How to do MLA citation for an Article

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MLA Handbook - Eighth Edition Citation Guide The recommendations in this guide are based on the 8th edition (2016) of the MLA Handbook. For more in-depth explanation of formatting and preparing works cited lists, please consult the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, available at the Library Reference Desk, or the MLA Style Center, style.mla.org. Page Layout (https://style.mla.org/formatting-papers) Running head Font and Spacing Smith 1 1 Betty Smith Professor Green English 579 5 November 2009 1/2” Indent 1 A Study of Female Characters in Young Adult Fiction Paper Title In studying the history and progression of female characters in young adult fiction novels a few trends become apparent. The archetype of the strong female lead has all but disappeared in recent years. One example of this trend is the characterization of the female lead in the Twilight Saga. First Page of a Research Paper 1 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library 1 1 1FORMATTING Italicized Titles (MLA 25-31, 68-71) Italicize the names of books, plays, poems published as books, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), web sites, online databases, films, television and radio broadcasts, compact discs, audiocassettes, record albums, dance performances, operas and other long musical compositions (except those identified simply by form, number, and key), works of visual art, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. Titles in Quotation Marks (MLA 25-31,68-71) Use quotation marks for the titles of articles, essays, stories, and poems published within larger works or “containers”, such as chapters of books, pages in Web sites, individual episodes of television and radio broadcasts, and short musical compositions (e.g., songs). Also use quotation marks for unpublished works, such as lectures and speeches. Italicize a title normally indicated by italics when it appears within a title enclosed in quotation marks. Parenthetical Documentation (MLA 54-58, 116-124) Whenever you directly cite or paraphrase anyone else’s words or ideas insert a brief parenthetical reference in your paper. Use the author’s last name and the page number of the reference to identify the source and location of the citation. The third book in the series starts out where the second left off. Bella states, “With ice in my heart, I watched him prepare to defend me” (Meyer 1). The parenthetical reference (Meyer 1) indicates that the quotation comes from page 1 of a work by Meyer. The author’s last name will lead the reader to the full publication information in the alphabetically arranged list of works cited. 2 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library FORMATTING Quotations (MLA 55, 75-91) If a quotation runs no more than four lines and requires no special emphasis, put it in quotation marks and incorporate it into the text. If the author’s name is given in the text or as a lead-in to the quotation, then include only the page number. If a quotation ends a sentence, place the sentence period after the reference. Meyer describes Bella’s feelings, “With ice in my heart, I watched him prepare to defend me” (1). Without an introductory phrase, the author and page are placed together. The third book in the series starts out where the second left off. Bella states, “With ice in my heart, I watched him prepare to defend me” (Meyer 1). If a quotation extends to more than four lines when run into the text, set it off from your text by beginning a new line, indenting half an inch from the left margin, and typing it double-spaced, without adding quotation marks. A colon generally introduces a quotation displayed this way. 1/2” Indent 1 At the conclusion of Meyer’s Eclipse, Jacob receives a letter: It was some heavy, stiff paper. Expensive. Too fancy for Forks. The card inside was the same, too done-up and formal. Bella’d had nothing to do with this. There was no sign of her personal taste in the layers of see-through, petal-printed pages. I’d bet she didn’t like it at all. I didn’t read the words, not even to see the date. I didn’t care. There was a piece of the thick ivory paper folded in half with my name handwritten in black ink on the back. I didn’t recognize the handwriting, but it was as fancy as the rest of it. (627) Indented Quotations 3 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library FORMATTING Shortened Quotes (MLA 80-86) Whenever you wish to omit a word, a phrase, a sentence, or more from a quoted passage, use ellipsis points, or three spaced periods with a space before each and a space after the last, to indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original. Meyer describes Bella’s feelings, “With ice in my heart, I watched him prepare to defend me … I knew that we could expect no help—at this moment, his family was fighting for their lives just as surely as he was for ours” (1). 4 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library FORMATTING Works Cited List (style.mla.org/formatting-papers) The list of works cited appears at the end of the paper on a new page and continues the page numbering of the text. • Center the title, Works Cited, an inch from the top of the page. • Double-space between the title and the first entry. • Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines one- half inch from the left margin (“hanging indentation”). • Double space the entire list, both between and within entries. Arrangement of Entries (MLA 111-115) • Entries in a works-cited list are arranged in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. • If two or more entries citing coauthors begin with the same name, alphabetize by the last names of the second authors listed. • If the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any initial A, An, or The or the equivalent in another language. Example of a Works Cited List Smith 15 1 Works Cited Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. Scholastic P., 2008. Meyer, Stephanie. Eclipse. 1st ed., Little, Brown, 2007. Double-space between title and first entry and within and between entries. 5 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library 1 1CITATION - Books Book Citation - General Format Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication. Book by a Single Author (MLA 20-25) Meyer, Stephanie. Eclipse. 1st ed., Little, Brown, 2007. The third book in the series starts out where the second left off. Bella states, “With ice in my heart, I watched him prepare to defend me” (Meyer 1). Two or More Books by the Same Author (MLA 113) To cite two or more works by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. In all following entries, place three hyphens in place of the name. Meyer, Stephanie. Eclipse. 1st ed., Little, Brown, 2007. - - - . Breaking Dawn. 1st ed., Little, Brown, 2008. Include a shortened title for the work you are referencing. (MLA 117) The third book in the series starts out where the second left off. Bella states, “With ice in my heart, I watched him prepare to defend me” (Meyer Eclipse 1). 6 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library CITATION - Books Book by Two Authors (MLA 21) If there are two authors, list the authors according to the order of the names on the title page. Reverse only the name of the first author, add a comma, and give the other name or names in normal form. Howe, Deborah, and James Howe. Bunnicula: A Rabbit Tale of Mystery. Anthem, 1979. See MLA 116 “Chester and I were unable to continue our conversation because a deafening crash commanded our attention” (Howe and Howe 10). Book by Three or More Authors (MLA 21-22, 116) If there are three or more authors, you may name only the first and add et al. (“and others”). Gagliano, Andrew, et al. How to Build an Elevator. Construction P., 2009 Elevator installation is an involved and dangerous project that requires the knowledge of skilled, trained mechanics (Gagliano et al. 26). 7 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library CITATION - Books A Work in an Anthology or Collection (MLA 30-42) Use this example for citing an essay in an anthology or edited collection as well as a chapter in a book Wagner, Leo. “How to Sell Tools.” Translated by Sarah Wagner. Sales: A Collection of Best Practices, edited by Ellen Lois, Westosha P., 2002, pp. 102-122. An Article in a Reference Book (MLA 30-39) “Vampire.” Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed., 2003. Allen, Anita L. “Abortion.” Encyclopedia of Bioethics, edited by Stephen G. Post. 3rd ed., vol. 1, Macmillan-Thomson, 2004. An Introduction, a Preface, a Foreward, or an Afterward (MLA 105-107) Sevick, Gina. Foreward. Surviving the College Experience, by Margaret Wagner, edited by Thomas Smith, College P., 1999, pp. xv-xvi. 8 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library CITATION - Books An Anonymous Book (MLA 115, 117-118) If a book has no author’s or editor’s name on the title page, begin the entry with the title. Alphabetize the entry by the title, ignoring any initial A, An, or The. Basic History of Immigration. Migration P., 2009. In a parenthetical reference to a work alphabetized by title in the lsit of works cited, abbreviate the title to its initial noun phrase. In this example, the full title, Basic History of Immigration, is abbreviated as Basic History. The development of nativist sentiment and the restrictive immigration laws that followed in the 19th century tell a complex story steeped in the fear of the unknown (Basic History 15). A Translation (MLA 37) Rover, Charles. Orange Shoes. Translated by Greg Spice, Color P., 2003. Edition Other Than First (MLA 38) Gato, Grace. How to Tie Your Shoes. 3rd ed., Footwear P., 2005. 9 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library CITATION - Books Published Dissertation (style.mla.org/2016/07/07/citing-dissertations) Stone, Charles. Creating a Learning Environment. 2000. U of Wisconsin, PhD dissertation. If the dissertation was accessed through an online repository, add the repository provider name and the URL of the dissertation. Stone, Charles. Creating a Learning Environment. 2000. U of Wisconsin, PhD dissertation. ProQuest, search.proquest.com/docview/xxxxxxx?accountid=xxxx. 10 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library CITATION - Print Periodicals Print Periodical Citation - General Format Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, season or month, Year: pp. x-xx. Multiple Authors An Article in a Magazine (MLA 39-40) Craven, Chris. “Vampires, Vampires, Vampires.” Vampire Magazine, vol. 24, no. 1, Jan. 2003, pp. 24-34. An Article in a Newspaper (MLA 42-45) Use the date as it appears in the publication you cited (print and online). Trost, Kevin. “Creating Something Out of Nothing.” The New York Times, 16 July 2008, p. C2. If the city name does not appear in the newspaper name, place the city of publication in brackets after the name (MLA 111). Trost, Kevin. “Creating Something Out of Nothing.” The Star-Ledger Newark 16 July 2008, p. C2. 11 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library CITATION - Print Periodicals An Anonymous Article (MLA 24) If no author’s name is given for the article you are citing, begin the entry with the title. Ignore any initial A, An, or The when you alphabetize the entry. “Children in the 21st Century.” Parents Weekly, 26 Feb. 2008, pp. 2-14. An Article in a Scholarly Journal (MLA 21-50) Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol x, no x, year, pp. xx-xx. Crate, Brice. “Queer Theory in English Literature.” Queer Theory Quarterly, vol. 16, no.1, 2008, pp. 134- 164. If you found the article in a database, see “Article in a Online Database” below. 12 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library CITATION - Electronic Resources Web Site Entire Web Site Author(s). Name of Site. Name of sponsor or publisher, date of publication, URL. • When citing a website, do not include http:// • If you cannot find some of the information, cite what is available. • If the author is unknown, put the name of the article or the name of the web site in the author position. • A website whose title is essentially the same as the name of its publisher may omit the publisher name. • If the publication date is unknown, substitute the publication date with the date the site was accessed. • DOIs and permalinks, when available, are preferred over URLs. • For in-text citations, use the first item that appears in the Works Cited entry that corresponds to the citation. Most often, this will be the author or name of the site. Caldwell, James. Paper Airplanes. 21 Aug. 2007, paperairplanes.com. Page or article from a web site Marks, Craig. “How to Build Paper Airplanes.” Paper Airplanes. 21 Aug. 2007, paperairplanes.com/buildingplanes.html. If the document does not have page or paragraph numbers do not include them in the parenthetical citation. Do not include URL’s in text. In “How to Build Paper Airplanes” Marks argues that making paper airplanes can be therapeutic. Some argue that making paper airplanes can be therapeutic (Marks). 13 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library CITATION - Electronic Resources Article in an Online Database (MLA 32) Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, volume, issue, year, pages. Title of the Database, URL or DOI. Crate, Brice. “Queer Theory in English Literature.” Queer Theory Quarterly, vol.16, no. 1, 2008, pp. 134- 164. Academic Search Complete, doi:xx.xxx/abc.xxxx.xxxx 14 MLA 8th ed. Citation Guide. 9-2016 Cardinal Stritch University Library