How to format and style Dissertation

Style guide for undergraduate & postgraduate essay & dissertation submission and how to format dissertation in word | free pdf download
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Style guide for undergraduate & postgraduate essay & dissertation submission Department of History, King’s College LondonIntroduction When we read historical articles or books, it is of course in footnotes or ‘author date’ references (e.g. Thompson, the case that the originality of argument and persuasive use 2006, p. 15), sometimes in the main text. The different of evidence are important criteria for assessing quality. But ways in which evidence is invoked in different disciplines it would be wrong to ignore the importance also of good mean that some systems suit some sorts of writing more style and presentation. Part of this is a matter of writing than others (for example, historians are much more likely effectively – that is, ensuring that grammar and sentence than, say, sociologists to want to refer to unique manuscript structure are correct, spelling is as good as it can be, and documents preserved in archives; scientists are less likely that there are no typographical or editing glitches left in the than humanities scholars to reference books, and so on). final version (it is striking how often this is not the case, even But it is important that someone reading articles in a single in books from reputable publishers). It is also important to journal should not have to learn a different system for each try to write well – varying sentence length and structure, piece. The same is true in a department. The rules set out 1 paragraphing effectively and employing a good vocabulary. below for the presentation of work submitted for assessment In comparison, matters of presentation in terms of in the Department of History are not the only approach we formatting of page and text may seem comparatively trivial. could have adopted, but they represent a deliberate choice But they are not. The aim of any writer is to communicate designed to best accommodate the types of writing you will meaning as immediately and effectively to the reader as be required to submit for assessment. Moreover, in a system they can. Poor presentation can form a significant obstacle where students can be penalised for writing essays which to communication. Get it right, and your reader will exceed a prescribed word limit, it is necessary to insist on appreciate what you want to say readily and thank you a shared referencing system to ensure parity: depending for it; get it wrong, and they will resent the time wasted in on the choice of referencing system made by an individual, trying to find their way round your text. a student could otherwise acquire or lose several hundred Acquiring good habits in such matters is a very valuable words with which to make their argument in the main text. transferable skill which you can take away from a history We therefore expect you to abide by these rules from degree to a wide range of potential careers which involve the outset of your student career, and work which departs the production of written material: it is also a core skill for significantly from them may be penalised accordingly. 2 an apprentice historian. The Department of History therefore We strongly recommend that you download this style guide as attaches considerable significance to matters of presentation , a ready reference guide to keep near you as you produce work, and from the moment you begin your degree studies seeks whether for formative assessment or as part of body of work on to encourage you to acquire the relevant skills and habits which you are assessed for the degree. so that you will be able to deploy them almost without Unless there are particular circumstances which make it thinking about it. When your work is assessed, presentation appropriate to hand in handwritten work, such as a medical is taken into account, and shoddily presented work will be marked condition or a sudden failure of technology, your essay work down accordingly; moreover, as already indicated, it is in any will be submitted to the department as files uploaded to case likely to be less effective in getting its message across. the e-learning platform from a computer. Dissertations are There are many different sets of conventions which generally submitted in hard copy. The conventions set out govern academic referencing and presentation. Indeed, below should be easily applied using most standard word- when a historian submits work to a journal or publisher, processing packages. one of the most tedious aspects can be the need to alter formatting and referencing conventions to meet the Arthur Burns, chair DTC April 2012. demands of a particular house style. Conventions can be radically different – over the use of endnotes or footnotes, for example, or the adoption of short-title referencing 1 One of the best guides to look at here remains Fowler’s Modern English Usage, most recently available as R.W. Burchfield, Fowler’s Modern English Usage (Re-Revised 3rd Edition, Oxford, University Press, 2004). It is a good idea also to equip yourself with a good dictionary (such as Chambers). It is often easier to have a physical book to refer to on such matters when writing, rather than relying on internet resources on the screen on which you are writing 2 If you want to explore such issues beyond those set out here, a good place to look is The Oxford manual of style: The essential handbook for all writers, editors and publishers (Oxford, University Press, 2002). page 1Department of History house style C: Word count Presentation of the essay or dissertation 1. Take note of any ruling about the word limit on the essay A: Document & page formatting or dissertation. This should be indicated clearly (and • Essays and short assignm Ents honestly) on the title page/coversheet. 1. The piece of work should be submitted as a Word, RTF 2. The word length should be calculated to include all main or PDF file. text and footnotes, but not the title or the bibliography, 2. Please ensure that PagE nUmBErs are entered at the foot of or indeed the statement of word length Images do not each page of the essay. count towards the word tariff, but tables do. 3. Follow instructions in the drop box on the e-learning site 3. In dissertations, where you wish to include appendices, or in the dissertation handbook for the particular piece these do not count if they provide illustrative reference of work to be submitted on how to identify the work as material (e.g. the text of a charter crucial to the argument yours. The tit LE oF thE Essay and – depending on the of an essay on an Anglo-Saxon topic) but should be part assignment – either your FULL namE or your CandidatE (not of the word count if they include substantive argument. Student) nUmBEr should be included in the header of each 4. If using the word count facility in Word to calculate word page. length, it is important to check that it is set to include 4. Set adequate margins (of at least 2.5 cm on all sides). footnotes. 5. On the first page , begin with the question or the title of the piece of work, and if required give the Word CoUnt. D: Bibliography 6. Set annotation to nUmBErEd Footnot Es not endnotes. All essays or dissertations should be accompanied by a • diss Ertations bibliography. This should include: 1. The word-processed dissertation should be submitted in 1. All items cited in the text through footnotes. hard copy. 2. Any items which have you have read and which have 2. Two securely-held together copies of the dissertation are informed the argument or the approach adopted. to be handed in. Dissertations can be bound by FedEx 3. It is not necessary to cite lectures or other forms of Kinko’s or Ryman’s on the Strand (we do not expect teaching unless a specific point is being referred to not doctoral thesis binding quality). available elsewhere (eg: a reference by a lecturer to a 3. Please ensure that PagE nUmBErs are entered at the foot of forthcoming unpublished work). each page of the dissertation. 4. The bibliography should also include web resources, 4. Set adequate margins (of at least 2.5 cm on all sides). podcasts, film etc if cited in the essay/dissertation. 5. Set annotation to nUmBErEd Footnot Es not endnotes. 5. Organise the bibliography alphabetically, primarily by 6. Follow instructions regarding cover sheets. This should surname of author. normally include: 6. Each item should begin on a fresh line. a. the title of the dissertation in full 7. If the bibliography for an essay is short, all items should b. your CandidatE nUmBEr (oBtainaBLE From myPage – NOT yoUr be grouped. However, in a dissertation or longer essay, it stUdEnt nUmBEr) may be more appropriate to group items into primary and c. the Word CoUnt. secondary sources. 7. Ensure that your name does not appear anywhere in the 8. A bibliography is often easier to follow if hanging indents dissertation. are used at the start of each item, or a space is left between items. B: Text formatting 9. For conventions on how to refer to individual items, see 1. Please use double line spacing for all main text (single below, F. spacing is acceptable in footnoting). 2. Please use a clear font in 12-point (e.g. Arial, Times New E: Footnotes Roman) for both text and notes. 1. These should appear at the bottom of the page, with 3. Align text to left (not full justification). numbers not symbols and continuously numbered (eg: 4. Clearly indicate any section breaks in a dissertation. not starting at ‘1’ on each page). 5. Quotations should be marked off with single quotation 2. Avoid footnotes which contain significant elements marks (‘) rather than double (“) which should be in the argument or additional points unless absolutely reserved for quotations within quotations. (eg: As Burns necessary. Keep the notes for references. notes, ‘according to Carpenter, Magna Carta “does not 3. For conventions on how to refer to individual items and say that either John or the barons swore to observe its layout see below, F. terms”’.) Lengthy quotations (say over 50 words in 4. Footnotes should be supplied for all direct quotations, length) are best set off as indented text, in which case and to indicate the source of arguments or evidence quotation marks are not needed. referred to in your own words in the main text. 6. Use superscript numbers to indicate footnote references. page 2Department of History house style F: How to refer to different types of material in how to cite different types of text footnotes and the bibliography. 1. Sole- and multi-authored books When you have completed your work it is always worth 2. Articles in journals checking that you have formatted both bibliography and 3. Essays or chapters in edited collections footnotes properly, and that everything referred to in 4. Edited texts the notes is actually present in the bibliography There 5. Unpublished theses/dissertations are important conventions about when to use italics 6. Unpublished manuscripts (in archives) or underlining in references (if italics are not available, 7. Web resources underlining should be used as an alternative). In what 8. Newspapers follows we use the ‘short-title’ referencing system rather 9. Film, TV, Radio than the ‘author-date’ approach, as it is more readily 10. Pictures and objects in galleries and museums accommodating to the kinds of primary sources you may 11. Plays, poetry, the Bible etc. well want to refer to in a history essay. We cannot cover 12. E-books every possible source you might wish to use, but the main types are discussed below. if in doubt, ask. For each type of 1. Sole- and multi-authored books material, we first indicate how to cite it in the bibliography, Bibliography: references should take the form: Author and then how to footnote it at first reference and then later surname comma, author forename or initials comma Full references. title in italics, then open parentheses Place of publication comma date of publication close parentheses. • Citing E-rEsoUrCEs eg: Much of the time you will need to cite books and journals Burns, Arthur, The diocesan revival in the Church of which you have consulted in hard copy, but increasingly England c. 1820-1880 (Oxford, 1999). students access such material in electronic through Carpenter, David, The struggle for mastery: Britain 1066- resources such as JSTOR or ebooks. There is evidence of 1284 (Harmondsworth, 2004). confusion among students about what to reference when these resources are used. For the purposes of essays or Footnotes: First reference should give the following details: dissertations, we suggest you follow the following rule: Author forename or initials and surname comma Full title Where a resource exists in both hardcopy and electronic form in italics open parentheses Place of publication comma (eg: a book also available as a whole or a part in electronic form, date of publication close parentheses, comma page or a journal accessible via Jstor ), cite the reference as if you sequence or chapter number. had used the printed book or journal: after all, a reader may or eg: may not have access to the same e-resources. do not hyperlink Arthur Burns, The diocesan revival in the Church of such references, but give page references. Where you are England c. 1820-1880 (Oxford, 1999), 24-7. using a resource only available in digital form, however, cite as David Carpenter, The struggle for mastery: Britain 1066- indicated below under web-resources; and in the case of digitised 1284 (Harmondsworth, 2004), ch. 4. collections of sources gathered from many physical repositories, you also need to indicate this. E-books accessed on Kindle present For subsequent references use short title form: Author particular difficulties thanks to the absence of page numbers and surname comma Abbreviated title in italics comma page the fact that readers can change the font size. sequence or chapter number eg: • Using iBid., oP. Cit., idEm etc. Burns, Diocesan revival, 24-7; Carpenter, Struggle for These can often create confusion, so use with caution, mastery, ch. 4. especially if you are still inserting notes during editing. Do not use Op cit. Use Ibid. (meaning ‘the same’) only Where a book is co-authored, or has more than one volume, where you are citing a source which was cited on its own deal with it as follows: in the immediately preceding note. Similarly, use idem or Bibliography: Snell, K.D.M. and Ell, Paul S., Rival eadem only to indicate that that the same author/s is/are Jerusalems: The geography of Victorian religion, 2 vols. responsible for an item as for the immediately preceding (Cambridge, 2001). one. On the whole, avoid etc. Footnotes: K.D.M. Snell and Paul S. Ell, Rival Jerusalems: The geography of Victorian religion, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 2001), i. 25; thereafter Snell and Ell, Rival Jerusalems, ii. 15. page 3Department of History house style Colin Haydon and Stephen Taylor (eds.), The Church of 2. Articles in Journals both hard copy and England c. 1689-1833: From toleration to Tractarianism JSTOR etc. (Cambridge, 1990), 120. Bibliography: references should take the form: Author surname comma, author forename or initials comma For subsequent references, use a short title form: Author ‘Title of article’ comma Title of journal in italics, volume surname comma, ‘Short title of essay’, page reference. number of journal, then open parentheses Year of eg.: publication close parentheses comma, page sequence. Burns, ‘Hanoverian legacy’, 120. eg: Greenleaf, W. H., ‘Toulmin Smith and the British If you refer to the same collection again with reference to political tradition’, Public Administration, 53 (1975), 25-44. another chapter or essay, you can employ a short title as you would for a book. For articles with multiple authors follow Footnotes: For the first reference, give Author forename or the style described under books above. initials and surname comma ‘Title of article’ comma Title of journal in italics, volume number of journal, then 4. Edited text open parentheses Year of publication close parentheses For example, an edition of a medieval cartulary, a modern comma, page sequence or number(s). edition of a contemporary novel, or published reproduction eg: of a diary with notes and commentary. These may or may W. H. Greenleaf, ‘Toulmin Smith and the British not have an original author as well as an editor. The key political tradition’, Public Administration, 53 (1975), 25. point is that in these cases the editor follows the title, not J. F. Bosher, ‘Vancouver Island in the Empire’, Journal of precedes it as in the case of an editor of a collection of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 33 (2005), 349-68. historical essays. Edited texts are often published in a record series and in collected volumes, and this should also be For subsequent references, use a short title form: Author recorded by adapting the form used for books as follows surname comma, ‘Short title of article’, page reference. eg: Bibliography: eg: Greenleaf, ‘Toulmin Smith’, 25; Bosher, ‘Vancouver The letters of Edward Copleston, bishop of Llandaff 1828- Island’, 349. 1849, ed. Roger Lee Brown (South Wales Record Society, xvii, 2003). For articles with multiple authors follow the style described under books above. Footnotes: At first citation treat in a way parallel to articles above – eg: 3. Essays/chapters in edited books The letters of Edward Copleston, bishop of Llandaff 1828- Bibliography: references should take the form: Author 1849, ed. Roger Lee Brown (South Wales Record of essay surname comma, author forename or initials Society, xvii, 2003), 244. comma ‘Title of chapter/essay’ comma in Editor’s/s’ Thereafter use a short-title form: name(s) (ed.) comma Title of book in italics, then Letters of Copleston, ed. Brown, 145. open parentheses Place of publication comma date of publication close parentheses comma, page 5. Unpublished theses/dissertations sequence. Treat much like a book, only the title appears in quotation eg: marks not italics as unpublished, and the University is given Burns, Arthur, ‘A Hanoverian legacy? Diocesan reform instead of place of publication and publisher. in the Church of England, c. 1800-1833’, in John Walsh, Colin Haydon and Stephen Taylor (eds.), The Church of Bibliography: eg: England c. 1689-1833: From toleration to Tractarianism Stockwell, Sarah, ‘British business, politics and (Cambridge, 1990), 100-35. decolonisation in the Gold Coast c. 1945-60’ (Oxford Univ. D.Phil thesis, 1993). Footnotes: For the first reference, give Author forename or initials and surname comma ‘Title of article/chapter’ Footnotes: First mention: comma in Editors names (ed.), Full title of book in italics, Sarah Stockwell, ‘British business, politics and then open parentheses Place of publication comma date decolonisation in the Gold Coast c. 1945-60’ (Oxford of publication close parentheses comma, page sequence Univ. D.Phil thesis, 1993), 35. or number(s). Thereafter use short title form: eg: Stockwell, ‘British business’, 35. Arthur Burns, ‘A Hanoverian legacy? Diocesan reform in the Church of England, c. 1800-1833’, in John Walsh, page 4Department of History house style Footnote: Note how the site itself suggests referencing – eg: 6. Manuscript sources (in archives) First mention: Clergy of the Church of England Database In manuscript references, it is important to describe the (www.theclergydatabase.org.uk , accessed 15 June 2011) location of the manuscript physically if it is in an archive, hereafter CCEd, CCEd person ID 243578. and to give the reader as much help as possible in locating Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline. the place in the manuscript(s) where a quote is found. org, version 6.0, 11 June 2011) Hereafter OBPO , Dec. 1714, trial of (t17141209-18). Bibliography: In a bibliography, manuscript sources are often Thereafter: CCEd, CCEdid13450; OBPO, Dec. 1714, trial listed in groups under the name of the repository where of (t17141209-18). they are located. The repository name is followed by the collection name and /or catalogue reference, and the name ii) Webpages/articles (if any) of the manuscript. Such as Wikipedia (though we are not suggesting that eg: Wikipedia is often a good source, it is a useful reminder British Library, London, Peel Papers, Add. Ms 10564 of the instability of websites, for the continual re-editing Bodleian Library, Oxford, Ms Add. c 290, ‘The principal makes the access date very significant). clergy of London classified according to their opinions on the great church questions of the day’ Bibliography: eg: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org) Footnotes: Where you are citing many manuscripts from one repository, or simply making repeated references to one Footnote: eg:. manuscript source, it makes sense to use the first citation to First mention: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_III_ establish a suitable abbreviation for the repository. A first of_the_United_Kingdom, accessed 1 June 2011. such reference might thus read: Thereafter: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_III_of_ British Library, London hereafter BL, Add. Ms 10564, the_United_Kingdom fos 6-7, Robert Peel to Benjamin Disraeli, 1 June 1845. A subsequent reference might read: 8. Newspapers and contemporary serial BL, Add. Ms. 10564, fo. 1, B Disraeli to R. Peel, 29 Mar. publications 1841. Although you may access them through a digital resource, cite the actual newspapers (but indicate the use of the 7. Web resources resource to access them in a note in the bibliography). Increasingly, students make use of a wide range of online resources. Sometimes, as already indicated, this is simply Bibliography: Simply cite the title of the newspaper or serial, a matter of using an online version of a resource also in although with the more generic it is worth giving a place of print, such as a journal, in which pagination and volume publication: eg: numbers are reproduced online, and here it is important The Times to give a reference to the ‘original’ – thus the English The Morning Star (Leeds) Historical Review, rather than JSTOR. On the other hand, Edinburgh Review many other web resources are constantly changing or may indeed disappear suddenly, and in these cases it is important Footnotes: Cite the issue by date, and give a page number; to record when you consulted them, as well as what is named articles can also be mentioned and in serials include consulted. Many web resources offer a downloadable volume number. (Note that The Times keeps its definite citation, but these are often clumsy and very long and article in notes, whereas other newspapers lose it.) eg: work better as hyperlinks than as records on a printed The Times, 1 Oct. 1797, 5. page. Following the guidance below is therefore generally Morning Post, 4 June 1801, 4, letter from ‘Civitas’. preferable. ‘Church Parties’, Edinburgh Rev., 4 (1833-4), 13-43. i) Online database 9. Film, TV and radio Good examples here are Old Bailey Online, or Clergy of In the case of film both bibliographic and initial footnote the Church of England Database, where you may want to references can take the same form, with suitable short titles reference a specific document or record. following: This is Spinal Tap: A Rockumentary by Marti de Bergi, dir. Bibliography: record the resource and the URL – eg: Rob Reiner (Embassy Pictures, 1983). The Clergy of the Church of England Database 1540- Short title: Spinal Tap, dir. Reiner. 1835 (http://www.theclergydatabase.org.uk) In the case of TV and radio programmes, it may be Old Bailey Proceedings Online important to specify the date of first broadcast, although in (http://www.oldbaileyonline.org) page 5Department of History house style other cases, where a DVD is available, for example, it may Footnotes: not be necessary unless relevant to the argument. First mention: Samuel Hibbert, The ancient parish church of ‘Death on the Rock’, This Week (Thames Television), Manchester and why it was collegiated (Manchester, 1848; first shown ITV 28 Apr. 1988. acc. Google books), 54. Newsnight, BBC2, 15 June 2010. Thereafter: Hibbert, Ancient parish church, 54. 10. Pictures and objects in galleries and For a book accessed by Kindle, the lack of page references museums and the variable format causes additional difficulties. There The key thing is to identify the object and location are also many open-access versions of classic texts available precisely: a famous work may need no more than the artist which have minimal publication data which may make it (if known), title and location; one coin among thousands difficult for a reader to identify the text used. Until a more may need a catalogue reference. satisfactory referencing system is produced, our strong eg: advice is to seek out a hard copy of the text cited in the Hans Holbein, The Ambassadors (1533), National library for the actual footnote reference even if you actually Gallery, London. consulted the work as a ebook. If this is impossible, then the British Museum, London, coins and medals, reg. no. following rather cumbersome unsatisfactory model is all we 2009, 4076.74, 10 franc coin, 1988. can suggest: 11. Plays, poetry, the Bible, Classical or Find the passage to be cited and highlight it on the Kindle. medieval works Save the highlight, and then look this up on the saved Texts such of these are often available in a myriad of highlights. This will give you a location number for the editions with different pagination. However, they also have text you have cited. Use this together with the lowest a long tradition of critical commentary in which reference level descriptor (eg chapter, section, part etc) available to can be made precisely using such features as cantos, line identify the passage. As Kindle books do not have a place numbers, scenes and verses. Unless you are making a point of publication, in this case alone give the publisher if there about something only revealed in a particular edition, it is one. can therefore be most helpful to identify a reference in a eg: work like this using the features common to all editions in Bibliography: the footnotes (you can cite the actual edition you used in Dikotter, Frank, Mao’s great famine: The history of China’s the bibliography). In classical or medieval works, different most devastating catastrophe 1958-62 (Kindle ebook, authors have different conventions: best to follow those used Bloomsbury, 2011). in the work itself before you. eg: Footnotes Bible: Eccles. 12: 12 (= Book of Ecclesiasticus, chapter First reference: Frank Dikotter, Mao’s great famine: The 12, verse 12.) history of China’s most devastating catastrophe 1958-62 Poetry: Edmund Spenser, Faerie Queen II. vi. xxxv 7. (= (Kindle ebook, Bloomsbury, 2011), ch. 2, loc. 45-6. Book 2, canto 6, stanza 35, line 7) Later references: Dikotter, Mao’s great famine, ch. 3, locs. Play: William Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV, IV. ii. 86 (= Act 46-7. 4, scene 2, line 86). First reference: Tobias Smollett, The adventures of Roderick Classical or medieval work (e.g.): Aristotle, Politics, i. 2. Random (public domain Kindle ebook, 2011), bk 1, ch. 1253a (= book 1, chapter 2, Bekker number 1253a) 1, loc. 32. Later: Smollet, Roderick Random, bk 2, ch. 2, locs. 45-6. 12. E-books The formatting of text on e-books varies considerably. In some cases you are offered a virtual printed book, perhaps produced by pdf style reproduction of the original (often the case on Google books). In these instances, citation should follow normal practice using page numbers and the correct publication data for the original publication, while making it plain the item was cited via an ebook resource. eg: Bibliography: Hibbert, Samuel. The ancient parish church of Manchester and why it was collegiated (Manchester, 1848; acc. Google books). page 6