Why workforce diversity is important

managing workforce diversity and wellness and why workforce diversity is an important issue for managers
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Dr.JesperHunt,United States,Researcher
Published Date:16-07-2017
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BEST PRACTICES IN ACHIEVING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE’S NATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR REINVENTING GOVERNMENT BENCHMARKING STUDYTABLE OF CONTENTS BENCHMARKING STUDY PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHAPTER 2: LEADERSHIP COMMITMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 CHAPTER 3: STRATEGIC PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 CHAPTER 4: EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 APPENDICES A. BENCHMARKING AGENCY PARTICIPANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1 B. TELEPHONE SURVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B1 C. SCORE CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C1 D. SITE VISIT GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D1BENCHMARKING STUDY PARTNERS Coors Brewing Company Golden, Colorado DaimlerChrysler Auburn Hills, Michigan Eastman Kodak Rochester, New York Fannie Mae Washington, DC The Prudential Insurance Company of America Newark, New Jersey The Seattle Times Seattle, Washington Sempra Energy San Diego, California United States Coast Guard Washington, DC Xerox Rochester, New YorkACKNOWLEDGMENTS STUDY SPONSORS MORLEY WINOGRAD ROBERT L. MALLETT SENIOR POLICY ADVISOR TO THE VICE PRESIDENT DEPUTY SECRETARY DIRECTOR, NATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR REINVENTING U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GOVERNMENT (NPR) STUDY DIRECTOR WILETT BUNTON DIRECTOR NPR DIVERSITY TASK FORCE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY STUDY ADVISORS CAROL HAYASHIDA DEPUTY DIRECTOR NPR DIVERSITY TASK FORCE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ROB SADLER RAJ K. GUPTA ATTORNEY ATTORNEY NPR DIVERSITY TASK FORCE NPR DIVERSITY TASK FORCE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION STUDY TEAM LEADERS ORELIOUS WALKER, PRINCIPAL DAVID BENTON U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION The Benchmarking Team thanks the corporate and government partners who willingly shared their experiences and best practices with us. Special thanks to Linda J. Bilmes, Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Administration, United States Department of Commerce; John J. Phelan III, Director, Office of Management and Organization, United States Department of Commerce; Lisa Mallory, Deputy Director, National Partnership for Reinventing Government; and, Tom Kowalczyk, Senior Engineer, Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport.Executive Summary Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity Executive Summary diversity within their organizations. These Diversity Affects the World practices reflect our partners’ understanding Our success as a Advances in technology and the advent of a that valuing and recognizing diversity is global economy bring the people of the world imperative in order to maintain a competitive global company closer together than ever before. Given this fact, advantage. They know that using these businesses, educational systems and other entities practices enhances productivity, effectiveness, is a direct result are investigating ways to better serve their and sustained competitiveness. constituents. This includes being able to attract of our diverse and retain the best and most qualified workers. How is this different? Organizations that can develop and employ the Frequently, diversity is viewed in a limited necessary policies and procedures to do this will and talented fashion, primarily addressing issues of race, maintain a competitive advantage among their ethnic or gender differences, and linked to the counterparts and increase their effectiveness. The workforce. Our laws providing protected status to certain private sector competitive model may not groups. We have used a very broad definition squarely fit Federal departments and agencies, ability to develop of diversity, to encompass most characteristics given the lack of profit motive as the reason for that individuals possess that affect the way they their existence. Yet, Federal organizations must new consumer think and do things. This is critical. This compete to recruit and retain the best talent if study describes tested ways to draw on all the they hope to achieve their bottom line, their insights and varied skills of our workforce. statutory missions. ideas and to What did we learn? The changing demographics of our nation also affect the nation’s businesses and in turn the This study emphasizes the most valuable execute in a nation’s economy. For our government and information that the best practices organizations businesses to continue to be effective and motivate have to offer. Our critical findings focus on the superior way citizens to contribute to building these following information because we can use it to institutions, our leaders must recognize and further and strengthen the U.S. government’s capitalize upon the diversity of the nation. across the world efforts to achieve diversity in the workplace. Why is this important? is the best • Organizations Benefit from Diversity To achieve success and maintain a competitive possible Organizations that promote and achieve a advantage, we must be able to draw on the most diverse workplace will attract and retain important resource – the skills of the workforce. quality employees and increase customer testimony to the With the increasing richness of diversity in the loyalty. For public organizations, it also world and in the workforce, we need to expand translates into effective delivery of essential power of our outlook and use creative strategies to be services to communities with diverse needs. successful. Employees can provide this resource. This study identifies best practices diversity any • Leaders and Managers are Responsible for that work in organizations that are doing just Diversity that. These practices can be adopted in any organization workplace. Leaders and managers within organizations could ever have. are primarily responsible for the success of Why should we pay attention? diversity policies because they must ensure John Pepper, CEO, Our partners have created communities of that the policies are effective. Procter & Gamble practice that achieve and value workforceExecutive Summary Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity • Leaders and Managers must Create a Our Key Finding Strategic Plan to Develop Diversity A key finding of this report is that diversity Initiatives Throughout the Organization needs to be defined broadly and should encompass a wide range of initiatives that meet Leaders and managers within organizations must the changing needs of customers and workers. incorporate diversity policies into every aspect of Leaders and employees should take active roles the organization’s functions and purpose. in implementing these diversity processes which, in order to succeed, should be fully • Employees’ Views and Involvement are Key aligned with core organizational goals and to the Success of Diversity Initiatives objectives. The findings in this report illustrate that the benefits of diversity are for everyone. Organizations must view employee Diversity is more than a moral imperative; it is participation as a necessary part of the a global necessity. Moreover, diversity is an diversity initiative, in order to develop and essential component of any civil society. maintain effective diversity policies. The leaders of the best practices organizations understand that they must support their employees in learning how to effectively interact with and manage people in a diverse workplace. They recognize that they should encourage employees to continue to learn new skills in dealing with and managing people. They also recognize the impact that diverse clients will have upon the success or failure of an organization, as businesses must compete to satisfy these clients.Introduction Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity hapter 1: Introduction Today’s managers are responsible for both organization. As one benchmarking partner leading employees and responding to the needs stated, "We view diversity as something more There were never of customers who are more ethnically and than a moral imperative or a business culturally diverse, older, and in greater need of necessity—we see it as a business opportunity." in the world two child and elder care. Leaders in both the public Aligning diversity with the mission and business and the private sectors are focusing more of the organization increases employee opinions alike; attention on the issue of diversity. Whether the satisfaction and retention; improves goal is to be an employer of choice, to provide competitiveness and productivity; increases anymore than excellent customer service, or to maintain a responsiveness; and adds value to the customer. competitive edge, diversity is increasingly recognized and utilized as an important two hairs or Scope of the Study organizational resource. The United States Department of Commerce two grains. The and Vice President Al Gore’s National What is Diversity? Partnership for Reinventing Government most universal One of the major stumbling blocks in (NPR) sponsored this benchmarking study. discussions surrounding diversity is its very The study identifies best practices used by quality is definition. For our purposes, we use the leading organizations to achieve workforce following definition of diversity: "Diversity diversity. The study team identified the includes all characteristics and experiences that diversity. following critical success factors to evaluate best 1 define each of us as individuals." A common practices: misconception about diversity is that only Michel de Montaigne, certain persons or groups are included under its French Essayist 1. Leadership and management umbrella, when in fact, exactly the opposite is commitment; true. Diversity includes the entire spectrum of 1 2. Employee involvement; The working definition of diversity, as primary dimensions of an individual, including developed and used by Vice President Al 3. Strategic planning; Gore’s National Partnership for Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Age, Religion, 4. Sustained investment; Reinventing Government (NPR) Disability, and Sexual orientation (referred to by 5. Diversity indicators; Diversity Task Force, based on a the Diversity Task Force as “REGARDS”). comprehensive review of diversity 6. Accountability, measurement, and literature. Secondary dimensions commonly include: evaluation; and communication style, work style, organizational 2 7. Linkage to organizational goals and See, e.g., Taylor Cox, Jr., Cultural role/level, economic status, and geographic Diversity in Organizations (San objectives. Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers), origin (e.g., East, Midwest, South). It is a 1994, pp. 19-40; Ann Morrison, The simple fact that each of us possesses unique The practices that are included in this report are New Leaders: Guidelines on Leadership qualities along each of these dimensions. Diversity in America (San Francisco: Josey not identified by specific organization in order Bass Publishers),1992, pp. 18-28. Experience and recent research indicate that to preserve the partners’ confidentiality. when recognized and valued, diversity enhances 3 J. Renae Norton and Ronald individual productivity, organizational E. Fox, The Change Equation The study team reviewed a wide range of 2 (Washington, DC: American effectiveness, and sustained competitiveness. diversity literature and identified over 600 Psychological Association), companies and organizations—both public and 1997, p. 80. In order "to maximize the utilization of its private—which were recognized for their efforts human capital, organizations must go beyond in achieving workforce diversity. The study team merely creating a more diverse workplace. conducted an additional screening procedure to Once there, the value of having diverse identify organizations whose exemplary practices 3 employees must be recognized." Now is the in achieving workforce diversity were truly time to move beyond viewing diversity as "world class" based on the identified critical merely the numerical representation of certain success factors. As a result, 65 organizations were groups. It is time for a systematic application of selected for more detailed analysis. diversity concepts to the business of theIntroduction Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity 5 The study team developed a telephone survey workplace. There are common themes and that was administered to representatives of these elements among the organizations that have organizations to gain additional insights on charted successful courses in this area. Through their current diversity practices. Based on benchmarking studies such as this one, the survey results and availability considerations, Federal civilian sector—which employs over 1.6 nine benchmarking partners were ultimately million persons—has the opportunity to learn selected for on-site visits. More than half of more about diversity from world class these partners have been recently featured in organizations. The Department of Commerce Fortune and Next Step magazine articles and NPR recognize diversity as a key resource highlighting their cutting-edge diversity best in fulfilling the goal of making government 4 practices. more efficient, productive and responsive to the American citizenry. As a result, it is important This report and other studies clearly that the Federal sector begin viewing diversity as demonstrate that some organizations have a process which influences work climates, successfully implemented programs and policies organizational effectiveness, customer service, that foster diversity and inclusiveness in the and ultimately, the way we do business. 4 See articles published in Keith Ellison, "The Next Step Diversity 100," Next Step (Philadelphia, Next Step Enterprises), Spring 1999, p. 34; Edward Robinson and Jonathan Hickman, "The Diversity Elite," Fortune (New York: Time, Inc.), July 1999, p. 62. 5 See supra, footnote 2.Leadership Commitment Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity hap ter 2: Leadership Commitment executive stated that the diversity vision, Taking Ownership and mission and strategic direction needs to be Communicating the Vision We must be the conveyed by leaders "clearly, concisely and The degree to which our partners’ leaders are repeatedly" to enhance awareness, promote change we wish actively involved in implementing initiatives open dialog, and remove barriers. Several and risk taking distinguishes them from other partners stressed that effective communication to see in the leaders. Managers manage change, but best-in- needs to be multidirectional within and across class leaders create change by inspiring their departments. world. employees. Our partners champion diversity by infusing it into all organizational processes and Creating a common frame of reference ensuring that diversity is integrated into the establishes a solid foundation upon which to Mahatma Gandhi, core values of the organization. They recognize discuss diversity and develop action plans to India’s Nationalist Leader diversity as an important goal, and position the eliminate biases and barriers. Our partners note responsibility for diversity not merely with that there is no “one-size-fits-all” nor any human resources departments or diversity “magic pill” to make diversity “happen.” offices, but with top-level and senior executives. However, some communication channels Our best-in-class leaders provide the visibility effectively used by our partners to spread the and commit the time and resources to make diversity message include: policy statements, diversity happen. In short, diversity is both a newsletters, meetings, speeches, training top priority and a personal responsibility for programs,Web sites, and intranets. these leaders. • At one partner organization, top management • The top leader in one of our partner supports the existence of a dedicated staff that organizations personally leads the diversity promotes and oversees the infusion of efforts. He holds town hall meetings and diversity in its business lines and also designs regularly goes to the employee cafeteria to activities that promote and foster diversity listen and talk about diversity. throughout the organization. A full time staff of six at the corporate level sends a message • A partner’s Chief Executive Officer requires that there is top-level interest in diversity. the selection panel for key positions to This staff, located under the Vice President identify at least six persons qualified for the for Human Resources, is one level below the position and has held up key selections Chief Executive Officer. because of the lack of diversity in applicant pools. • To lead the company’s diversity efforts, one partner created an Office of Diversity. The • The Chairman of the Board of one partner Vice President of Diversity, who reports organization registered the corporation’s directly to the Vice Chair, heads the office statement of commitment to diversity with and has broad decision making authority. an external regulatory body. Changes to this The Vice President of Diversity works closely commitment do not go unnoticed. with the human resources division, the minority and women-owned business The top leaders of our benchmarking partner program, and is a representative on every organizations are all personally involved in board and almost every committee in the helping the boards of directors, employees, organization. other stakeholders and their respective communities understand that diversity • When one partner organization recently initiatives create fairer employment systems and merged with another company, the Chair, benefits for everyone. Equity and improved job President, and Chief Executive Officer jointly satisfaction contribute to increased productivity signed a diversity statement to keep diversity and better customer service. One partner’s chief at the forefront. It states that, "DiversityLeadership Commitment Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity creates value and is an integral part of being committed to foster a diverse workforce and the premier global company." The statement recognize and value every individual’s unique outlined their goals to: (1) ensure a workforce skills and perspectives." These commitments reflective of the global communities they are shared and reinforced on a daily basis. serve; and (2) create a culture that uses diversity to its competitive advantage. • One partner has an upper-level leadership team that guides and evaluates the company’s Empowering Through Leadership progress toward achieving its diversity goals. The team gains insights from an advisory For our benchmarking partners, diversity does group that represents eight employee not depend on a single leader because it has councils. Each employee council has a been woven into the very fabric of the corporate vice president as a sponsor. The organizations—woven into the way these councils are inclusive—anyone who wants to organizations conduct business on a daily basis. promote cross-cultural communication is This is because the leadership understands the encouraged to become involved. importance of employee involvement in the change process. They also recognize that being • To institutionalize diversity management at competitive in a global economy requires full one partner organization, individuals who are utilization of the skills and talents of all seen as potential leadership successors are employees to better serve their customers, asked to become champions of diversity increase employee satisfaction, and meet the before assuming a leadership role. Once they needs of diverse communities. One of our become leaders they are already established as partners contends, "Success will only be proponents for diversity. achieved through inspired people operating in an environment based on mutual trust, respect, • One partner recognizes the contributions of openness, candor, empowerment, teamwork, its managers to advancing diversity. For innovation, risk taking, integrity, and example, in 1998 it created a Chief Executive encouraging and valuing diversity." Officer/Chief Operating Officer Diversity Award. This award recognizes managers • For one of our partners, Ten Core whose commitment to diversity makes them Commitments represent the values that role models for others. Such champions are define the spirit of the organization— used to share their experiences throughout diversity is one of these core commitments. the company to demonstrate the benefit of The diversity commitment states: "We are diversity to others.Strategic Planning Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity hap ter 3: Strategic Planning offering market-competitive, performance- Linking Diversity to Strategic Plans When aligned based compensation and benefits that also Diversity strategic planning focuses on creating meet the changing needs of its workforce. measurable ways diversity can support the with The diversity mission is to drive towards the strategic direction, goals, and objectives of the attainment of the “People” plank goals that 6 organization. Strategic level long-range are to create an environment in which people organizational planning for diversity is a more recent from diverse backgrounds, styles, cultures, development. Previously, diversity was not seen and functions all work together to assure the objectives, as an integral part of strategic planning. long-term success of the company. Diversity initiatives were often poorly diversity can be conceptualized, lacked specificity, and were not • One partner’s operating management and the linked to strategic organizational plans. Today’s human resources department jointly a powerful leaders realize that in order to be effective, developed a five-year diversity plan. This successful diversity planning must be aligned plan included a monitoring system to contributor with and provide support for strategic business measure diversity representation by function objectives and operational decisions. at all levels to: (1) ensure a balanced to the workforce, and (2) strengthen the • One partner builds its diversity strategic plan organization’s ability to attract, hire, retain, upon its core values: (1) respect for the and develop the most highly qualified organization’s dignity of the individual, (2) integrity, (3) employees. Specific measures included in the trust, (4) credibility, (5) continuous plan are: positive responses to employee competitive improvement, and (6) personal renewal. This surveys, positive articles in publications, partner has also set a specific "Global reputation as an employer of choice, advantage. Performance Expectation," which is to build improved representation of diversity at all and manage a truly diverse workforce. levels, effective remedial action when Dr. Edward E. Hubbard, Author, appropriate, awards, and other recognition. Measuring Diversity Results • Another partner uses a Balanced Workforce (BWF) Strategy, which is an all-encompassing • One partner’s strategic plan was designed to 6 strategy. It guides the organization in a Edward E. Hubbard, Measuring provide a link between the vision for diversity Diversity Results (Petaluma, CA: Global variety of situations and it covers all employee management and the actions required for Insights Publishing), 1997, Chapter 7. populations. It tracks employee populations making it happen. One of the first and sets 10-year goals and annual targets. requirements was to define diversity, and The BWF makes managers accountable for diversity management. Once this was upward mobility. When layoffs occur, the accomplished, the definitions were used to BWF ensures that members of one group are form the foundation of the organization’s not affected disproportionately compared to diversity policy, vision statement, and members of other groups. strategic plan. The core elements of the strategic plan are strategic goals and • One partner has six strategic business planks objectives, a plan for conducting a cultural that are its business priorities to help it audit, a training and education plan, a plan sustain consistent quality and earnings for recognizing diversity-related growth. The six planks concentrate on accomplishments, and measures of baseline growth, incremental growth, product effectiveness. The strategic plan also quality, distributor service, productivity gains, addresses accountability for implementing and people. The "People" plank is to diversity initiatives. continuously improve our business through engaging and developing our people. It • One partner’s strategic plan uses a four-step focuses on building skills, offering training, approach for establishing and implementing improving the work environment, and diversity: Strategic Planning Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity 1. Creating a strong foundation (values, underrepresentation, and implement philosophy, dedicated resources, and accountability measures into evaluations); and commitment); (5) promote individuals’ ability to reach their 2. Building a solid internal structure full potential (identify and groom high- (initiatives to support and educate performing individuals in underrepresented employees); groups for upper-level positions, and make 3. Building a solid external structure to mentor programs accessible to all). infuse diversity into the community; and 4. Measuring the progress and results (goal Accountability setting for all efforts). A key element to ensuring the success of any organizational initiative—especially diversity • The components of one partner’s diversity initiatives—is accountability. Accountability is plan include: (1) developing ongoing achieved by making the appropriate leaders communication systems to create and responsible for diversity by linking performance reinforce the workplace diversity commitment evaluation elements and compensation to the to all employees with an emphasis on why it is successful implementation and progress of these important and what it means to the initiatives. Accountability helps to ensure that organization; (2) establishing departmental "everyone is on board" and actively engaged in action plans to ensure the workforce reflects the diversity process. the diversity of the community; and (3) developing organization-wide assessment and • One partner makes use of "Consequence evaluation systems to monitor diversity Management." The program philosophy progress throughout the organization. maintains that poor diversity management Additionally, training and empowerment adversely affects a manager’s ability to initiatives provide a foundation, for all levels manage. Promotion to the next level requires of the organization, to foster the "competent" or "role model" assessment. accomplishment of diversity goals. One component for evaluating management performance is the ability to manage a diverse • One partner conducted a study to develop group of employees. its diversity management policy. The work was segmented into three phases: (1) • In 1996, one partner established a top-level Framework (diversity definition, policy and Diversity Steering and Assessment Team to vision statement, best practices benchmarking guide and oversee diversity plans and of other organizations and potential programs, and to ensure the level of application to the organization, and the accountability necessary in order to achieve rationale for seeking a consultant’s assistance); desired results. Members include the (2) Strategic Plan (a plan of action for President, Chief Financial Officer, Senior incorporating diversity management, a plan Vice President of Human Resources, and for conducting cultural audit, training plan, other corporate officers. They meet monthly measures of effectiveness, accountability to discuss diversity progress and challenges. methods, and rewards and recognition system The team receives counsel from the Diversity analysis); and (3) Implementation Action and Advisory Group, comprised of (assessment of strengths and barriers in the eight employee affinity groups. culture, and a marketing strategy for deploying diversity management). • At one partner organization, recurring diversity training is mandatory for all • Another partner designed a strategic plan to employees, and business unit managers are provide a link between the vision for diversity held accountable for timely attendance by management and the actions required for both management and non-management success. The goals are to: (1) create a positive employees. To ensure managerial environment (incorporate diversity accountability, the company reduces the management training into all leadership operating budget of a business unit by 1,000 training programs); (2) conduct a cultural for each manager and 500 for each audit and develop intervention strategies; (3) employee who fails to attend scheduled establish guidelines to define and address training without giving 48 hours advance social climate issues affecting personnel; notice of cancellation. Last minute no shows (4) value all people (action plans to target Strategic Planning Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity are accordingly discouraged and management • One partner incorporates diversity is induced to treat diversity training with the management training into all leadership same seriousness as any other business training programs—establishing ties between activity. A director stated, "… if you grab diversity management and leadership, as well them by their wallet, their hearts and minds as Total Quality Management, human will follow." relations and work/life issues. All organizational levels are held accountable for • One partner organization has an open door developing initiatives that incorporate policy at all organizational levels. An diversity management policies into their employee must receive a response within 48 business and management processes. Leaders hours, and if dissatisfied, the employee may are also required to hold each individual elevate the concern to the next management accountable for conduct consistent with level, including the Chief Executive Officer. valuing and managing diversity. Assessment and Evaluation • Believing that mandatory training is an enabler, the Chief Executive Officer of one A number of our benchmarking partners partner organization directs that all employees pointed out that one could not develop a attend diversity training. To facilitate this successful diversity process without periodically initiative, everyone on the diversity assessing and evaluating the status and management staff is a certified trainer. Funds accomplishments of the process. Although the are provided for training and development, to frequency may vary, world class diversity include awareness training, cross-cultural or organizations make assessing and evaluating gender team building training, diversity skills their diversity process an integral part of their training for managers, supervisors, and management system. employees, as well as diversity orientation training for the Board of Directors. Diversity Any diversity strategy must contain well-defined is also integrated into training that focuses on measures to assess effectiveness and to evaluate other skills or knowledge. whether outcomes support organizational objectives and targets. Such measures must be • One partner’s action plan to improve diversity straightforward and unambiguous so that all management accountability includes employees and leaders clearly understand what initiatives to: (1) publish an accountability is expected. Organizations must be prepared to component to the Diversity Management reward individuals or groups that meet the Strategic Plan; (2) establish a workplace stated goals and objectives, as well as to penalize environment management system to help those who fail to do so. According to our units assess and address performance and partners, some straightforward diversity diversity issues on a continuing basis; (3) measures include: expedite the processing of Equal Employment Opportunity complaints and administrative 1. Employee attrition rates; grievances; (4) expand data analyses of hiring, 2. Workforce satisfaction; performance evaluations, disciplinary actions, 3. Market share within new customer bases; complaint ratios, key assignments, 4. External awards and recognition for promotions, recognition, and departures to diversity efforts; and identify barriers or discrimination; and (5) 5. Workplace climate satisfaction. revise performance evaluations to emphasize diversity management skills and actions. • One partner conducts an annual organizational chart assessment to identify its • Another partner conducts an annual diversity current diversity status and whether it reflects review and performance appraisal for all the community it serves. Each department officers. The officers present progress reports head regularly meets with senior leadership to on goals and diversity initiatives to create a discuss the "promotability" of current more balanced and inclusive workforce. The employees and what is being done sharing of accomplishments and challenges throughout all levels to develop their before the Diversity Committee is viewed as organization’s talent. strengthening the commitment to diversity and best practices. Strategic Planning Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity • One partner has set specific workforce of each manager’s plan is discussed every objectives. The goal is to have a workforce other month at a top-level steering meeting. that reflects the customers it serves and the communities in which the partner • At one partner organization, leaders and organization resides. By the year 2000, its managers must identify a minimum of four worldwide management ranks will reflect the actions in their respective annual performance demographics of its global market. By the plans that visibly demonstrate their personal year 2007, its exempt workforce commitment to promoting diversity. These representation around the world will reflect actions are required to be specific and the demographics of the local markets it substantial—one of the four actions could be serves. This is indicative of how the partner an undertaking to mentor five employees organization integrated diversity into its during the year, for example. To meet one of performance-based culture. his four actions, one partner’s CEO organized and attended a half-day meeting on diversity • One partner defines coaching as the essence with the CEOs of over 30 other major of leadership. A "Leader as Coach" profile is corporations. The organization intends to used to define workplace behaviors and publish a summary of the proceedings to results to be achieved. Specific behaviors are publicly demonstrate the top leadership’s defined in six target areas (e.g., Builds the personal commitment to diversity. Right Team, Encourages Excellence, Cares About People) and each is assessed as being a • One partner created the "Managing Diversity "strength" or a "development opportunity." Diagnostic Tool," a checklist to give the A profile is completed annually for everyone business groups a template of suggested in a leadership position. The leader and action items to enable managers to develop his/her coach meet to discuss the feedback their Diversity Action Plans. All action items gained from all sources and agree upon the are weighted so managers can see which top two or three priority strengths and action items senior leadership considers most development opportunities. The profile is critical. The Diagnostic Tool measures used in annual processes related to effectiveness of actions implemented and development plans, human resource plans, executive commitment. and performance plans and appraisals. • One partner conducts an annual "Stages of • One partner uses a scorecard to assess its Diversity" internal diversity audit to assess diversity progress. The scorecard includes each unit’s progress in achieving diversity. three areas: (1) coaching as the tool to The audit provides a common framework for building awareness around diversity and dialog, work unit self-assessment, and unit continuing the company’s goal to mainstream and departmental diversity planning. Work diversity; (2) Workforce Representation Plan; units develop a diversity plan with three to and (3) Employee Council Activities. five goals, qualitative and quantitative Specific measurements are established for measures, beginning and end dates, and each area at the beginning of the year. These designation of a lead individual. Department are included in a scorecard format that also heads and work unit managers meet annually includes a description of activities that are with all employees to review where their units supportive of the goals in each area, and a fall on a diversity continuum. Further blank area in which current results are initiatives are developed based on the stage annotated. Measurements track actions by the unit has achieved. managers, the Diversity Human Resources staff, employee councils, and corporate • A photograph audit helps one partner evaluate leadership. A top-level team scrutinizes the whether the images it uses are stereotypical or results of the scorecard in order to determine representative of the community it serves. performance and progress. Workforce The goal is to facilitate accurate, balanced, representation is one of three diversity-related and inclusive coverage of the community’s measures that have been put into place. diversity. A month is randomly selected each Senior leaders develop actionable plans year to conduct an assessment of all featured focused on internal development, cross- photographs. Corrective action is taken if functional moves, retention, external certain segments of the community are not recruitment, and measurement. The progress fully and accurately represented.Employee Involvement Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity hapter 4: Employee Involvement When it comes to employees, our partners have • One partner organized a diversity summit several things in common. Namely, they have with managers and employees from all levels Hear me A three core organizational goals: and geographic regions. Its purpose was to assess the status of diversity within the single twig 1. Maximizing workplace satisfaction for all organization by holding constructive dialog employees; sessions where participants could speak breaks, but the 2. Retaining a world class workforce; and openly and honestly about differences in a 3. Maintaining an environment of lifetime non-attributive atmosphere. The summit bundle of twigs learning. increased awareness, promoted the sharing of best practices and similar dialog in The leadership believes that employee organizational units. is strong. involvement and feedback are necessary components in achieving these goals. Thus, • At another partner organization, its Chief Tecumseh, Shawnee 1795 our partners actively seek employee input. Executive Officer conducts roundtables with They use formal as well as informal channels. randomly selected employees. They are given a chance to hear about the status of diversity • Many of our partners administer cultural without it being filtered by employee groups. diversity audits. These audits take the pulse In turn, the Chief Executive Officer gains of the workforce and provide candid valuable insight and identifies action items to assessments of the work climate. The results pursue. form the basis upon which process improvements are made. • In one organization, the variable portion of a manager’s compensation (e.g., bonuses) is • An example of an informal channel is one affected by the results of employee partner’s use of internal Web sites where satisfaction surveys. This feedback also employees can express their concerns, engage generates nominations for management in open dialog (e.g., chat rooms) and learn recognition as well. about diversity. • In another, employee satisfaction is a key • Still another example of an informal channel issue and all employees are surveyed is the use of an employee feedback hotline electronically on a quarterly and an annual that allows employees to contact diversity basis for feedback. Managers are given advisors and provide feedback on questions performance "credit" if their respective such as those listed below: group’s survey return rate exceeds 60 percent. Dialog with Affinity Groups 1. How would you rate your overall satisfaction with the organization at the Our partners encourage and support the present time? establishment of employee groups, although they 2. How satisfied are you with the information may take different forms, names, and structures. you receive from management regarding Common types include diversity councils, task what is going on in the company? teams, focus groups, affinity councils, issue study 3. Does management clearly outline a credible groups, and networking groups. These groups future that you can believe in? provide a forum to both articulate and 4. Does your employee development plan build understand the varied needs and interests of skills to remain competitive in the future? employees. Participation in these groups is 5. Are differences valued? welcomed. Often, input is sought from 6. Are employees treated with dignity and employee groups to determine their perception respect? of progress achieved with regard to diversity.Employee Involvement Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity These groups act as sounding boards and into the decision making process. Thus, provide feedback on important diversity issues. affinity group feedback is regarded as a valuable resource. In most, but not all, employee groups, individuals who share commonalties in race, • Another partner shares its Balanced Workforce ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, Strategy reports with the leaders of its religion, national origin or cultural heritage corporate affinity groups and provides them form or join employee support groups. These an opportunity to meet with the Senior Vice organizations provide a voice for members, President for Human Resources and the Chief allowing them to communicate diversity issues Executive Officer to discuss their concerns and concerns to senior management. In one based on those reports. The reports include organization, representatives from these groups detailed data on representational imbalances serve on the company’s Diversity Advisory for all employee groups—not just the Council. Some use the groups to nominate historically underrepresented groups—within persons for diversity recognition awards. all grade bands. These reports also show available opportunities for managers to fill • An affinity group from one organization vacancies and highlights the manner in which developed criteria for an award that is managers take advantage of opportunities to presented to an employee who embraces the achieve corporate diversity objectives. spirit of diversity, confronts and removes obstacles, is involved in the community, and • In one partner organization, employee is willing to do what it takes to advance diversity councils represent a cross-section of diversity. A leader in that same organization the organization’s workforce. A computerized stated: "Employee involvement is the driver grid of all of the characteristics desired for in mainstreaming diversity." Personal this council is used to ensure diversity within accountability for diversity is an integral part this body. The diversity council elects a chair of employee reviews and is clearly outlined in or up to three co-chairs from within its many policy statements. membership and meets monthly. Travel expenses to meetings are centrally funded. • Another partner uses caucus groups. New diversity council candidates are Through these groups, employees carry out identified by the Office of Corporate employee advocacy and self-development. Diversity in consultation with unions and These groups serve as a vehicle of management, and—when appointed for a communication between employees and two-year term—the members receive diversity managers to uncover issues needing attention. training. The members’ participation must Benefits of these groups include the be constructive and is considered to be part recruitment of new employees; career of their regular duties. For that reason, the development of employees; retaining effective selection criteria include clear demonstration staff; senior management improvement; and of leadership ability. Ineffective members are the inclusion of all diverse members in the asked to leave before the end of their terms, workforce. and these members are not replaced at that time. Members who complete their terms are • One partner has eight employee councils that formally recognized. The councils are able to promote awareness, understanding and identify employee issues that may not have communication of diversity, and identify and otherwise been discovered. This process leads address specific needs. Each council receives to buy-in from employees and unions, and an identical amount of funding each year to the diversity management staff believes that conduct educational and other activities. this process is an effective part of the These activities are closely aligned to fostering corporate culture and is the result of an the company’s business goals. The councils evolutionary process. Subgroups of the are also involved in community service diversity council are formed in the regions; activities as well as promotional activities in these diversity committees are part of the various targeted markets. process that ensures regional differences are considered. As a result, more diversity • Our partner organizations take advantage of champions are created and benefits flow employee participation in affinity groups to down into the organization. Some of these integrate employee concerns and suggestions benefits are the integration of work andEmployee Involvement Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity family life through family programs, bringing training and to maximize their promotional children to work, establishing virtual offices, potential within the company. job sharing, and split shifts. Employee Wellness Mentoring Employees Finally, as another venue for diversity Most of our partners have established formal participation, our partners establish links mentoring programs. Mentors are used to help between diversity and work life activities such as assimilate new employees into the dependent care funds, alternative work organizational culture. In others, mentoring scheduling, and life cycle assistance. involves the willingness of leaders to accept proteges and introduce them to new and more • One partner organization offers a healthy challenging aspects of the organization. living program free of charge to all employees and their spouses and domestic partners. • One partner in conjunction with an academic This program includes health assessments and institution developed a scholars program to counseling. All participants earn a Healthy attract outstanding undergraduate students Living day off for completing the full and to recognize excellence among screening. academically gifted students from diverse backgrounds. • Another partner sponsors a program designed to help expectant and new parents • One partner works with the community and understand and feel comfortable about breast colleges to "grow" talent in the sciences. The feeding their infants. The program offers company tracks and funds the education of education and counseling with a trained promising scholars. This enables the lactation specialist. New mothers can nurse company to insure skilled leaders will be a their babies when they return to work, as part of the industry in the future. lactation rooms are available in the workplace. • All of one partner’s internship and fellowship programs include targeted development plans; • One partner’s internal structure deals with the assigned mentors; evaluation of the skills "whole person." This company provides gained for promotions; rotational numerous training, mentoring, work life and assignments; and succession planning. career development programs. These programs are designed to retain and expand • One partner’s advanced degree development the current workforce, and help employees program targets future leaders in functional balance career and personal needs. areas and considers what the organization will need in 10 to 15 years. The program also • One partner recognizes the connection includes four one-year rotations and is between the employees’ personal lives and focused on exposure, not fast-tracking. their productivity on the job and has developed various programs responsive to the • The mentoring process in one partner diverse needs of its workforce. The Life organization entails the tracking, monitoring, Cycle Assistance Program was established to and mentoring of candidates from assist employees with the purchase of a first underrepresented groups positioned for senior home, adoption and child care assistance, assignments. These persons are educated partial pay replacement for family and through an innovative development program, medical leave, and elder care assistance for which culminates with an advanced degree. employees with elderly parents. Participants are expected to capitalize on theAppendicesAppendix A Benchmarking Agency Participants Terri Bell Raj K. Gupta Office of Civil Rights Office of Federal Operations U.S. Department of Commerce U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Phone: 301-713-0500 Phone: 202-663-4581 Fax: 301-713-0983 Fax: 202-663-7022 Email: terri.l.bellofa.noaa.gov Email: raj.guptaeeoc.gov David Benton Marian Harris Office of Leadership and Diversity Management Office of Management, Human Resources Group U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Education Phone: 202-267-0107 Phone: 202-260-8354 Fax: 202-267-4610 Fax: 202-205-0723 Email: dbentoncomdt.uscg.mil Email: marian_harrised.gov Wilett Bunton Carol Hayashida Office of the Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board Army for Financial Management and Comptroller Phone: 202-653-6772 U.S. Department of the Army Fax: 202-653-7211 Phone: 703-697-8121 Email: carol.hayashidamspb.gov Email: inclusivediversityhotmail.com Sharrelle Higgins Warren Clayman Office of Diversity Office of Environment, Safety and Health U.S. Office of Personnel Management U.S. Department of Energy Phone: 202-606-1059 Phone: 202-586-4591 Fax: 202-606-0927 Fax: 202-586-7980 Email: swhigginopm.gov Email: warren.claymaneh.doe.gov Raymond Johnson Dee De Leva Patent and Trademark Office Federal Aviation Administration U.S. Department of Commerce U.S. Department of Transportation Phone: 703-308-2565 Phone: 202-267-7345 Fax: 703-308-0818 Fax: 202-267-7636 Email: raymond.b.johnsonuspto.gov Email: dee.m.delevafaa.gov Kathie Klass Sol del Ande Eaton National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Commerce Phone: 202-366-9550 Phone: 301-975-5481 Fax: 202-366-5962 Fax: 301-975-5387 Email: kathie.klassnhtsa.gov Email: sol.eatonnist.gov Martin Levy Dinah Griggsby Office of the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources Operations Management and Budget U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Phone: 202-260-4193 Phone: 202-690-6191 Fax: 202-260-1039 Fax: 202-690-8328 Email: griggsby.dinahepamail.epa.gov Email: mlevyos.dhhs.gov Romanita Lucero Robert Stockman Office of Human Resources Office of Strategic Planning U.S. Small Business Administration U.S. Department of Commerce Phone: 202-205-6153 Phone: 202-482-5976 Fax: 202-205-7064 Fax: 202-501-3024 Email: romanita.lucerosba.gov Email: bstockmandoc.gov Lisa Mallory Orelious Walker National Partnership for Reinventing Government Office of Strategic Planning Phone: 202-694-0006 U.S. Department of Treasury Fax: 202-632-0390 Phone: 202-622-0412 Email: lisa.mallorynpr.gov Fax: 202-622-2549 Email: orelious.walkerdo.treas.gov Carlton Mann Office of the Inspector General Lori Way U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration Office of Executive Assistance Management Phone: 202-646-3921 U.S. Department of Commerce Fax: 202-646-3901 Phone: 202-482-4115 Email: carlton.mannfema.gov Fax: 202-482-3592 Email: lori.waydoc.gov Curtis Marshall U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Carolyn Wong Phone: 202-273-7522 Office of Equal Opportunity Fax: 202-273-5991 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Email: curtis.marshallmail.va.gov Phone: 202-273-5888 Fax: 202-273-6537 Charles Miller Email: carolyn.wongmail.va.gov Defense Logistics Agency U.S. Department of Defense Charles Zoltak Phone: 703-767-1132 Finance and Administration Office Fax: 703-767-1110 U.S. Department of Commerce Email: millercpr.osd.mil Phone: 301-457-3152 Fax: 301-457-3846 Sheila Mingo Email: charles.zoltakccmail.census.gov Old Dominion University Phone: 757-683-4383 Fax: 757-683-5593 Email: smingoodu.edu Rob M. Sadler Office of General Counsel U.S. Department of Commerce Phone: 202-482-8042 Fax: 202-482-2998 Email: rsadler2doc.gov

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