Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking

mobile ad hoc networking imperatives and challenges and mobile ad hoc networks current status and future trends
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ftoc.qxd 8/8/2004 2:07 PM Page v CONTENTS Contributors vii Preface xv 1 Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking with a View of 4G Wireless: 1 Imperatives and Challenges Jennifer J.-N. Liu and Imrich Chlamtac 2 Off-the-Shelf Enables of Ad Hoc Networks 47 Gergely V. Záruba and Sajal K. Das 3 IEEE 802.11 in Ad Hoc Networks: Protocols, Performance and 69 Open Issues Giuseppe Anastasi, Marco Conti, and Enrico Gregori 4 Scatternet Formation in Bluetooth Networks 117 Stefano Basagni, Raffaele Bruno, and Chiara Petrioli 5 Antenna Beamforming and Power Control for Ad Hoc Networks 139 Ram Ramanathan 6 Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 175 Xiang-Yang Li 7 Broadcasting and Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks 205 Ivan Stojmenovic and Jie Wu 8 Location Discovery 231 Andreas Savvides and Mani B. Srivastava vftoc.qxd 8/8/2004 2:07 PM Page vi vi CONTENTS 9 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs): Routing Technology for Dynamic, 255 Wireless Networking Joseph P. Macker and M. Scott Corson 10 Routing Approaches in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 275 Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer 11 Energy-Efficient Communication in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 301 Laura Marie Feeney 12 Ad Hoc Networks Security 329 Pietro Michiardi and Refik Molva 13 Self-Organized and Cooperative Ad Hoc Networking 355 Silvia Giordano and Alessandro Urpi 14 Simulation and Modeling of Wireless, Mobile, and Ad Hoc Networks 373 Azzedine Boukerche and Luciano Bononi 15 Modeling Cross-Layering Interaction Using Inverse Optimization 411 Violet R. Syrotiuk and Amaresh Bikki 16 Algorithmic Challenges in Ad Hoc Networks 427 András Faragó Index 447 About the Editors 459fbetw.qxd 8/8/2004 2:10 PM Page vii CONTRIBUTORS Giuseppe Anastasi received the Laurea (cum laude) degree in Electronics Engineering and Ph.D. in Computer Engineering, both from the University of Pisa, Italy, in 1990 and 1995, respectively. He is currently an associate professor of Computer Engineering at the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Pisa. His research interests include architectures and protocols for mobile computing, energy management, QoS in mobile networks, and ad hoc networks. He was a co-editor of the book, Advanced Lec- tures in Networking, and has published more than 40 papers, both in international journals and conference proceedings, in the area of computer networking. He served in the TPC of several international conferences including IFIP Networking 2002 and IEEE PerCom 2003. He is a member of the IEEE Computer Society. Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer is an assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She completed a Ph.D. in Electri- cal and Computer Engineering at University of California, Santa Barbara in 2000. Her re- search focuses on mobile networking, specifically routing protocols, security, scalability, and adaptability. Dr. Belding-Royer is the author of numerous papers related to ad hoc networking, has served on many program committees for networking conferences, and is currently the co-chair of the IRTF Ad Hoc Network Scalability (ANS) Research Group. She also sits on the editorial board for the Elsevier Science Ad Hoc Networks Journal. She is also the recipient of a 2002 Technology Review 100 award, presented to the world’s top young investigators. Amaresh Bikki received the Bachelor of Engineering with a major in Computer Science from Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences (BITS), Pilani, India in 1999. He then worked as a software engineer at Aditi Technologies, Bangalore, India before receiving a viifbetw.qxd 8/8/2004 2:10 PM Page viii viii CONTRIBUTORS Master Degree in Computer Science from the University of Texas, Dallas in 2002. He cur- rently works in industry. Luciano Bononi received the Laurea degree (summa cum laude) in Computer Science in 1997, and a Ph.D. in Computer Science in 2002, both from the University of Bologna, Italy. In 2000, he was a visiting researcher at the Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of California, Los Angeles. From March 2002 to September 2002, he was a postdoc researcher, and since October 2002, he has been a researcher at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Bologna. His research interests include wireless and mobile ad hoc networks, network protocols, power saving, modeling and simulation of wireless systems, discrete-event simulation, and parallel and distributed simulation. Azzedine Boukerche is Canada Research chair and an associate professor of Computer Sciences at the School of Information Technology and Engineering (SITE), University of Ottawa, Canada. Prior to this, he was a faculty member in the Department of Computer Sciences, University of North Texas. He also worked as a senior scientist in the Simula- tion Sciences Division of Metron Corporation in San Diego. He spent the 1991–1992 aca- demic year at Caltech/JPL where he contributed to a project centered about the specifica- tion and verification of the software used to control interplanetary spacecraft operated by Caltech/JPL–NASA Laboratory. His current research interests include ad hoc networks, mobile computing, wireless networks, parallel simulation, distributed computing, and large-scale distributed interactive simulation. Dr. Boukerche has published several re- search papers in these areas. He is the corecipient of the best research paper award at PADS’97, PADS’99, and MSWiM 2001. He has been general chair, program chair, and a member of the Program Committee of several international conferences and is an associ- ate editor of the International Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, SCS Trans- actions on Simulation, International Journal on Embedded Systems, and a member of IEEE and ACM. Raffaele Bruno received the Laurea degree in Telecommunications Engineering in 1999 and a Ph.D. in Information Engineering in 2003 from the University of Pisa, Italy. He is currently a junior researcher at the IIT Institute of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). From 2000 to 2002, he was honored with a fellowship from the Motorola R&D Center in Turin, Italy. His research interests are in the area of wireless and mobile net- works with emphasis on efficient wireless MAC protocols, scheduling, and scatternet for- mation algorithms for Bluetooth networks. Imrich Chlamtac holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Minnesota. Since 1997, he has held the Distinguished Chair in Telecommunications at the University of Texas, Dallas and holds the titles of Sackler Professor at Tel Aviv University, Israel; Bruno Kessler Honorary Professor at the University of Trento, Italy; and University Pro- fessor at the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary. He also serves as president of Create-Net, an international research organization bringing together leading research in- stitutes in Europe. Dr. Chlamtac is a Fellow of the IEEE and ACM societies, a Fulbright Scholar, and an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer. He is the winner of the 2001 ACM Sigmo- bile annual award, the IEEE ComSoc TCPC 2002 award for contributions to wireless and mobile networks, and multiple Best Paper awards in wireless and optical networks. Dr. Chlamtac has published more than 300 papers in refereed journals and conferences, and isfbetw.qxd 8/8/2004 2:10 PM Page ix ix CONTRIBUTORS the co-author of the first textbook on LANs, Local Area Networks, and Mobile and Wire- less Networks Protocols and Services (Wiley, 2000). Dr. Chlamtac serves as the founding editor-in-chief of the ACM/URSI/Kluwer Wireless Networks (WINET) and the ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET) journals, and the SPIE/Kluwer Optical Networks Magazine (ONM). Scott Corson is vice president and chief network architect at Flarion Technologies, where he is responsible for the design of the IP network architecture enabled by the flash-ODFM air interface. Previously, he was on the faculty of the University of Maryland, College Park from 1995–2000, and was a consulting network architect for British Telecomm (BT) Labs, working on the design of an IP-based, fixed/cellular-converged network architecture from 1998–2000. He has worked on multiple access and network layer technologies for mobile wireless networks since 1987, and has been active in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) since 1995. He co-organized and currently co-chairs the IETF Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Working Group, a body chartered to standardize mobile routing technolo- gy for IP-based networks of wireless routers. He has a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Maryland. Sajal K. Das is a professor of Computer Science and Engineering and also the founding director of the Center for Research in Wireless Mobility and Networking (CReWMaN) at the University of Texas, Arlington (UTA). He is a recipient of UTA’s Outstanding Faculty Research Award in Computer Science in 2001 and 2003, and the UTA College of Engi- neering Research Excellence Award in 2003. Dr. Das’ current research interests include resource and mobility management in wireless networks, mobile and pervasive comput- ing, wireless multimedia and QoS provisioning, sensor networks, mobile internet archi- tectures and protocols, parallel processing, grid computing, performance modeling, and simulation. He has published more than 250 research papers in these areas, directed nu- merous industry and government funded projects, and holds four U.S. patents in wireless mobile networks. He received the Best Paper awards at ACM MobiCom’99, ICOIN’02, ACM MSWiM’00, and ACM/IEEE PADS’97. Dr. Das serves on the editorial boards of IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks, Parallel Pro- cessing Letters, and Journal of Parallel Algorithms and Applications. He served as gener- al chair of IEEE PerCom 2004, MASCOTS’02, and ACM WoWMoM 2000-02; general vice chair of IEEE PerCom’03, ACM MobiCom’00, and IEEE HiPC’00-01; program chair of IWDC’02, WoWMoM’98-99; TPC vice chair of ICPADS’02; and as TPC mem- ber of numerous IEEE and ACM conferences. He is vice chair of the IEEE TCPP and TCCC executive committees and on the advisory boards of several cutting-edge compa- nies. András Faragó received a Bachelor of Science in 1976, Master of Science in 1979, and Ph.D. in 1981, all in Electrical Engineering from the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary. After graduation, he joined the Department of Mathematics, Technical Universi- ty of Budapest and in 1982 he moved to the Department of Telecommunications and Telematics. He was also cofounder and research director of the High Speed Networks Laboratory, the first research center in high-speed networking in Hungary. In 1996, he was honored the distinguished title “Doctor of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.” In 1998, he joined the University of Texas, Dallas as professor of Computer Science. Dr. Farago has authored more than 100 research papers and his work is currently supported byfbetw.qxd 8/8/2004 2:10 PM Page x x CONTRIBUTORS three research grants from the National Science Foundation. His main research interest is in the development and analysis of algorithms, network protocols, and modeling of com- munication networks. Laura Marie Feeney has been a member of the Computer and Network Architecture Laboratory at the Swedish Institute of Computer Science in Kista, Sweden since 1999. Her research includes topics in energy efficiency, routing, and quality of service for wire- less networks, especially ad hoc and sensor networks. Much of her work is related to prob- lems in cross-layer interaction. She also participated in the development of SpontNet, a prototype platform for studying service architectures for secure, application-specific ad hoc networks created among a small group of users. She is also an occasional guest lec- turer for networking courses at Sweden’s Royal Institute of Technology and Luleaa Uni- versity of Technology. Ms. Feeney’s research interests include many topics in systems and networking and she has an especially strong interest in experimenting with real systems and in combining analytic models, simulation, and measurement. She is a member of the ACM. Enrico Gregori received the Laurea degree in Electronic Engineering from the Universi- ty of Pisa in 1980. In 1981, he joined the Italian National Research Council (CNR) where he is currently the deputy director of the CNR Institute for Informatics and Telematics (IIT). In 1986, he held a visiting position in the IBM research center in Zurich, working on network software engineering and heterogeneous networking. He has contributed to several national and international projects on computer networking. He has authored more than 100 papers in the area of computer networks, has published in international journals and conference proceedings, and is co-author of the book, Metropolitan Area Networks. He was the general chair of the IFIP TC6 conferences Networking2002 and PWC2003 (Personal Wireless Communications). He served as guest editor for the Networking2002 journal special issues on Performance Evaluation and Cluster Computing the ACM/Kluw- er Wireless Networks Journal. He is a member of the board of directors of the Create-Net Association, an association of several Universities and research centers which foster re- search on networking at the European level. He is on the editorial board of the Cluster Computing and the Computer Networks Journal. His current research interests include ad hoc networks, sensor networks, wireless LANs, quality of service in packet-switching net- works, and evolution of TCP/IP protocols. Xiang-Yang Li has been an assistant professor of Computer Science at the Illinois Insti- tute of Technology since August 2000. He joined the Computer Science Department of University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1997 and received the Master of Science and Ph.D. in Computer Science in 2000 and 2001. Since 1996, his research interests span computational geometry, wireless ad hoc networks, optical networks, and algorithmic mechanism design. Since 1998, he has authored or co-authored five book chapters, 20 journal papers, and more than 40 conference papers in the areas of computational geome- try, wireless networks, and optical networks. He won the Hao Wang award at the 7th An- nual International Computing and Combinatorics Conference (COCOON). He is a mem- ber of IEEE and ACM. Jennifer J-N. Liu has more than 10 years of broad new technology and networking proto- col development experience in the telecommunication industry. Ms. Liu started her careerfbetw.qxd 8/8/2004 2:10 PM Page xi xi CONTRIBUTORS in 1993 as a member of scientific staff at Nortel’s Bell–Northern Research, developing platforms for the next-generation DMS switch. In 1997, she joined Alcatel’s Motorola Di- vision and participated in designing signaling and call-processing software components for Motorola’s EMX CDMA switch. She became part of the initial IP Connection man- agement team in 1998 that started Alcatel’s VoIP SoftSwitch A1000 CallServer project, and later led the development for the IP Sigtran protocols/applications. Since 2000, she has worked in startups, and has helped in creating MPLS/RSVP-based network traffic/bandwidth management strategies and QoS solutions for Metera Networks, as well as VoIP related services/gateway management features for Westwave Communications. Ms. Liu is an inventor/co-inventor of several patents in the networking field. She received a Master of Science from the Department of Systems and Computer Engineering at Car- leton University in Ottawa, Canada. She is currently doing Ph.D. studies in the Depart- ment of Computer Science at the University of Texas, Dallas. Joseph P. Macker is a senior communication systems and network research scientist at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Currently, he leads the Protocol Engi- neering and Advanced Networking (Protean) Group that is investigating adaptive net- working solutions for both mobile wireless and wired networking architectures. He holds a Master of Science from George Washington University in Communications Theory and a Bachelor of Science from the University of Maryland, College Park. His primary re- search interests are adaptive network protocol and architecture design, multicast technolo- gy and data reliability, mobile wireless networking and routing, network protocol simula- tion and analysis, Quality of Service (QoS) networking, multimedia networking, and adaptive sensor networking. Mr. Macker has served as co-chairman of the Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET) Working Group within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). He has also served on the Steering and Program committees for the annual ACM Mobihoc Symposium events. His present work focuses on dynamic, ad hoc networking technology and its application to wireless communication and sensor networks. Pietro Michiardi received the Laurea degree in Electronic Engineering from the Politec- nico di Torino in 2001. He was granted a scholarship by the European Union to take part in a program in advanced telecommunications engineering at the Eurecom Institute, where he got a diploma in Multimedia Communications. In January 2000, Mr. Michiardi joined the Eurecom Institute as a research engineer working on a project for the develop- ment of advanced security services for business transactions. Since September 2001, Pietro has been a Ph.D. student at the Eurecom Institute, working on routing security and cooperation enforcement for mobile ad hoc networks. Pietro Michiardi contributed active- ly to the definition of new types of security requirements for the ad hoc network paradigm and proposed original security mechanisms that were analyzed using economic principles. His work on the use of game theory to model cooperation in ad hoc networks and to study cooperation-enforcement mechanisms was awarded in the IEEE/ACM WiOpt 2003 Inter- national Workshop on Modeling and Optimization for Wireless Networks. Refik Molva has been a professor at Institut Eurécom since 1992. He leads the network security research group that currently focuses on multipoint security protocols, multicom- ponent system security, and security in ad hoc networks. His past projects at Eurécom were on mobile code protection, mobile network security, anonymity, and intrusion detec- tion. Beside security, he worked on distributed multimedia applications and was responsi-fbetw.qxd 8/8/2004 2:10 PM Page xii xii CONTRIBUTORS ble for the BETEUS European project on CSCW over a trans-European ATM network. Prior to joining Eurécom, he worked for five years as a research staff member in the Zurich Research Laboratory of IBM, where he was one of the key designers of the Kryp- toKnight security system. He also worked as a network security consultant in the IBM Consulting Group in 1997. He is the author of several publications and patents in the area of network security and has been part of several evaluation committees for various nation- al and international bodies, including the European Commission. Chiara Petrioli received the Laurea degree with honors in Computer Science in 1993, and a Ph.D. in Computer Engineering in 1998, both from Rome University “La Sapienza,” Italy. She is currently assistant professor at the Computer Science Department at La Sapienza, The University of Rome. Her current work focuses on ad hoc and sensor net- works, Bluetooth, energy-conserving protocols, QoS in IP networks, and content delivery networks. Prior to Rome University, she was research associate at Politecnico di Milano, and was working with the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Alenia Spazio. Dr. Petrioli is the author of several papers in the areas of mobile communications and IP networks, is an area editor of the ACM Wireless Networks Journal, of the Wiley Wireless Communica- tions and Mobile Computing Journal, and of the Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks Journal. She has served on the organizing committee and technical program committee of several lead- ing conferences in the area of networking and mobile computing, including ACM Mobi- com, ACM MobiHoc, and IEEE ICC. Ram Ramanathan is a division scientist at BBN Technologies. His research interests are in the area of wireless and ad hoc networks, in partcular, routing, medium-access control, and directional antennas. He is currently the principal investigator for a project on archi- tecture and protocols for opportunistic access of spectrum using cognitive radios. Recent- ly, he was one of one of two principal investigators for the DARPA project UDAAN (Uti- lizing Directional Antennas for Ad Hoc Networking) and the co-investigator on NASA’s Distributed Spacecraft Network project. Ram is actively involved in the evolution of mo- bile ad hoc networking, and has recently served on the program and steering committees of the ACM MobiHoc Symposium and ACM Mobicom. He is on the editorial board of Ad Hoc Networks journal. He has won three Best Paper awards at prestigious conferences— ACM Sigcomm 92, IEEE Infocom 96, and IEEE Milcom 02. Dr. Ramanathan holds a Bachelor of Technololgy from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, and a Master of Science and a Ph.D. from the University of Delaware. He is a senior member of the IEEE. Andreas Savvides received a Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering from the University of California, San Diego in 1997, a Master of Science in Computer Engineer- ing from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in 1999, and a Ph.D. in Electrical En- gineering from the University of California, Los Angeles in 2003. He is currently an as- sistant professor in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Yale University. In 1999, Andreas also worked in ad hoc networking at the HRL Labs in Malibu, California. His research interests are in sensor networks, embedded systems, and ubiquitous comput- ing. He is a member of IEEE and ACM. Mani Srivastava received a Bachelor of Technology in 1985 from IIT Kanpur, a Master of Science in 1987 and Ph.D. in 1992 from the University of California, Berkeley and is a professor of electrical Engineering at UCLA, where he directs the Networked and Embed-fbetw.qxd 8/8/2004 2:10 PM Page xiii xiii CONTRIBUTORS ded Systems Laboratory and is associated with the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing. Prior to joining UCLA, he was at Bell Laboratories Research, Murray Hill. His current research spans all aspects of wireless, embedded, and low-power systems, with a particular focus on systems issues and applications in wireless sensor and actuator net- works. The research in his group is funded by DARPA, ONR, NSF, and the SRC. He has published more than 100 papers, is a co-inventor on five U.S. patents in mobile and wire- less systems, and has served on the editorial boards and program committees of leading journals and conferences in his field. His work has been recognized by awards such as the President of India’s Gold Medal (1985), Best Paper award at the IEEE ICDCS (1997), the NSF Career Award (1997), the Okawa Foundation Grant (1998), and the second prize at the ACM DAC Design Contest (2002). Violet R. Syrotiuk is an assistant professor of Computer Science and Engineering at Ari- zona State University. Her research interests include many aspects of medium-access con- trol for mobile ad hoc networks, such as dynamic adaptation, quality of service, energy awareness, and topology transparency. She also has an interest in design and analysis of experiments for identifying protocol interactions, and the use of formal modeling and op- timization for improved cross-layer designs. Dr. Syrotiuk’s research is currently supported by three grants from the National Science Foundation and by the DARPA Connectionless Networks program. In the past, her work has been supported by the DARPA Next Genera- tion (XG), Future Combat Systems (FCS), and Globile Mobile Information (GloMo) pro- grams. She serves on the Technical Program and Organizing committees of major confer- ences in mobile networking and computing and is a member of the ACM and IEEE. Alessandro Urpi received a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from the Universi- ty of Pisa. He is currently a third-year Ph.D. student in the Computer Science Department, University of Pisa. His interests include wireless networking modeling, protocols, and al- gorithms for ad hoc networks, switching, and switch architectures. In these areas, he pub- lished some conference and journal papers, and won the “Best Student Paper Award” at Networking 2002. His Ph.D. thesis addresses cooperation analysis in wireless mobile ad hoc networks. Jie Wu a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Florida At- lantic University. He has published more than 200 papers in various journals and confer- ence proceedings. His research interests are in the area of mobile computing, routing pro- tocols, fault-tolerant computing, and interconnection networks. Dr. Wu served as a program vice chair for the 2000 International Conference on Parallel Processing (ICPP) and a program vice chair for 2001 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Comput- ing Systems (ICDCS). He was a program co-chair of the 12th ISCA International Confer- ence on Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems in 1999. He is the author of the text, Distributed System Design. Currently, Dr. Wu serves as an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS) and four other international journals. He also served as a guest editor of IEEE TPDS, Journal of Parallel and Distrib- uted Computing (JPDC), and IEEE Computer. Dr. Wu was a recipient of the 1996–1997 and 2001–2002 Researcher of the Year Award at Florida Atlantic University. He is also a recipient of the 1998 Outstanding Achievements Award from IASTED. He served as an IEEE Computer Society Distinguished Visitor. Dr. Wu is a member of ACM and a senior member of IEEE.fbetw.qxd 8/8/2004 2:10 PM Page xiv xiv CONTRIBUTORS Gergely V. Záruba is an assistant professor of Computer Science and Engineering at The University of Texas, Arlington. He received a Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from The University of Texas, Dallas in 2001, and his Master of Science in Computer Engineering from the Technical University of Budapest, Department of Telecommunications and Telematics, in 1997. He is a member of the Center for Research in Wireless Mobility and Networking (CReWMaN). Dr. Zaruba’s research interests include wireless networks, al- gorithms, and protocols, and performance evaluation concentrating on the medium-access control layer and current wireless technologies. He has served on many organizing and technical program committees for leading conferences and has guest edited an ACM MONET journal on research related to the Bluetooth technology. He is a member of the IEEE and ACM.fpref.qxd 8/8/2004 2:12 PM Page xv PREFACE Whereas today’s expensive wireless infrastructure depends on centrally deployed hub-and- spoke networks, mobile ad hoc networks consist of devices that are autonomously self- organizing in networks. In ad hoc networks, the devices themselves are the network, and this allows seamless communication, at low cost, in a self-organized fashion and with easy deployment. The large degree of freedom and the self-organizing capabilities make mobile ad hoc networks completely different from any other networking solution. For the first time, users have the opportunity to create their own network, which can be deployed easily and cheaply. However, a price for all those features is paid in terms of complex technology so- lutions, which are needed at all layers and also across several layers. For all those reasons, mobile ad hoc networking is one of the more innovative and chal- lenging areas of wireless networking, and this technology promises to become increasing- ly present in everybody’s life. Ad hoc networks are a key step in the evolution of wireless networks. They inherit the traditional problems of wireless and mobile communications, such as bandwidth optimization, power control and transmission quality enhancement. In addition, the multihop nature and the lack of fixed infrastructure brings new research problems such as network configuration, device discovery and topology maintenance, as well as ad hoc addressing and self-routing. Many different approaches and protocols have been proposed and there are multiple standardization efforts within the Internet Engineer- ing Task Force and the Internet Research Task Force, as well as academic and industrial projects. This book is the result of our effort to put together a representative collection of chap- ters covering the most advanced research and development in mobile ad hoc networks. It is based on a number of stand-alone chapters that are deeply interconnected. It seeks to provide an opportunity for readers to find advances on a specific topic, as well as to ex- plore the whole field of rapidly emerging mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, the histor- ical evolution and the role of mobile ad hoc networks in 4G mobile systems are discussed in depth in the first chapter. xvfpref.qxd 8/8/2004 2:12 PM Page xvi xvi PREFACE In most of the past research, mobile ad hoc networks are seen as part of the Internet, with IP-centric layered architecture. This architecture has two main advantages: it simpli- fies the interconnection to the Internet, and guarantees the independence from (heteroge- neous) wireless technologies. The layered paradigm, which has significantly simplified the Internet design and led to the robust scalable protocols, can result in poor perfor- mances when applied to mobile ad hoc networks. In fact, in mobile ad hoc networks sev- eral functions can hardly be isolated into a single layer. Energy management, security and cooperation, quality of service, among the others, cannot be completely confined in a unique layer. Rather, their implementation results are more effective by exploiting and in- teracting with mechanisms at all layers. A more efficient and performing architecture for mobile ad hoc networks thus should avoid a strict layering approach, but rather follow an integrated and hierarchical framework to take advantage of the interdependencies among layers. This book goes in this new direction by presenting cross-layering chapters. Most of the chapters do not focus on single-layer mechanisms, rather they present and discuss functions that are implemented by combining mechanisms that, in a strict layered archi- tecture, belong to different layers. Inside the ad hoc networking field, wireless sensor networks play a special role, as they are used mainly for phenomena monitoring. The solutions for mobile ad hoc networks are rarely suitable for sensor networks, as the latter are rarely mobile in a strict sense, and prone to different constraints deriving by the sensing devices’ features and by application requirements. This generated an extensive literature that could hardly be accommodated in this book without being reductive. This book is intended for developers, researchers, and graduate students in computer science and electrical engineering, as well as researchers and developers in the telecom- munication industry. The editors of this book first discussed the selection of problems and topics to be covered and then discussed the choice of best authors for each of the selected topics. We believe that we have achieved a balanced selection of chapters with top quality experts selected for presenting the state of the art on each topic. The editors envision the introduction of a number of computer science and electrical engineering graduate courses in ad hoc networks, and believe that this book provides textbook quality for use in such courses. The editors are particularly grateful to the authors who have agreed to present their work in this book. They would also like to express their sincere thanks to all the reviewers, whose helpful remarks have contributed to the outstanding quality of this book. Special thanks go to Stephen Olariu and Sergio Palazzo; we have benefited enormously from their comments and suggestions. Finally, we are immensely grateful to Catherine Faduska and Christina Kuhnen for their invaluable collaboration in putting this book together. STEFANO BASAGNI MARCO CONTI SILVIA GIORDANO IVAN STOJMENOVIC April 2004c01.qxd 6/17/2004 4:37 PM Page 1 CHAPTER 1 MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKING WITH A VIEW OF 4G WIRELESS: IMPERATIVES AND CHALLENGES JENNIFER J.-N. LIU and IMRICH CHLAMTAC 1.1 INTRODUCTION The wireless arena has been experiencing exponential growth in the past decade. We have seen great advances in network infrastructures, growing availability of wireless applica- tions, and the emergence of omnipresent wireless devices such as portable or handheld computers, PDAs, and cell phones, all getting more powerful in their capabilities. These devices are now playing an ever-increasingly important role in our lives. To mention only a few examples, mobile users can rely on their cellular phone to check e-mail and browse the Internet; travelers with portable computers can surf the internet from airports, railway stations, cafes, and other public locations; tourists can use GPS terminals installed inside rental cars to view driving maps and locate tourist attractions; files or other information can be exchanged by connecting portable computers via wireless LANs while attending conferences; and at home, a family can synchronize data and transfer files between portable devices and desktops. Not only are mobile devices getting smaller, cheaper, more convenient, and more pow- erful, they also run more applications and network services. All of these factors are fuel- ing the explosive growth of the mobile computing equipment market seen today. Market reports from independent sources show that the worldwide number of cellular users has been doubling every 1½ years, with the total number growing from 23 million in 1992 to 860 million in June 2002. This growth is being fueled further by the exploding number of Mobile Ad Hoc Networking. Edited by Basagni, Conti, Giordano, and Stojmenovic. 1 ISBN 0-471-37313-3 © 2004 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.c01.qxd 6/17/2004 4:37 PM Page 2 2 MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKING WITH A VIEW OF 4G WIRELESS: IMPERATIVES AND CHALLENGES Internet and laptop users 6. Projections show that in the next two years, the number of mobile connections and the number of shipments of mobile and Internet terminals will grow by yet by another 20–50% 6. With this trend, we can expect the total number of mobile Internet users soon to exceed that of fixed-line Internet users. Among the myriad of applications and services run by mobile devices, network con- nections and corresponding data services are without doubt in highest demand. According to a recent study by Cahners In-Stat Group, the number of subscribers to wireless data services will grow rapidly from 170 million worldwide in 2000 to more than 1.3 billion in 2004, and the number of wireless messages sent per month will rise dramatically from 3 billion in December 1999 to 244 billion by December 2004. Currently, most of the con- nections among wireless devices occur over fixed-infrastructure-based service providers or private networks; for example, connections between two cell phones set up by BSC and MSC in cellular networks, or laptops connected to the Internet via wireless access points. Although infrastructure-based networks provide a great way for mobile devices to get net- work services, it takes time to set up the infrastructure network, and the costs associated with installing infrastructure can be quite high. There are, furthermore, situations in which user-required infrastructure is not available, cannot be installed, or cannot be in- stalled in time in a given geographic area. Providing the needed connectivity and network services in these situations requires a mobile ad hoc network. For all of these reasons, combined with significant advances in technology and stan- dardization, new alternative ways to deliver connectivity have been gaining increased at- tention in recent years. These are focused around having mobile devices within the trans- mission range connect to each other through automatic configuration, setting up an ad hoc mobile network that is both flexible and powerful. In this way, not only can mobile nodes communicate with each other, but also receive Internet services through an Internet gate- way node, effectively extending both network and Internet services to noninfrastructure areas. As the wireless network continues to evolve, this ad hoc capability will become more important, and the technology solutions used to support it more critical, spurring a host of research and development projects and activities in industry and academia alike. This chapter dwells on the impetus behind the inevitable market adoption of the mobile ad hoc network, and presents a representative collection of technology solutions that can be used in different layers of the network, especially the algorithms and protocols needed for its operation and configuration. In the following section, we review the wireless com- munication technologies, the types of wireless networks and their evolution path, as well as the problems and market demands for existing wireless systems. We then explain why ad hoc networking is expected to form the essential piece in the 4G network architecture. In Section 1.3, we look at the mobile ad hoc network in closer detail, covering its specific characteristics, advantages, and design challenges. After that, we show the range of op- portunities for MANET applications, both military and commercial, which also serve to elaborate the market potential behind MANET technology advancement. Section 1.4 summarizes the current status and design challenges facing the research community. A large number of protocols and algorithms have been developed for mobile ad hoc net- works, which are presented, discussed and compared in Section 1.4. Although impressive research and development results are demonstrated in this and the remaining detailed chapters in this book, many open issues remain to clear the path for the successful ad hoc network deployment and commercialization. Some of the open research problems in ad hoc wireless networking are the subject of Section 1.5. Section 1.6 presents conclusions, and introduces the rest of chapters in this book.c01.qxd 6/17/2004 4:37 PM Page 3 3 1.2. REVIEW OF WIRELESS NETWORK EVOLUTION 1.2 REVIEW OF WIRELESS NETWORK EVOLUTION The wireless communication landscape has been changing dramatically, driven by the rapid advances in wireless technologies and the greater selection of new wireless services and applications. The emerging third-generation cellular networks have greatly improved data transmission speed, which enables a variety of higher-speed mobile data services. Meanwhile, new standards for short-range radio such as Bluetooth, 802.11, Hiperlan, and infrared transmission are helping to create a wide range of new applications for enterprise and home networking, enabling wireless broadband multimedia and data communication in the office and home. Before delving into these technologies and applications, we first examine some of the main characteristics of wireless communication as related to specification and classifica- tion of these networks, and then review the key capabilities exhibited by the various types of wireless networks. 1.2.1 Wireless Communication Characteristics In general, wireless networking refers to the use of infrared or radio frequency signals to share information and resources between devices. Many types of wireless devices are available today; for example, mobile terminals, pocket size PCs, hand-held PCs, laptops, cellular phone, PDAs, wireless sensors, and satellite receivers, among others. Due to the differences found in the physical layer of these systems, wireless devices and networks show distinct characteristics from their wireline counterparts, specifically,  Higher interference results in lower reliability. —Infrared signals suffer interference from sunlight and heat sources, and can be shielded/absorbed by various objects and materials. Radio signals usually are less prone to being blocked; however, they can be interfered with by other electrical devices. —The broadcast nature of transmission means all devices are potentially interfering with each other. —Self-interference due to multipath.  Low bandwidth availability and much lower transmission rates, typically much slower-speed compared to wireline networks, causing degraded quality of service, including higher jitter, delays, and longer connection setup times.  Highly variable network conditions: —Higher data loss rates due to interference —User movement causes frequent disconnection —Channel changes as users move around —Received power diminishes with distance  Limited computing and energy resources: limited computing power, memory, and disk size due to limited battery capacity, as well as limitation on device size, weight, and cost.  Limited service coverage. Due to device, distance, and network condition limita- tions, service implementation for wireless devices and networks faces many con- straints and is more challenging compared to wired networks and elements.c01.qxd 6/17/2004 4:37 PM Page 4 4 MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKING WITH A VIEW OF 4G WIRELESS: IMPERATIVES AND CHALLENGES  Limited transmission resources: —Medium sharing —Limited availability of frequencies with restrictive regulations —Spectrum scarce and expensive  Device size limitation due to portability requirements results in limited user inter- faces and displays.  Weaker security: because the radio interface is accessible to everyone, network se- curity is more difficult to implement, as attackers can interface more easily. 1.2.2. Types of Wireless Networks Many types of wireless networks exist, and can be categorized in various ways set out in the following subsections depending on the criteria chosen for their classification. By Network Formation and Architecture. Wireless networks can be di- vided into two broad categories based on how the network is constructed and the underlin- ing network architecture: 1. Infrastructure-based network. A network with preconstructed infrastructure that is made of fixed and wired network nodes and gateways, with, typically, network ser- vices delivered via these preconfigured infrastructures. For example, cellular net- works are infrastructure-based networks built from PSTN backbone switches, MSCs, base stations, and mobile hosts. Each node has its specific responsibility in the network, and connection establishment follows a strict signaling sequence among the nodes 2. WLANs typically also fall into this category. 2. Infrastructureless (ad hoc) network. In this case a network is formed dynamically through the cooperation of an arbitrary set of independent nodes. There is no prearrangement regarding the specific role each node should assume. Instead, each node makes its decision independently, based on the network situation, with- out using a preexisting network infrastructure. For example, two PCs equipped with wireless adapter cards can set up an independent network whenever they are within range of one another. In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes are expected to be- have as routers and take part in discovery and maintenance of routes to other nodes. By Communication Coverage Area. As with wired networks, wireless networks can be classified into different types based on the distances over which data is transmitted: 1. Wireless Wide Area Networks (Wireless WANs). Wireless WANs are infrastruc- ture-based networks that rely on networking infrastructures like MSCs and base sta- tions to enable mobile users to establish wireless connections over remote public or private networks 3. These connections can be made over large geographical areas, across cities or even countries, through the use of multiple antenna sites or satellite systems maintained by wireless service providers. Cellular networks (like GSM networks or CDMA networks) and satellite networks are good examples of wireless WAN networks. c01.qxd 6/17/2004 4:37 PM Page 5 5 1.2. REVIEW OF WIRELESS NETWORK EVOLUTION 2. Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (Wireless MANs). Wireless MAN networks are sometimes referred to as fixed wireless. These are also infrastructure-based net- works that enable users to establish broadband wireless connections among multi- ple locations within a metropolitan area, for example, among multiple office build- ings in a city or on a university campus, without the high cost of laying fiber or copper cabling and leasing lines 3. In addition, Wireless MANs can serve as back- ups for wired networks should the primary leased lines for wired networks become unavailable. Both radio waves and infrared light can be used in wireless MANs to transmit data. Popular technologies include local multipoint distribution services (LMDS) and multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS). IEEE has set up a specific 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards that develops standards and recommended practices to support the development and de- ployment of broadband wireless metropolitan area networks 151. 3. Wireless Local Area Network (Wireless LANs). Wireless local area networks en- able users to establish wireless connections within a local area, typically within a corporate or campus building, or in a public space, such as an airport, usually with- in a 100 m range. WLANs provide flexible data communication systems that can be used in temporary offices or other spaces where the installation of extensive cabling would be prohibitive, or to supplement an existing LAN so that users can work at different locations within a building at different times 3, 7. Offices, homes, coffee shops, and airports represent the typical hotspots for wireless LAN installations. Wireless LANs can operate in infrastructure-based or in ad hoc mode. In the in- frastructure mode, wireless stations connect to wireless access points that function as bridges between the stations and an existing network backbone. In the ad hoc mode, several wireless stations within a limited area, such as a conference room, can form a temporary network without using access points, if they do not require access to network resources. Typical wireless LAN implementations include 802.11 (Wi-Fi) and Hiperlan2. Under 802.11a and 802.11b, data can reach transmission speeds between 11 Mbps to 54 Mbps 13, 14. 4. Wireless Personal Area Networks (Wireless PANs). Wireless PAN technologies en- able users to establish ad hoc, wireless communication among personal wireless de- vices such as PDAs, cellular phones, or laptops that are used within a personal op- erating space, typically up to a 10 meter range. Two key Wireless PAN technologies are Bluetooth and infrared light. Bluetooth 10, 11 is a cable-replacement technol- ogy that uses radio waves to transmit data to a distance of up to 9–10 m, whereas in- frared can connect devices within a 1 m range. Wireless PAN is gaining momentum because of its low complexity, low power consumption, and interoperability with 802.11 networks. By Access Technology. Depending on the specific standard, frequency, and spectrum usage, wireless networks can be categorized based on the access technology used. These include:  GSM networks  TDMA networks  CDMA networksc01.qxd 6/17/2004 4:37 PM Page 6 6 MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKING WITH A VIEW OF 4G WIRELESS: IMPERATIVES AND CHALLENGES  Satellite networks  Wi-Fi (802.11) networks  Hiperlan2 networks  Bluetooth networks  Infrared networks By Network Applications. Wireless networks can also be categorized based on the specific usage and applications they support, for example, 1. Enterprise Networks 2. Home Networks 3. Tactical Networks 4. Sensor Networks 5. Pervasive Networks 6. Wearable Computing 7. Automated Vehicle Networks 1.2.3. Forces Driving Wireless Technology Evolution To understand the wireless technology trends, and to see why noninfrastructure-based mo- bile ad hoc networks are poised to play an important role in the evolution of future wire- less networks, it helps to review the evolution path of different technology generations. Table 1.1 summarizes the technologies, architectures, and applications for each of these generations. One can argue that the commercial history of wireless started with the first generation or 1G in 1980s, which supported analog cell phones using FDMA and was relatively un- sophisticated. Because different regions of the world pursued different mobile phone stan- dards, 1G phones typically could only be used within one country. E Examples of 1G sys- tems include NMT, TACS in Europe, and AMPS in North America. The cellular industry began deployment of second-generation networks, 2G, a decade or so ago. 2G digitizes the mobile system and adds fax, data, and messaging capabilities on top of the traditional voice service. This evolution was triggered by the high demand for low-speed data access required to enable popular mobile data services like email, SMS, and so on. Again, different standards were deployed in different regions of the world; for example, Europe and Asia use GSM, whereas North America uses a mix of TDMA, CDMA, and GSM as 2G technologies. Recently, 2G has been extended to 2.5G to provide better support for transmitting low-speed data up to 384 kbps. Currently, efforts are under way to transition the wireless industry from 2G networks to third-generation (3G) networks that would follow a common global standard based on CDMA and provide worldwide roaming capabilities. 3G networks offer increased band- width of 128 Kbps when mobile device is moving at higher speeds, for example, a car, up to 384 Kbps for mobility at pedestrian speed, and 2 Mbps in stationary applications, mak- ing it possible to deliver live video clips. There are still different flavors of the air inter- faces though: Europe and Asia are promoting W-CDMA and EDGE, whereas North America works on cdma2000, each developed by different standard bodies—3GPP for Europe and Asia and 3GPP2 for North America.c01.qxd 6/17/2004 4:37 PM Page 7 7 1.2. REVIEW OF WIRELESS NETWORK EVOLUTION Table 1.1. Wireless Technology Generations Generation 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4/5G Time Frame 1980s 1990s Late1990s 2000s 2010s (2010 full deployment) Signal Type Analog Digital Digital Digital Digital Access Multiple access FDMA/FDD TDMA/FDD EDGE, GPRS CDMA, W-CDMA, MC-CDMA, OFDM CDMA/FDD TD-SCDMA Frequency 824–894 MHz 1800–2400 MHZ Higher-frequency spectrum 890–960 MHz (varies country bands 2–8 GHz 1850–1990 to country) MHz (PCS) Bandwidth 5–20 Mhz 100 MHz Antenna Optimized antenna, Smarter antenna, multiband adapter Multiband and wide-band support FEC Convolutional rate, Concatenated 1/2, 1/3 coding scheme Network Architecture Media type Voice Mostly voice Mostly Voice Voice Converged voice/ Low-speed Higher-speed High-speed data data/multimedia data services data (10–384 (144 kbps–2 over IP; Ultra-high- via modem kbps) Mbps) speed data (2–100 (10–70 kbps) Mbps) Network type Cellular Cellular Cellular WWAN Integrated WWAN, Cell based WMAN, WLAN (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) and WPAN (Bluetooth) Structure Infrastructure Infrastructure Infrastructure Infrastructure- Hybrid of based based based based network infrastucture-based and ad hoc network Switching Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit switched Packet switched switched switched switched and packet switched IP support N/A N/A N/A Use several air All IP based (IP6.0) link protocols, including IP5.0 New Applications Emails, Ubiquitous maps/directions, computing with News, shopping, location intelligence e-commerce, interactive gaming, etc. Ex System AMPS, NMT, GSM, GPRS, UMTS TACS DCS1900, EDGE IMT2000 IS-136, CDMA2000 CdmaOne W-CDMA

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