in full each time they occur in an in- reference list, the work is listed alphabetically by the word text citation. Anonymous. If you wish to abbreviate names, write the name in full the Example: Anonymous first time it occurs, and place the abbreviated form in either In-text citation: square brackets , or parentheses (round brackets) next (Anonymous, 2013). to it, depending on the style of in-text citation you use. (See the following examples.) Example: End-text reference: In subsequent citations then, you can just use the Anonymous. (2013). Dealing with the unpredictable. The abbreviation. In the end-text reference, only include the Clinical Teacher, 10(6), 409–410. doi:10.1111/tct. abbreviation, or acronym, if it is an integral part of the title. 12068 Example: Group author/s: In-text as part of the sentence Works with no author In-text citation: First mention: Full name and abbreviation (APA 6th, p. 176) According to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC, 2000) . . . When a work has no author, cite in-text the first few words In 2000, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)… of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. In-text citation: Subsequent mentions: Abbreviation only Referring to the titles of books and According to the ABC (2000) . . . articles in-text Example: Group author/s: In-text, in parentheses (APA 6th, pp. 91, 101, 103, 104, 176; Electronic References, p. 32. See also APA Style Blog: “How to In-text citation: First mention: Full name and abbreviation Capitalize and Format Titles in APA Style”) (Australian Broadcasting Authority ABC, 2000) Stand-alone sources: General rules In-text citation: Subsequent mentions: Abbreviation only These results . . . (ABC, 2000). For books, reports, brochures, periodicals, films, videos, YouTube, artwork, TV series, microfilm publications, and Example: Group author: Abbreviation is not included in the any source that stands alone. end-text When referring to the titles of sources in the body of your In-text citation: ABC included in-text document, capitalize each major word in the title (i.e. use (Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC, 2000). title case) and italicise the words. End-text reference: ABC is not included end-text Note. This is different from the way you reference book Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (2012). Annual titles in a reference list. For end-text, stand-alone titles, use report. Retrieved from http://about.abc.net.au/wp- italics and sentence case. E.g. Gone with the wind. content/uploads/2012/10/ABC-AR-2012-combined- web-revised-17-Oct.pdf Title of a book, brochure, report, periodical or any stand-alone source: in narrative Note. ABC does not appear in the end-text reference, as it is not Examples: Capitalise and italicise all major words of titles part of the official title. However, do include the abbreviation in in the narrative the end-text reference if the acronym is an official part of the title. (APA 6th, pp. 101, 104, 176.) In-text citations: Author as publisher In the book, History of Science . . . (APA 6th, p. 187) The publication, Patients Voices (2004) . . . A comparison of Gone With the Wind and The Sound and When the author is also the publisher, use Author to indicate the publisher. the Fury . . . Example: Title of any stand-alone source: In parentheses (no author) In text citation: (APA 6th, pp. 101, 104, 176.) (Australian Broadcasting Authority ABA, 2000) Example: Capitalise and italicize all major words of titles in Australian Broadcasting Authority (ABA, 2000) parentheses End-text reference: In-text citation: Australian Broadcasting Authority. (2000). Commercial (Patients Voices, 2004) radio inquiry: Final report of the Australian Broadcasting Authority. Sydney, Australia: Author. 7 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Sources that are part of a greater whole Multiple authors cited in-text (APA 6th, pp. 91, 101, 103, 104, 172, 176) (APA 6th, pp. 177-178) Multiple works by the same authors cited in the same For journal articles, book chapters, e-book chapters, parentheses newspaper articles, magazine articles, blog posts, Order the citations of two or more works by the same television episodes, webisodes, webpages, tweets, author(s) in the same order in which they appear in the Facebook pages and so on. reference list, i.e. by year of publication and provide the General rules for in-text citations authors’ surnames once only. Place article titles in double quotation marks, capitalise all Examples: main words (title case) but do not italicise. In-text citations: Past reports (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Title of an article or chapter DFAT, 2005, 2007, 2009) indicate . . . Example: Previous studies (Holland & Nicholson, 1995, 1999) . . . In-text citation: Article titles within the body of the text Multiple works by the same author and same The point of the article, “Studies of Patient Satisfaction” . . . publication date (APA 6th, p. 176) Example: Identify works by the same author(s) with the same In-text citation: Article title within parentheses (round publication date by using the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth brackets): after the year, repeating the year in each case. These suffixes should also appear in the reference list entries, ... these findings (“Studies of Patient Satisfaction,” 2003) where these references are ordered alphabetically by title. Examples: Note. Article titles in the body of the text are written differently from the way you reference article titles in a In-text citations: reference list. For end-text article titles, use sentence case, Several studies (Smith, 1998a, 1998b, 1998c) found . . . but do not italicise and do not enclose in quotation marks. Past research (Thornlie & Winters, 2009a, 2009b) End-text example: Studies of patient satisfaction. End-text reference: Authors with the same surname Smith, J. (1998a). Title . . . (APA 6th, p. 176) Thornlie, S., & Winters, J. (2009a). Title . . . Multiple works by different authors cited in-text If the reference list includes publications by two or more (APA 6th, p. 178) primary authors with the same surname, include the first author’s initials in all in-text references, even if the year of You can discuss multiple works either within the same set publication differs. This helps avoid possible confusion for of parentheses or within the narrative. the reader. Examples: Within parentheses ( ) Authors as part of the text List the citations in alphabetical order by the first Example: author’s surname, as they would appear in the reference list, and use a semicolon to separate each citation J. King (1995) and C. King (1999) also found . . . In-text citation: Example: Several studies (Jones & Williams, 2009; Muller, 2010; K. A. Walker and Watson (1987) and P. L. Walker and Steiner et al., 2005) Jamieson (2000) state that . . . In-text citation: Authors in parentheses (round brackets) Studies of reading in childhood have produced mixed Example: results (Albright, Wayne, & Fortinbras, 2004; Gibson, 2011; Smith & Wexwood, 2010). Recent studies (K. A. Walker & Watson, 1987; P. l. Walker & Jamieson, 2000) Example: Within the body of the text (narrative): Mention studies in whatever order you wish In-text citation: Smith and Wexwood (2010) reported an increase in the number of books read, whereas Gibson (2011) reported a decrease. Albright, Wayne, and Fortinbras (2004) found no significant results. 8 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Chapter Author referred to by another author (APA 6th, p. 172, 179; Electronic References, p. 17) (APA 6th, p. 178,) Example: Where you have quoted an author referred to by the author In-text citation: whose work you actually read, the reference list will show A case in point . . . (Jamieson, 2000, Chapter 2). only the name and title of the work actually read. Use this Thompson argues . . . (2013, Chapter 3). type of reference sparingly. Verbunt, Pernot and Smeets (2008) found . . . (Discussion Example: section, para. 1). In-text citation: Electronic document, no pagination Beaty (cited in Gibbs, 1981, p. 73) asserts . . . (APA 6th, pp. 171, 172; Electronic References, p. 17) Example: For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, In-text citation: use the paragraph numbers, if they are visible, preceded In discussing the different approaches students take by the abbreviation ‘para’. toward their university study, Beaty cited in Gibbs (1981, Example: p. 73) claims: Students come to University with ideas of what it will In-text citation: be like and with aims of various stages of This suggests . . . (Clarkson, 2001, para. 2). development. Through interaction with others and Section and paragraph experience of the University and course they develop (APA 6th, pp. 171, 172; Electronic References, p. 17) a study strategy, tentative at first, which is consistent with their aims and self-identity. If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the Example: section heading and the number of the paragraph if it is useful. End-text reference: Gibbs, G. (1981). Teaching students to learn. Milton Example: Keynes, England: Open University Press. In-text citation: General consensus . . . (Butler, 2002, Conclusion section, No publication date available para. 1). (APA 6th, p. 180) Example: When a work has no publication date, cite in-text the In-text citation: author’s name, followed by a comma and ‘n.d.’ to indicate It was found that . . . (Jones & Avery, 2002, Results that the source has no date. section). Example: Personal communications In-text citation: (APA 6th, p. 179; Electronic References, p. 31) These strategies have been successfully used . . . (Browning, n.d.). Personal communications may be letters, memos, interviews, telephone conversations, lecture material from In-text citation: course management software such as Blackboard or Browning (n.d.) used a number of successful strategies electronic communications such as email or messages from non-archived discussion groups, or electronic bulletin Citing specific parts of a source boards. As personal communications are not recoverable, (chapter, pages, paragraphs etc.) they are not included in the reference list – they are cited (APA 6th, pp. 179, 200; Electronic References, pp. 14, 17) in-text only. You must provide the initials and surname of the communicator, as well as a date that is as exact as To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, possible. chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point Example: in the text. In-text citation: Page number A. S. Parkinson (personal communication, May 15, 2004) notes that . . . Examples: Example: In-text citations: This shows . . . (Davies & Johnson, 1999, p. 312). In-text citation: This is a commonly used technique within the therapeutic According to Gibbs (2009, pp. 34-35) . . . setting (T. W. Willis, personal communication, August 10, Note. The word “page” is abbreviated but not italicized. 2002). 9 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. End text references Interviews (APA 6th, p. 179: treat as personal communications) How references are constructed A remark quoted from a formal or informal conversation is (APA 6th, pp. 180-224; Electronic References, p. 2) acknowledged by an explanatory note following the In general, all APA style references are made up of four quotation. elements: Example:  Who: author’s name  When: date of publication In-text citation: (K. A. W. Crook, personal communication, April 18, 1971).  What: title of the work  Where: source information The same referencing style would apply when The four elements always appear in the same order: acknowledging a tape, a personal letter, or a transcript of a speech, or dialogue. These references are not included in Author, A. A. (year). Title. Source. the reference list. For traditional materials, these components are In transcribing conversation or dialogue it is customary to straightforward. However, especially in web-based mark the beginning of each speaker’s contribution by sources, the elements can be difficult to identify. starting it on a new line. Most publishers set conversation in single quotation marks, indented. Scripts, however, do Reference list format not use quotation marks for speech. (APA 6th, pp. 37, 49-51, 180-192, 193-215; Electronic When a speech that is quoted extends over more than one References, p. 2) paragraph, the quotation marks are repeated at the beginning of each paragraph, but the final quotation marks All in-text sources need to be recorded in full detail at the appear only at the end of the whole quotation – each end of the text in a reference list. At ECU, use single line individual paragraph is left open to indicate the continuity spacing within each reference, but use a double space of the quotation. between references in the list. (See “Sample reference list” Where one speaker quotes another, then the double and in Appendix F of this guide.) single quotation marks are alternated. Example: Example: End-text reference: “What did Sue tell John?” Moore, T. I. (1971). Social patterns in Australian literature. “She said, ‘Get lost’.” Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson. Note. If any part contains matter not quoted, the final Note. You must observe the rules governing layout, order period comes outside the quotation marks. of data, spacing, punctuation, italicising and capitalisation. Example: More than one item by the same author He replied, “She said, ‘Get lost’”. If more than one item by the same author is cited in-text, Note. In general, periods are not duplicated, except where the end-text references are listed chronologically. If more they are differently distinguished. than one of these references has the same date then use Example: lower case letters of the alphabet (a, b, c, etc.) to distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the end- Did he hear the Speaker call, “Order”? text reference list. He said, “Do you think I am mad?”. Example: End-text reference: Personal communications (APA 6th, p. 178) Personal communications are not included in the end-text references. In-text citation: (Jones, 1971, 1975a, 1975b) Studies by Jones (1971, 1975a, 1975b) End-text reference: Jones, T. T. (1971). Social patterns. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson. Jones, T. T. (1975a). Australian poetry. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson. Jones, T. T. (1975b). New Zealand poetry. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson. 10 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. A number in the name Group / Corporate author’s name (APA 6th, pp. 176-177) Example: Suffix following initials If you use the abbreviation or acronym of a corporate In-text citation: author’s name in the body of the text, do not include the (Roediger & Butler 2008) acronym in the end-text reference, unless it is an official End-text reference: part of the title. Roediger, H. L., III, & Butler, A. C. (2011). The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention. Trends in Examples: AIHW Cognitive Science, 15, 20-27. In-text citation: First mention In-text citation: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare AIHW, 2012) (Highfill & Kuzczaj, 2007) Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2012) End-text reference: In-text citation: Subsequent mentions Highfill, L. E., & Kuczaj, S. A., II. (2007). Do bottlenose (AIHW, 2012) dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have distinct and stable AIHW (2012) personalities? Acquatic Mammals, 33(3), 380-389. End-text reference: doi:10.1578/AM.33.3.2007.380 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2012). A picture Note. In the end-text, place a comma between an author’s of Australia’s children, 2012. Retrieved from http:// initials and a suffix such as Jr., III, Sr., and so on. www.aihw.gov.au/publication detail/?id=10737423343 Example: Suffix following surname Group or Corporate author as publisher In-text citation: (APA 6th, p. 205) (Bjork, 1989) The author may be a corporation, an institution or a End-text reference: government agency. When the group author and publisher Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive are the same, use the word ‘Author’ as the name of the mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III & publisher. F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Example: Note In the end-text, do not place a comma between a End-text reference: surname and a suffix such as Jr, III, Sr, and so on. American Psychological Association. (2007). APA style guide to electronic references. Washington, DC: A number in the name & chapter in an edited Author. book Authors with ‘Jr.’ or ‘numbers’ Example: (See APA 6th, pp. 184, 204; Electronic References, p. 18; End-text reference: APA Style Blog, “Jr., Sr., and Other Suffixes”) King, D. (n.d.).The devil is in the detail: Referencing pitfalls. In I. C. Wright III & U. R. Smart (Eds.), The Quick summary vagaries of style (pp. 105-112). Perth, Australia: "Jr.," “III,” or other suffixes are not included with in-text Fantasy Press. citations, but they are included in the reference list entries. Note. There is no comma separating a surname and suffix. ‘Junior’ in the name Example: Book with edition Different types of referencing sources In-text citation: Do not include Jr. or numbers There are a wide variety of sources in various formats that (Mitchell & Larson, 1987) you may need to quote or acknowledge. This may require you to vary the standard form of the reference. Below are End-text reference: Use commas to separate initials and several examples of common referencing types. suffixes Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in Journals/articles organizations: An introduction to organizational (APA 6th, pp. 198-202; Electronic References, pp. 11-14) behavior (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill. General form of end-text reference Periodicals are published on a regular basis such as Note. For in-text citations use surnames only. Do not journals, magazines, newspapers, and newsletters. The include Jr. or numbers. title of an article is not italicised and is written in sentence case. This means that only the first word of the title, subtitle and proper nouns are capitalised. However, the title of the journals or newspapers that the article is found in are italicised and written in title case which means that the main words are capitalised. 11 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Journal article without a DOI (Print) Journal article with three to five authors (APA 6th, pp. 198-202; Electronic References, pp. 11-14) Example: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date). Title of First in-text citation: article. Title of Journal, xx(x), pp-pp. (Ganster, Mayes, Sime, & Tharp, 1982) Ganster, Mayes, Sime, and Tharp (1982) Roberts, B. W., & Mroczek, D. (2008). Personality trait change in adulthood. Current Directions in Subsequent in-text citations: Psychological Science, 17(1), 31-35. (Ganster et al., 1982) Journal article with a DOI (Print or Online) End-text reference: (APA 6th, pp. 187-192; Electronic References, pp. 5-12) Ganster, D. C., Mayes, B. T., Sime, W. E., & Tharp, G. D. (1982). Managing organizational stress: A field Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date). Title of experiment. Applied Psychology, 67(5), 533-542. article. Title of Journal, xx(x), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Journal article with six authors Brown, G. L., Manglesdorf, S. C., & Neff, C. (2012). Father Note. The rules for in-text citations for six or more authors involvement, paternal sensitivity, and father-child differ from those for end-text referencing. attachment security in the first 3 years. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(3), 421-430. doi:10.1037/ In the in-text reference, use the first author, followed by ‘et a0027836 al.’ In the end-text reference, all six authors must appear. Example: Journal article with one author In-text citation: Example: (Kernis et al., 1993) In-text citation: End-text reference: (Giroux, 2000) Giroux (2000) Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There’s more to self-esteem End-text reference: than whether it is high or low: The importance of Giroux, H. (2000). Public pedagogy as cultural politics: stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Stuart Hall and the ‘crisis’ of culture. Cultural Studies, Social Psychology, 65(6), 1190-1240. doi:10.1037/ 14(2), 341-360. 0022-3514.65.6.1190 Note. The volume number is italicised, but not the issue. Example: Journal article with two authors In-text citation: (APA 6th, pp. 174, 177) (AI-Awadi et al., 1986) If a work has two authors, include both names in-text every End-text reference: time the citation is mentioned. AI-Awadi, S. A., Naguib, K. K., Moussa, M. A., Farage, T. When both the name and the year are in parentheses, I., Teebi, A. S., & El-Khalifa, M. Y. (1986). The effect include the year in subsequent citations within the of consanguineous marriages on reproductive paragraph. wastage. Clinical Genetics, 29(5), 384-388. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.1986.tb00509.x Example: In parentheses Journal article with seven authors First in-text citation: (Lock & Jongeling, 1994) Note. With two to seven authors, use an ampersand (&) Subsequent in-text citations: before the last author in the end-text reference. (Lock & Jongeling, 1994) If there are seven authors, use the first author followed by Example: In the narrative ‘et al.’ in- text, and include all seven authors in the end- First in-text citation: text reference. Lock and Jongeling (1994) Example: Subsequent in-text citations: In-text citation: Lock and Jongeling . . . (Berry et al., 1999) Note. Within the narrative, you need not include the date in End-text reference: subsequent mentions, as long as this does not give rise to Berry, N., Charmeil, C., Goujon, C., Silvy, A., Girard, P., confusion. Corcuff, C., & Montastier, C. (1999). A clinical, biometrological and ultrastructural study of xerotic End-text reference: skin. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 21(4), Lock, G., & Jongeling, S. (1994). Maximising return rates in 241–252. doi:10.1046/j.1467-2494.1999.196570.x school based research. Issues in Educational Research, 4(2), 109-115. Note. With two to seven authors, use an ampersand (&) before the last author in the end-text reference. 12 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Journal article with eight or more authors Article or lecture published independently (APA 6th, pp. 189, 198-199; Electronic References, p. 12) (APA 6th, pp. 212-213; Electronic References, pp. 30-31) If there are eight or more authors, include the first six Example: authors, followed by an ellipsis (. . .) then the last author’s In-text citation: name. (Brieger, 2006). End-text reference: Note. There is a space before and after each of the three Brieger, W. (2006). Lecture 2: Approaches to training and dot points in the ellipsis. learning PowerPoint slides. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Example: OpenCourseWare website: http://ocw.jhsph.edu/cours In-text citation: es/trainingmethodscontinuingeducation/PDFs/Lecture2 (White et al., 2008) .pdf End-text reference: Books, brochures and book chapters White, K. M., Robinson, N. G., Young, R. M., Anderson, P. J., Hyde, M. K., Greenbank, S., . . . Baskerville, D. General form of end-text reference (2008). Testing an extended theory of planned (APA 6th, pp. 198, 202; Electronic References, pp.15-18) behaviour to predict young people's sun safety in a Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of book. high risk area. British Journal of Health Psychology, Location: Publisher. 13(3), 435-448. doi:10.1348/135910707X210004 Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of chapter. In A. Magazine article Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (th ed., pp. (APA 6th, p. 200; Electronic References pp. 13-14) xx-xx). Location: Publisher. Give specific date of publication in addition to volume Publication details (city and publisher) number (if available). (APA 6th, p. 187) Example: For books, reports and non-periodical material published In-text citation: within the United States, follow the name of the city with (Kandel & Squire, 2000) the two official US postal service abbreviations. For all other publications, follow the name of the city with the End-text reference: name of the country. End with the name of the publisher. Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the Note. If the author and publisher are the same, write study of brain and mind. Science, 290(5494), 1113- ‘Author’ as the name of the publisher. 1120. Publication details: U.S. Newspaper article (APA 6th, pp. 186-187) (APA 6th, p. 200; Electronic References, p. 14) Examples: If the article has no author, list the article alphabetically New York, NY: Harper & Row. using first significant word in the title (i.e., omit ‘A’, ‘The’, or ‘An’) and use a short title for in-text citation placed in Washington, DC: Author. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. quotation marks. In the end-text reference, use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ to refer to the source page(s). Publication details: Outside the U.S. Example: Author (APA 6th, p. 187) Examples: In-text citation: (Aisbett, 1995). London, England: Wildwood House. Melbourne, Australia: Puffin. End-text reference: Cambridge, England: Author. Aisbett, N. (1995, January 7). Secret war still baffles veteran. The West Australian, pp. 14-15. Book with one author (APA 6th, p. 174, 204) Note. In the end-text reference, use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ only for newspaper articles not journal articles. Example: In-text citations: Example: No author (Moore, 1971) In-text citation: Moore (1971) (“R-movies,” 1995) In his 1971 book, Moore focuses on social patterns which occur in Australian literature raising the question that . . . End-text reference: R-movies rated as abuse. (1995, January 7). The West End-text reference: Australian, p. 5. Moore, T. I. (1971). Social patterns in Australian literature. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson. Note. The quotation mark goes after the comma in the in- text citation. 13 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Example: Book with one author (continued) Book with eight or more authors (APA 6th, pp.175, 177, 184, 198, Electronic References, p. In-text citations: 12) (Sacks, 1985) Sacks (1985) states that …. If a work has eight or more authors, cite the surname of the End-text reference: first author followed by et al. and the year of publication for Sacks, O. (1985).The man who mistook his wife for a hat all in-text citations. For end-text reference, include the first and other clinical tales. New York, NY: Harper & Row. six authors, followed by an ellipsis (3 dot points . . . with a space before and after each dot) followed by the last Book with two authors author’s name. (APA 6th, p. 175) Example: If a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text and include both names in the In-text citation: end-text reference. (Loxey et al., 2004). Example: End-text reference: Loxey, W., Toumbourou, J. W., Stockwell, T., Haines, B., In-text citations: Scott, K., Godfrey, C., . . . Williams, J. (2004). The (Lincoln & Guba, 1971) prevention of substance use, risk and harm in As Lincoln and Guba (1971) discuss … Australia: A review of the evidence. Canberra, End-text reference: Australia: Department of Health and Ageing. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Edited book Newbury Park, CA: Sage. (APA 6th, p. 184) Book with three to five authors th Place the editor or editors’ names in the author position, (APA 6 , pp. 175, 184) and enclose abbreviation Ed. or Eds. in round brackets If a work has three, four or five authors, cite all authors the after the last editor’s name. first time the reference occurs in-text and in subsequent Example: citations, only include the surname of the first author followed by et al. Include all names in the end-text In-text citation: reference. (Robinson, 1992) Example: End-text references: Robinson, D. N. (Ed.). (1992). Social discourse and moral In-text citation: First mention judgment. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. (Quinlan, Bohle, & Lamm, 2010). Example: Quinlan, Bohle, and Lamm (2010) stated that… In-text citation: In-text citation: Subsequent mention (Headon, Hooton, & Horne, 1992) (Quinlan et al., 2010). Example: Quinlan et al. (2010) stated that… End-text citation: End-text reference: Headon, D., Hooton, J., & Horne, D. (Eds.). (1995). The Quinlan, M., Bohle, P., & Lamm, F. (2010). Managing abundant culture: Meaning and significance in occupational health and safety: A multidisciplinary everyday Australia. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. approach (3rd ed.). South Yarra, Australia: Palgrave No date, classical work, or date uncertain Macmillan. No publication date Book with six or seven authors (APA 6th, p. 185) (APA 6th, pp. 175, 184) Substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author. For all in-text citations, if a work has six or seven authors, Example: No date cite only the surname of the first author, followed by et al. and the year of publication. Include all names in the end- In-text citation: text reference. (Southey, n.d.) Example: End-text reference: Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. London, England: In-text citation: Blackie. (Hoffnung et al., 2013) Classical work End-text reference: (APA 6th, p. 178) Hoffnung, M., Hoffnung, R. J., Seifert, K. L., Burton Smith, Cite the year of the translation or version you used. R., Hine, A., Ward, L., & Pause, C. (2013). Lifespan Example: Classical work, translation development: A chronological approach (2nd Australasian ed.). Milton, Australia: Wiley. In-text citation: (Plato, trans. 1947) 14 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Example: Classical work, version No-author: Source that is part of a greater whole (APA 6th, pp. 176, 200) In-text citation: An article, a chapter, a web page, a television episode, (Bunyan, version 1969) webisode, tweet, Facebook and so on. Example: Classical work, known original publication date In-text: Add original publication date before the translation/version  Use double quotation marks around the title that is date, if it is known. part of a larger work In-text citation:  Use title case: That is, capitalise all the main words (Bunyan, 1684/1969)  Do not italicize Example 3: Newsletter article, no author Republished book (See APA 6th, p. 200; Electronic References, pp. 14) (APA 6th, p. 203; Electronic References, p.17, APA style Blog, “Republished Book”) In-text citation: (“Six Sites Meet,” 2006) In-text citation: (Lewin, 1941/1999) End-text reference: Six sites meet for comprehensive anti-gang initiative End-text reference: conference. (2006, November/December). OJJDP Lewin, K. (1999). Personal adjustment and group News a Glance. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs belongingness. In M. Gold (Ed.), A Kurt Lewin reader: .gov/html/ojjdp/news_at_glance/216684/topstory.html The complete social scientist (pp. 327–332). Washington, DC: American Psychological Book whose title includes the title of another Association. (Original work published 1941) work No author Distinguish the included title by double quotation marks. (See APA 6th, pp. 176, 200; Electronic References, pp. 14, Example: 32; APA Style Blog, “How to Capitalize and Format Reference Titles in APA Style.”) In-text citation: When a work has no identified author, the title, or an (Whitley, 1970) abbreviated form of the title, is used. End-text reference: In-text citation: General rules Whitley, J. S. (1970). Golding: “Lord of the flies.” London, Within the text use the first few words of the title, or all of England: Edward Arnold. the title if it is short, and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web Book with foreign title page, but do not italicize. For a book, periodical, brochure, (APA 6th, pp. 199, 204-205) or report, do italicise the title, but do not use quotation marks. If you have used a non-English language reference, cite the original title and give the English translation in square End-text reference: General rules brackets after the original title. If you have used the English (Electronic References, p. 16) translation you only cite the English version. Use the full title in place of the author, followed by the date. The reference is listed alphabetically by the first significant Example: word of the title. In-text citation: No-author: Stand-alone source (Traversa, 1981) (APA 6th, pp. 101, 176) End-text reference: Books, periodicals, journals, reports (technical, Traversa, V. P. (1981). Parola e pensiero: Introduzionealla government . . . ) magazines, brochures etc. lingua Italiana moderna Word and thought: An In-text: Use italics and title case. Do not use quotation introduction to modern Italian language (3rd ed.). marks around the title New York, NY: Harper & Row. Example: Dictionary, no author Editor or translator named in addition to author In-text citation: Italicise and title case (APA 6th, p. 204) … (The Penguin Pocket English Dictionary, 1968, p. 89) Name the translator or editor only in the end-text End-text reference: Italicise and sentence case reference, immediately following the title. In the case of The Penguin pocket English dictionary (2nd ed.). (1987). translated works, cite the title in its translated form, not in London, England: Penguin Books. its original form. Example: Book, no author Example: In-text citation: Italicise and title case In-text citation: . . . (The Bluebook, 2005, p. 89) (Genet, 1966, p. 61) End-text reference: Italicise and sentence case End-text reference: The bluebook: A uniform system of citation (18th ed.). Genet, J. (1966). The balcony (2nd ed.). (B. Frechtman, (2005). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review Trans.). London, England: Faber. Association. 15 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Example: Entry in an encyclopedia, two editors Book chapter or article in an encyclopedia In-text citation: (APA 6th, pp.180, 202, 203; Electronic References, pp. 16- (Pulkkinen, 2001) 18) End-text reference: If there are no page numbers, the chapter or entry title is Pulkkinen, L. (2001). Antisocial behavior in childhood and sufficient. adolescence. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of International encyclopedia of social the & behavioral chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of sciences. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect. reference work (pp. xx–xx). Location: Publisher. com/science/referenceworks/9780080430768 Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of Note. If there are no page numbers, the chapter or entry chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), title is sufficient. Title of book (pp. xx–xx). doi.org/xxxxx Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-DSM-5 Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of (See also APA 6th, p. 93; Electronic References, p. 18; chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, & C. C. APA Style Blog) Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). Retrieved from http://xxxxx Example: DSM-5 (Entire book) Chapter in an edited book with one editor There is no DOI for the entire DSM-5; individual chapters (APA 6th, pp. 180, 184, 204) and other sections have their own DOIs. Use the word ‘In’ before the name of the editors. Use In-text citation: editor’s initials before surname and indicate pages by ‘p.’ (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) or ‘pp.’ End-text reference: Example: American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). In-text citation: Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. (Kiernan, 1976, p. 462) End-text reference: Example: DSM-5 (Online: Each section has a DOI) Kiernan, B. (1976). The novels of Patrick White. In G. In-text citation: Dutton (Ed.), The literature of Australia (Rev. ed., pp. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) 461-484). Ringwood, Australia: Penguin. End-text reference: Chapter in a book with two or more editors American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary Use ampersand (&) to connect the name of the last editor. statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Example: doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.744053 In-text citation: (Mandler, 1993, p. 41) DSM–5 This reference work has a common abbreviation (DSM–5). End-text reference: To introduce this acronym in your narrative, use the Mandler, G. (1993). Thought, memory, and learning: following format: Effects of emotional stress. In L. Goldberger & S. Bregnitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and Example: In-text: First mention: introduce the acronym clinical aspects (2nd ed., pp. 40-55). New York, NY: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The Free Press. (5th ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) Reference works does not provide treatment guidelines for any given disorders. Entry in an encyclopedia Example: In-text: Subsequent mentions (use DSM-5) Example: Entry in an encyclopedia, no editors The DSM-5 is intended to be used by clinical, or In-text citation: appropriately qualified medical professionals. (American (Robinson, 1994) Psychiatric Association, 2013) End-text reference: Robinson, A. (1994). The principles of genetics and Dictionary (APA 6th, p. 204) heredity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 19, pp. 699-740). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica. Example: Editor Example: Entry in an encyclopedia, one editor In-text citation: (VandenBos, 2007) In-text citation: (Purcell, 2010) End-text: VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of End-text reference: psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Purcell, L. (2010). Abdominal injuries. In L. J. Micheli (Ed.), Association. Encyclopedia of sports medicine (pp. 2-4). doi:10.413 5/9781412961165.n1 16 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Example: No author or editor Play (see APA 6th, pp. 79, 256) Treat plays like books. In-text: Example: (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2005) In-text citation: End-text: (Wedekind, 2007) Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2005). End-text reference: Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Wedekind, F. (2007). Spring awakening. (J. Franzen, Example: Entry in an online dictionary Trans.). New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. (See APA 6th, p. 205) Poem In-text citation: (Electronic References, p. 18) Place the title of the poem in double quotation marks. (“Ontology,” n.d.) Example: End-text reference: In-text citation Ontology. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam- “Macavity” (Eliot, 1939) webster.com/dictionary/ontology “He always has an alibi, and one or two to spare.” (“Macavity,” Eliot, 1939). Brochure/Fact sheet/Template End-text reference: Eliot, T. S. (1962). “Macavity.” In T.S. Eliot, Old Possum’s Treat brochures, fact sheets, templates etc. like books. book of practical cats (pp. 41-42). London, England: As with any reference list entry, the four elements you’ll Faber. need are the author, the date, the title and the source. Indicate the type of publication in square brackets after Note. For a more accurate reference to plays and poetry the title, unless the publication type is included in the title. use the following forms: Note. When the publisher is the same as the author, write Examples: ‘Author’ as the name of the publisher. “The Lady of Shallot,” verse 3, lines 1-3. Brochure “Julius Caesar,” act 2, scene 1, line 21. Example: Edith Cowan University as author Music scores End-text reference: Example: Edith Cowan University. (n.d.). The joint achievement project Brochure. Perth, Australia: Author. End-text reference: Sibelius, J. (2001). Concerto in D minor, op. 47 Score. Fact sheet New York, NY: International Music Co. Example: “Fact sheet” not included in the title Music liner notes End-text reference: Florek, S. (2003). Megafauna extinction: Patterns of If you wish to refer to the liner notes rather than a extinction Fact sheet. Retrieved from recording then use the following form. http://www.austmus.gov.au/factsheets/megafauna.htm Example: Example: “Fact sheet” included in the title In-text citation: End-text reference: (Obiera, 1998) Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. (2011). End-text reference: FOI fact sheet 3: What information does the Obiera, P. (1998.) Lyricism and exotic colour. In The pearl government hold? Retrieved from fishers CD liner notes. Germany: Philips Classics. http://www.oaic.gov.au/freedom-of-information/foi- resources/freedom-of-information-fact-sheets/foi-fact- Note. Use country of origin if city is not known sheet-3-what-information-held Note. If the liner notes do not have a title, add a one or Example: “Template” not included in the title two word description and place this in square brackets to End-text reference: indicate that the material is a description not a title itself. Microsoft Office. (n.d.). Infant feeding log Template. Example: Retrieved from http://office.microsoft.com/en- us/templates/infant-feeding-log-TC010217886.aspx In-text citation: (Kimball, 1979) Example: “Template” included in the title End-text reference: End-text reference: Kimball, R. (1979). Synopsis. In Sweeney Todd: The The Student Nurse Forum. (n.d.). Care plan template. demon barber of Fleet Street: A musical thriller CD Retrieved from http://kcsun3.tripod.com/id225.htm liner notes. New York, NY: RCA. 17 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide. Example: Video Audiovisual media (APA 6th, p. 209-210; Electronic References, pp. 24-28) In-text citation: (Decisions, Decisions, 1976) Audiovisual media include motion pictures; audio or television broadcasts, including podcasts; and static End-text reference: objects such as maps, artwork, or photos. Decisions, decisions: How to reach them, how to make them happen Video. (1976). London, England: Video List the primary contributors in the author position and use Arts. parentheses to identify their contribution, if you know it. Example: Film or motion picture In-text citation: Note. For an episode from a television or radio series, use (Early Mathematical Experiences, 1976) the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director in the author position and the End-text reference: producer in the editor position. Early mathematical experiences Film. (1976). State of Note: For location details, if the city is not known, use play series, 7. London, England: BBC. country of origin. Music recording Electronic media General information General form for end-text referencing: (APA 6th, pp. 187-189; Electronic References, pp. 1-10) Writer, A. (Copyright year).Title of song Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer. On Title of album Where possible, reference articles from the PDF or print Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.. version of the journal. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from When including a reference, you need to provide readers copyright date.) with the details that will enable them to locate the information used. Texts on the Internet may challenge this Example: No author expectation as some texts can be accessed by many In-text citation: people and easily changed, often without knowledge of “Over the waterfall” (Shocked, 1992, track 5) who the author(s) is/are. An end-text reference for an Internet text includes: End-text reference: • Who: author (where possible) Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On Arkansas • When: date (publication date, update date, or date traveler CD. United States: PolyGram Music. accessed) Video recording / film / motion picture • What: title (or description of the text) • Where: DOI (Digital Object Identifier): or URL General form for end-text referencing: NOTE: if a DOI is unavailable, include a web address: Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture Motion picture. Country URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of origin: studio Where there is a tendency to update information on the Example: Internet (e. g., Wikis), the retrieval date will give the reader In-text citation: the actual date on which the document was accessed. (Williams & Bell, 1998) Later versions of the document (if still available) may not End-text reference: be the same. (APA 6th, p. 192.) Williams, S. (Producer), & Bell, A. J. W. (Director). (1998). Note. No retrieval date is necessary for content that is Lost for words Video. UK: Yorkshire Television. unlikely to be changed or updated (e.g., journal articles, or Example: books). In-text citation: Digital Object Identifier (DOI) (Deeley, York, & Scott, 1984) (APA 6th, pp. 187-191; Electronic References, pp. 5-10) End-text reference: Deeley, M., & York, B. (Producers), & Scott, R. (Director). The DOI is now the preferred electronic retrieval format. (1984). Bladerunner Motion picture. United States: No further information is needed to identify the document. Warner Brothers. Some publishers assign a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to Video recording / film / motion picture (no author) digital documents. The DOI, is a unique code which (APA 6th, pp. 209-210; Electronic References, p. 26) identifies that document with a permanent link to its When audiovisual materials have no named author; use an location on the internet. The DOI began as an inactive abbreviated form of the title in both in-text and end-text alphanumeric string, but has been updated to a URL which references. provides an active link to the document. Either DOI format is acceptable. There is no full stop after the DOI. The end-text reference should contain a description of the medium and include the roles of the various participants involved in the production (e.g., director, producer) if this Note. Use the DOI format on the source material. It is information is available. safest to copy and paste the DOI into your reference. 18 All printed copies are uncontrolled. For the latest version of this document, always check the online version of the ECU Referencing Guide.

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