How to draft a Thesis statement

how to write a master thesis plan and how to write a research plan for thesis and how to make a plan for master thesis and how to write a phd thesis plan
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Dr.JohnParker,Singapore,Researcher
Published Date:01-07-2017
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MASTER THESIS/PROJECT AND PhD DISSERTATION WRITING GUIDELINE Updated by: Publication Office 2014 1 PREFACE The purpose of this thesis/project and PhD dissertation writing guideline is to clarify, simplify and promote excellence in PhD & Master Thesis writing and presentation. This guideline describes the important requirements for maintaining the uniformity at the International Burch University. This guideline provides detailed explanation about format, spacing, and referencing rules necessary to be followed in order to fulfill the preconditions for thesis/project or dissertation acceptance. All students are obligated to follow each instance in the guideline while writing their thesis in order to decrease the error. Person in charge will go through thesis or project and check all format requirements. Only after this check up student can print final hard copies. 2 1. General Guidelines and Parts of the Thesis Each thesis must be prepared electronically by using a word processor, a mark-up language (e.g. LaTeX) and drawing or graphics software. All tables, figures and formulas should be electronically generated by using word processor or relevant software. Figures that cannot be generated electronically should be manually drawn subject to technical drawing principles. All tables, figures should be cited within the main body of the thesis. Laser or ink-jet printer outputs are required. All print must be in permanent black ink and must appear on only one side of the paper. No ink corrections, strikeovers, correction fluid, correction tape, paste-ups, insertions between lines, or letterset are permitted on the final bound copies. If any corrections are needed, they should be made on the original manuscript (but not by ink corrections or strikeovers which are never allowed) and the corrected pages must be reprinted before making copies of the thesis. Each source used or cited in the thesis should be presented with proper reference list. International Burch University requires usage of APA style for referencing used sources. Every thesis should include three main parts or divisions: the preliminary pages, the body, and the reference material. The thesis should be written in English language for all departments except Oriental Philology where thesis should be written in Turkish language. 5 2. Submission of Thesis/Project and Dissertation Students must refer to the following procedure while submitting the project/thesis/dissertation: Master without thesis 1. Student needs to submit Authorization Request to Schedule Final Work in Student Affairs Office (SAO) downloadable from gs.ibu.eduba together with one copy of final work in soft cover. 2. Committee members and schedule of defense will be proposed by Supervisor. 3. After Faculty Council adopts the final decision, student can defend final work (project) in front of the Jury. 4. After final work (project) defense, students will submit one copy of final work to Student Affairs Office. 5. After Student Affairs Office confirms the final work has required information, student will submit final work to Publication Office for format checking. Publication Office will confirm the final work has correct format by signing Format Checking Form and send it to Student Affairs Office. 6. After format checking, students have to submit 3 final work (project) copies - hardcover, and 3 soft copies - CD (in pdf format) Master with Thesis 1. Starting from October, and latest by end of November, students will submit their final work proposal. Final Work Proposal form students can take in Student Affairs Office or download from www.gs.ibu.edu.ba web page. After students supervisor approves the Final Work proposal, student needs to submit the form to Student Affairs Office. 2. Student needs to submit Authorization Request to Schedule Final Work in Student Affairs Office (SAO) downloadable from gs.ibu.eduba together with one copy of final work in soft cover. 6 3. Committee members and schedule of defense will be proposed by Supervisor. 4. After Faculty Council adopts the final decision, student can defend final work (thesis) in front of the Jury. 5. After final work (thesis) defense, students will submit one copy of final work to Student Affairs Office. After Student Affairs Office confirms the final work has required informations, student will submit final work to Publication Office for format checking. Publication Office will confirm the final work has correct format by signing Format Checking Form and send it to Student Affairs Office. 6. After format checking, students have to submit 4 Final Work (Thesis) copies - hardcover, and 4 soft copies - CD (in pdf format) PhD Dissertation 1. Starting October, and latest by end of December, students will submit their final work proposal. Final Work Proposal Form students can take in Student Affairs Office or download from www.gs.ibu.edu.ba web page. 2. After submission, Department will determine the schedule of final work examination (latest by end of January final work examination must held). Student have to submit and defend final work proposal regardless to did they pass courses or Qualifying exam. 3. Students who didn’t pass PhD Qualifying exam before and have completed all courses, have to take PhD Qualifying exam immediately after final exams in January-February. Students who don’t pass Qualifying exam in February or students who complete all courses in June-July final exams or second make-up exams in September, have to take Phd Qualifying exam after second make-up exams. 4. Student needs to submit Authorization Request to Schedule Final Work in Student Affairs Office (SAO) downloadable from gs.ibu.eduba together with one copy of final work in soft cover. 5. After Final Work (Dissertation) Defense, Students will submit one copy of Final Work to Student Affairs Office. After Student Affairs Office confirms it has required informations, student will submit Final Work to Publication Office for format checking. Publication Office will confirm the Final Work has correct format by signing Format Checking Form and send it to Student Affairs Office. 6. After format checking, students have to submit 6 final work (dissertation) copies - hardcover, and 6 soft copies - CD (in pdf format) 7 3. Format and Appearance 3.1 Paper Quality and Duplication All copies of the thesis/project and dissertation should be printed on good quality, preferably 2 acid-free, white bond paper, of 80 g/m , measuring 210 by 297 mm (A4). Only single-sided copies will be accepted. 3.2 Margins and Justification The left margin (binding side) should be 40 mm and the right, top and bottom margins should be 25mm. All footnotes, headings, page numbers, text, tables, illustrations should be within these margins. The headings of all main sections (such as, Approval page, Acknowledgements, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures, List of Symbols, List of Abbreviations, Introduction, all other sections in the main body of the thesis, Conclusion, References, Appendices, Curriculum Vitae) should be 60 mm below the top of the page. No hyphenation is allowed in the headings and in the text of the preliminary pages. The headings should be center justified. 3.3 Font A conventional font type preferably Times New Roman, size 12-point, should be used consistently throughout the manuscript. Bold face letters and symbols, and italics should be used sparingly throughout the thesis. Font size of the footnotes must be 10 points. Font size of figure captions and table headings must be 12 points. Font size of characters in tables and figures can be reduced down to 8 points if space limitations make it imperative. When necessary, for example in large volume theses, all the font sizes indicated above can be reduced by 1 point. 8 3.4 Spacing The thesis should be typed one and a half spacing (1.5) and two space hits between paragraphs. Tables, long quotations, footnotes, endnotes, bibliographies, references and bibliography (except between entries), headings or subheadings, multiline captions and algorithms (pseudo-codes, software programs) should be single-spaced. 3.5 Paragraph Formatting Each paragraph should start from the left margin and 2 spaces (2x1.5) distance from the preceding paragraph. If a paragraph is split between pages, at least two lines of a paragraph must appear together at the top or bottom of a page. All headings and subheadings must be followed by at least two lines of a paragraph before a page break. Algorithm descriptions (pseudo-codes, software program codes) should be written in single spacing using a mono-spaced font type as a separate paragraph and indented in its entirety at 10 mm from the left margin. 3.6 Pagination Pagination of the thesis/project or dissertation is divided into three sections. First section is front cover page and inside title page which should appear without numbering. Second section includes pages from approval page till introduction which is numbered with roman numbers (i, ii, iii etc). Third section includes numbering pages from introduction which starts with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3 etc.) till the end of the thesis. For a better understanding please refer to the table below. 9 TABLE 1.1 Order of appearance and pagination. Front cover (bind) No page number Inside cover (title page) No page number Approval page Roman numerals (i) Abstract Roman numerals (ii) Acknowledgements iii Table of Contents iv List of Tables … List of Figures … List of Symbols … List of Abbreviations … Introduction Arabic numerals (1+) Main body of the thesis … Conclusion … References … Appendices … Curriculum Vitae … The title of the thesis and Abstract pages should not include table, figure, boldface, italics, chemical or mathematical formulas, symbols, subscripts superscripts, Greek letters or other non- standard abbreviations or characters. All pages, except for outside and inside cover page should be numbered centrally. Preliminary pages (such as, Approval page, Abstract, Acknowledgements, Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures, List of Symbols, List of Abbreviations) should use lower case Roman numerals 10 (i, ii, iii ….). Starting from the body of the thesis (namely from the “Introduction” section), all numbers should use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3 …) beginning with “1” and should be consecutively applied continuously throughout the thesis until the last page, including the pages containing illustrations, tables, figures, and photographs. 3.7 Multiple Volumes If a finished manuscript exceeds 50 mm in thickness it must be bound in two or more volumes, each limited to 50 mm in thickness, too. All volumes must be numbered consecutively, using capital Roman numerals. Each additional volume must contain a title page. Title pages should be identical except for the notation Volume I, Volume II, etc., just below the title to differentiate the volumes. Both the Roman and the Arabic numbering systems used in Volume I should continue through Volume II. As with the title page of Volume I, that of Volume II counts among the preliminary pages but does not bear a number. If "iv" is the last Roman numeral used in Volume I, for example, the title page of the second volume will count as page "v" and will be followed by preliminary pages "vi", "vii", etc. Each volume must contain a complete Table of Contents, List of Tables, List of Figures, List of Symbols and List of Abbreviations. 3.8 Front Cover and Binding All master's theses are to be bound in reflex blue cloth. All doctoral dissertations are to be bound in dark cloth, master thesis in Bordeaux and master projects in brown color. Synthetic, leatherette, or similar cloths are not acceptable. A bound copy of the thesis/project and dissertation should measure 215 by 285 mm. The title of the thesis/project and dissertation should appear 60 mm from the top of the cover. See Appendix A for an example of the front cover. 11 4. Writing the Parts of the Thesis 4.1 Preliminary Pages Preliminary pages are appearing before introduction in the thesis and are explained in detail bellow. Preliminary pages should appear in the exact sequence as explained below. 4.1.1 Title Page The title should be typed single-spaced, all in capital letters, and should begin at 60 mm from the top of the page. The format of the title page and cover page, including spacing and capitalization should be exactly as in the sample title page shown in Appendix 2. 4.1.2 Approval Page A sample approval page is presented in Appendix 3. Only the university or organization name should be used to indicate affiliation. Academic titles used in English are Prof., Assoc. Prof., Assist. Prof. or simply Dr. for jury members or thesis supervisors. Students are obligated to consult with the thesis supervisor about the precise title of a jury member before they write it on their approval page. 4.1.3 Abstract The objective of an abstract is to give the reader a concise account of the thesis or dissertation. The abstract should have three main parts: the statement of the problem, methods and procedures, results and conclusion. It must not exceed 350 words for both masters thesis and doctoral dissertation, must not include references, diagrams, mathematical formulae unless absolutely essential or footnotes. A sample abstract page is provided in Appendix 4. 12 4.1.4 Acknowledgements Acknowledgements contain expressions of appreciation to the individuals or institutions who have helped the author in any way during his/her studies. A sample acknowledgement page is presented in Appendix 5. 4.1.5 Declaration The declaration form in Appendix 6 should be filled and signed in the printed hardcopy version of thesis. 4.1.6 Table of Contents The table of contents must list the title of each chapter and its parts and sections, references or bibliography, appendices and Curriculum Vitae (if applicable). The wording used for all entries in the table of contents must match exactly with what is used in the text. Each entry must have leader dots which connect it to its corresponding page number. The heading Table of Contents appears without punctuation centered between the text margins, in all capital letters, 60 mm from the top of the page. The listing of actual contents begins at the left margin with two space hits (2x1.5) below the heading. A sample table of contents is provided in Appendix 7. 4.1.7 List of Tables The list of tables should immediately follow the table of contents on a new page. 13 The heading List of Tables appears centered between the texts margins, without punctuation, 60 mm from the top of the page; the listing begins at the left margin with two space hits (2x1.5) below the heading. Each entry should have the same number and the same caption or title used for a table in the text, although a long caption may be abbreviated to the extent of using only the first full sentence. As in the table of contents, each entry must have leader dots which connect it to its page number. A sample list of tables is provided in Appendix 8. 4.1.8 List of Figures; List of Illustrations; List of Symbols If included, these lists must appear on separate pages and are governed by the same rules as the list of tables. A sample list of tables is provided in Appendix 9. 4.1.9 List of Appendices If included, this list must appear on separate pages and are governed by the same rules as the list of tables. A sample list of tables is provided in Appendix 10. 4.1.10 List of Abbreviations If included, this list must appear on separate pages and are governed by the same rules as the list of tables. A sample list of tables is provided in Appendix 11. 4.2 The Body After the preliminary pages of thesis should proceed with the main body which starts with Introduction and ends with list of references used in the thesis. 14 4.2.1 Headings The text, or the main body of a thesis/project and dissertation, is divided into multiple chapters to help the reader in understanding the subject matter. Although the detailed organization of the text varies among academic disciplines, the formatting of the text must be consistent throughout. All headings and subheadings should be presented in the same way in each chapter, in terms of capitalization, placement on type page and kind of type used. Headers, giving the chapter number and chapter title, are allowed at the top of the pages. Chapters are numbered consecutively in Greek or Arabic numerals and capital letters (Chapter 1, Chapter 2, etc., or Chapter I, Chapter II, etc.). In addition to general titles like Introduction, the chapters need short but substantially descriptive titles, as well. Only new chapters should begin with a new page. Within a chapter, the presentation of subsections must be continuous; partially filled pages of text are acceptable only on non-textual pages, such as those presenting tables and illustrations. The title of the Chapter should be written in all bold capital letters and 14-point font size is centered between the text margins, 60 mm from the top of the page; the title in all bold-faced and 14-point font size goes one and a half space below and is also centered. The text begins with two space hits spacing below (2x1.5). Second-level headings, first-level subheadings and second-level subheadings must be left justified, bold-faced and 12-point font size. Second-level headings should be numbered as 2.1, 2.2 …. The first letter of each word except conjunctions, propositions and articles must be capital. Second-level heading should be separated from the preceding and succeeding text by a distance of one and a half space or by carriage return. First-level subheadings should be numbered as 2.1.1, 2.1.2 … and should have a distance from the preceding and succeeding text of at least 8 mm. The first letter of each word except conjunctions, propositions and articles must be capital. 15 Second-level subheadings, if needed, should be numbered as 2.1.1.1, 2.1.1.2 … and should have a distance from the preceding and succeeding text of one space hit (1.5). However, second subheadings should be avoided if possible. No further subheadings are allowed. 4.2.2 Illustrative Material Illustrations include drawings, charts, figures, tables, diagrams, plates, and photographs. These may be inserted wherever the author feels appropriate, but as a general rule, should appear as close as possible to the part of the text which refers to them. Table numbers and captions should be centered above the illustration; figure numbers and captions should be centered below the illustration. Table numbers, figure numbers and captions should be separated from the illustrations by one space hit (1.5). Illustrations of one-half page or less in length may appear on the same page with the text, separated from the text above and below one and a half space. Illustrations that are too wide to be placed in portrait orientation between the left- and right-hand margins should be rotated counterclockwise 90 degrees so that the top of the illustration runs parallel to the left-hand margin of the page. In such a case, the whole page must be reserved only for that illustration. The caption or legend for such an illustration must also be rotated. When illustrations are presented in this manner, the usual margin requirements remain in effect, and page numbers should appear in their normal place. Illustrations of any kind must be numbered consecutively, including appendices. A decimal approach (1.1, 1.2, 1.3… A.1, A.2… where the first digit is the chapter or appendix number, and the digit after the decimal point is the illustration number within that chapter or appendix) should be used. 16 Illustrations may run longer than one page. In such cases, all subsequent pages of the illustration must include at least the illustration number and the notation that is continued, e.g., "Table 1.2 (cont’d)" or "Table 1.2 (continued)". Table headings and figure captions must be in the same font used in the text. The size of characters in figure captions and table headings must be 12 points. A point size that is easy to read, especially for tables, axis scales, axis titles, legends, and labels in charts and diagrams must be chosen. Font size of characters in tables and figures can be reduced down to 8 points if space limitations make it imperative. Color may be used in figures and photographs as long as duplicate copies are all produced by color photocopy. Photographic illustrations must be originals or well-made photographic copies of the originals. Standard photocopies of photographs are not acceptable. Wherever required, mounting of illustrations should be done with a technique that ensures durable and good quality result (e.g., dry mounting). With dry mounting, the paper to which photographs are attached will not curl. Other methods, such as library paste, rubber cement, spray mounting, or tape, are not acceptable: such mounting techniques are not permanent, and the adhesives used will eventually destroy both the paper and the photograph in the long run. If an audio visual material (e.g., videotape, cassette, etc.) is needed to accompany and supplement the text, it should be adequately described within the continuity of the text. Only one copy of the material will be submitted. A copy of the thesis in the form of CD will be submitted with all copies. Computer print-outs must conform to the margin specifications, must be dark and legible with high black and white contrast, and must be copied on thesis-quality paper. Samples of table and figure are provided in Appendix 12 and 13. 17 4.2.3 Formulas Mathematical and chemical formulas, equations and expressions must be computer generated using an equation editor or a mark-up language. If a reference is made to them, they must carry a numerical identification. Each equation must be numbered in parentheses and this must be given next to the right margin. Like illustrations, equation numbers must have two parts where the first part is the chapter or appendix number, and the part after the decimal point is the equation number within that chapter or appendix. For instance (1.1) or (A.2). 4.2.4 Quotations Short, direct prose quotations of three lines or less should be incorporated into the text, enclosed in double quotation marks. Prose quotations which exceed three lines should be set off from the text in single spacing and indented in its entirety at least 10 mm from the left margin, with quotation marks at the beginning and end. 4.2.5 Footnotes and Endnotes Notes may be in the form of footnotes, placed at the bottom of each page, or endnotes, placed at the end of each chapter or at the end of the thesis before the bibliography. Footnoting practices differ widely among publications in the sciences, humanities, and social sciences. Candidates should consult with their departments regarding accepted footnoting practice in their individual disciplines. The most common mode of presentation for both footnotes and endnotes is to single-space within, and double-space between, each listing. If placed at the bottom of a page, footnotes must be separated from the text by a complete horizontal line 4 mm above the first line of the footnote. 18 Arabic numerals, asterisks or small letters should be used for footnotes and endnotes. In either case, the label used may appear either above the line or in parentheses even with the line. 4.2.6 Citations The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing system should be used. Samples for writing References are provided in Appendix 15. 4.2.7 References All of the references are to be listed at the end of the thesis/project and dissertation. The references in a section headed "References". All cited material in the text should be listed in the References. Similarly, all referenced material should be cited in the text as well. The references section is not assigned a chapter number, but it must have page numbers written in the same font and point size used for pagination throughout the thesis/project and dissertation. The heading References is centered between the margins, without punctuation, 60 mm from the top of the page; the list begins one and a half space below. Each bibliographic entry should be single-spaced (1.0) with double spacing between entries (2x1.5). 4.2.8 Appendices Some authors may wish to include certain material of the thesis/project and dissertation in an appendix rather than in the main text. For example, an appendix may contain test forms, detailed apparatus description, extensive tables of raw data, computer programs, etc. If the information to be appended requires more than one appendix, each should be given a number (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.). The heading Appendix 1 should appear centered 19 between the text margins, 60 mm from the top of the page. Each appendix has a descriptive title. The font and point size should be same as those used for chapter titles. Spacing need not be the same for each of the appendices. Documents and case studies may be single-spaced, whereas spacing for the explanations of methods and procedures may be similar to that of the text. Each appendix with its title must be listed separately in the table of contents, similar to a chapter. All appendices must have page numbers written in the same font and point size used for pagination throughout the thesis/project and dissertation. If an appendix contains photocopied material, the photocopies should be of publication quality. 4.2.9 Curriculum Vitae The Curriculum Vitae is required for both master thesis and doctoral dissertation. It is a professional, one or two paragraph, biography of the candidate which includes, educational institutions attended (after high school), degrees and honors won, and teaching and professional experience. It should be short, concise, and written in the third person. Do not give the Curriculum Vitae a chapter number, but it must have page numbers and be included as the last item in the table of contents. The Curriculum Vitae must be in the same font and point size as the rest of the thesis/project and dissertation. A sample Curriculum Vitae is provided in Appendix 14. 4.3. Precise name of each faculty and departments - Education Faculty (Department of Oriental Philology, Department of English Language and Literature) - Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies (Department of Information Technologies, Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Architecture) - Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences (Department of Management, Department of International Relations and European Studies, Department of International Business, Department of Banking and Finance). 20 Appendix 1 – Cover page 60 mm INTERNATIONAL BURCH UNIVERSITY FACULTY DEPARTMENT 140 mm 180 mm THE TITLE OF GRADUATE PROJECT/THESIS/DISSERTATION(14 points) GRADUATE PROJECT/ MASTER'S THESIS/PhD DISSERTATION STUDENT FULL NAME (12 points) Supervisor (12 points) ............................................ 250 mm SARAJEVO (12 points) Month, Year (12 points) 21 Appendix 2 - Title Page 60 mm from top of the page THE TITLE OF THE GRADUATE PROJECT/THESIS/DISSERTATION (14 point) 60 mm STUDENT’S FULL NAME (14 points) 60 mm Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of Master Project/Master Thesis/PhD Dissertation in ……………………….. (12 points) INTERNATIONAL BURCH UNIVERSITY Year (12 points) 22