Hiring guidelines for managers

hiring manager responsibilities and hiring the best a manager's guide to effective interviewing
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Dr.JesperHunt,United States,Researcher
Published Date:16-07-2017
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Hiring Manager Guide HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Every recruitment process starts with knowing what you need to recruit for and what the best fit is for your company. When you have a position open up, the first thing you want to do is ensure you create a job description, or update (if needed) the current job description for the position you need to post. Here are some tools to help you do this. When creating this job description it is important to keep in mind the stage of the company (Early- Stage Startup versus a Small to Medium Enterprise) as this will directly impact the type of skills, and just as importantly, characteristics that are essential for someone to have in order to be successful at your company. Working at a start-up is more fast paced, and ever changing on the whole, a place where there is a lot of action and free communication, in contrast to a slower paced more structured corporate environment. While there is more flexibility, opportunities, and a steep learning curve, and the opportunity to create an impact, working at a startup can also mean working with a lower compensation and greater risk. It is important that this is reflected in the job description or job posting that you create. Here are some areas that are important to think about and even include whenever you are creating a job description or job posting for your company. These descriptors of your startup will help you find the candidate who has the characteristics needed to be successful at your company. Transparency: Startups tend to be more transparent, sharing company information more freely, changes in business plans, and triggers behind decisions and insight behind those decision. Role: Someone working for a startup can expect to wear different hats, required to carry out tasks they might consider outside of their job description. Responsibility: Working for a startup, the employee can expect more responsibility as compared to a corporate business. The employee could possibly be the only person with the skill set or problem solving ability. Whoever works for a startup should expect to have to hit the ground running. Pressure: Working in a startup involves working under tight deadlines. It is important that the employee has a personality that works well under pressure; otherwise he/she could end up feeling overwhelmed. Exposure and Mentorship: While there is there greater exposure to the business side at a startup, there will be less opportunity for mentorship given the busy environment and probability that there is not someone who is able to act as a mentor. Many times, an employee at a startup will have to learn things on his/her own. Hiring Manager Guide Page 1 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Working hours: Working hours at a startup can be very long; however, many startups compensate by having flexible work hours and telecommunication. Work expectations: Getting work done in a startup environment is often more important than perfection. This is because products and projects are not set in stone and improvement and revisions may have to be done along the way. Work atmosphere: The atmosphere at a startup is many times characterized by more fun and open communication than at a corporate business. The opinions of employees are valued and there is rarely a dull moment. Dressing is usually casual and there is a creative energy and team spirit. Recognition: If you do good work your supervisor will notice it; on the other hand, if you mess up they will notice it just as easily. This can be a really positive thing if the person is open to feedback and excited about growing in the position. Opportunities: Opportunities abound in a startup, which help with being able to climb the career ladder fast. Job Analysis When beginning the process of creating a job description, it is always good to do a job analysis first to thoroughly think through the activities and responsibilities of the position, its relationship with other positions in the company, qualifications necessary to perform the job duties, as well as the preferred qualifications. Writing a Job Analysis can help with: Recruiting Determining compensation Establishing performance standards Performance appraisals Establishing career paths Hiring Manager Guide Page 2 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Example of a Job Analysis template: Job Title: Department: Recommended Level: Date: Use the current Date Job Summary Write a general statement outlining the basic functions of the position. Responsibilities The responsibilities should be listed in the order of the amount of time spent on each responsibility, from the most amount of time to least amount of time. 1. List one job duty specific to this position. Please note: this job duty must be specific to the general position, not the individual. XX % of Time 2. List one job duty specific to this position. Please note: this job duty must be specific to the general position, not the individual. XX % of Time 3. List one job duty specific to this position. Please note: this job duty must be specific to the general position, not the individual. XX % of Time 4. List one job duty specific to this position. Please note: this job duty must be specific to the general position, not the individual. XX % of Time 5. List one job duty specific to this position. Please note: this job duty must be specific to the general position, not the individual. XX % of Time Hiring Manager Guide Page 3 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Skills Level Required Senior, Middle, Junior Analytical: S M J Visualize, articulate, and solve problems quantitatively and/or qualitatively and make sound decisions based on available information. Technology: S M J The use of software, programs, or other technology as required by the job. Administrative Support: S M J Coordination of meetings/schedules, document production and distribution, and inquiry response. Oral and Written Communication: S M J The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information through speech, writing, or signs. Other: Collaboration/Interaction (Check only if applicable) External, i.e. vendors, subcontractors Internal External Exchange routine, factual information and/or answer routine questions. Exchange detailed information or resolve varied problems. Access and/or work with sensitive and/or confidential information. Identify needs/concerns of others, determine potential solutions, resolve or redirect appropriately. Persuade, gain cooperation and acceptance of ideas or collaborate on significant projects. Resolve conflict, negotiate or collaborate on major projects. Handle sensitive issues and facilitate collaboration at the highest level. Develop and maintain relationships with key contacts to enhance work flow and work quality. Expertise area: Please list an area of expertise required in order to be successful in this position Expertise area: Please list an area of expertise required in order to be successful in this position Expertise area: Please list an area of expertise required in order to be successful in this position Expertise area: Please list an area of expertise required in order to be successful in this position Hiring Manager Guide Page 4 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Expertise area: Please list an area of expertise required in order to be successful in this position Direction Received This position reports to the list position of area. Supervisory Responsibilities ADJUST STATEMENT AS NEEDED: Supervises work of other supervisors/managers, including planning, assigning, scheduling and reviewing work, ensuring quality standards. Is responsible for hiring, terminating, training and developing, reviewing performance and administering corrective action for staff. Plans organizational structure and job content. If there are no supervisory responsibilities, please state “None” Education Required: What is the minimum education required in order to be successful in this position Preferred: What is the preferred education desired for this position Additional Information (such as licensure, certifications, etc.) : Please list specific area of study that is required in order to be successful in this position; list area of study preferred. Work Experience Minimum level of work related experience required: What is the minimum level of work related experience required in order to be successful in this position. Type of work experience: Characteristics needed to be successful in the job/organization: Travel Requirements Additional Information Hiring Manager Guide Page 5 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Writing the Job Description Once you have completed your job analysis, it is then very easy to transfer that information into your job description. The format of job descriptions varies widely from company to company. The following is a general template for a job description. This can be used for both salaried and hourly employees. Please note that the type of employment would need to be specified in the job description. As you will see, the information gleaned from the job analysis will help you in completing the job description. Example of a job description template: Job Title: Type of Employee: (Salaried or Hourly) Department: Reports to: (State job title versus name of person supervising this position) Position Summary: This is a brief paragraph outlining the overall, general duties of the position. Position Responsibilities:  Bullet points listing out the specific duties of the position  Start with the job duties which take the most time and/or are the most important job duties of the position  Begin the responsibility statement with an action verb (see list of action verbs on page 7)  Do not include responsibilities that may be required in the future  Always write the responsibilities based on what the position requires, not on the capabilities of an individual Essential skills and experience:  Bullet point listing out the minimum requirements needed to be successful in the position.  List the minimum amount of years’ experience to be successful in the position; be specific about type of experience  List the minimum amount of education needed to be successful; also list preferred amount of education if known.  Include performance standards, i.e. carried out with minor supervision, ability to set priorities, etc. Hiring Manager Guide Page 6 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Tips for writing job descriptions:  Do give jobs realistic, descriptive titles  Do identify salaried versus hourly or professional versus support status  Do keep the summary brief  Do list only principal duties, tasks, or responsibilities  Do identify the essential job functions  Do review the knowledge, skills, and abilities to ensure they are job related  Do include appropriate disclaimers, i.e. “other duties as assigned.  Don’t include any demeaning titles , i.e. junior or clerk  Don’t include gender-specific titles, i.e. use salesperson versus salesman  Don’t include percentages Action verbs accommodate communicate draft interface recruit achieve compile edit interpret reduce acquire complete eliminate interview regulate address compose enforce investigate report adjust compute establish issue research administer conduct evaluate lift resolve advise confer execute maintain review allocate consolidate expand manage schedule analyze construct explore monitor search apply consult facilitate motivate select appoint control formulate negotiate solve approve coordinate furnish observe specify arrange correspond generate operate strategize assess counsel guide organize streamline assign create handle participate strengthen assist customize hire perform summarize audit delegate identify plan support augment deliver illustrate predict teach authorize demonstrate implement prepare train budget design improve present translate calculate develop improvise process troubleshoot circulate devise incorporate program update clarify direct increase provide validate clear disseminate inform quantify verify collaborate distinguish initiate recognize collect distribute instruct recommend combine document interact record Hiring Manager Guide Page 7 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE The starting place for determining who is qualified for a position is by reviewing the job analysis and job description. These will provide the basis for validating your screening decisions. Screening Applicants – Key issues to look for:  Insufficient education or experience to fulfill the minimum job requirements  Significant unexplained gaps in employment history  Frequent job changes  A downward spiral of jobs with less and less responsibility and authority  Applicant qualifications should always be compared to job requirements  Characteristics which are essential for a person to have in order to be successful at a startup. Once you have decided who you would like to move forward with, it is time for the interview. For lower level positions it is best to keep the interview process brief (no more than 2-3 interviews.) As the level of the position gets higher, more interviews will most likely be necessary due to the importance of the position. Preparing for the Interview:  Plan for the interview, review the job description  Prepare probing interview questions  see Exhibit A for tips on what to ask versus what not to ask  see Exhibit B for sample behavioral based interview questions  Prepare case study for candidate to complete  This can include any kind of example. It is best to set up a problem that the company has faced or is facing to ascertain whether or not the candidate has the critical thinking skills required ability to think things through, will make decisions that align with the company’s values, and is able to communicate (good writing skills). During the interview:  Establish and maintain rapport with the interviewee  Listen carefully; for instance, paraphrase or summarize what the interviewee said  Observe nonverbal behavior  Provide realistic information about the job Hiring Manager Guide Page 8 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE  Conclude the interview with brief summary, inform the person of next steps  Remember: job applicants often need to be sold on why they should come and work for you; you need to sell them this position.  You should always strive to communicate the Company’s mission, vision, and values to the candidates as it is imperative that you always bring the right people into the Company. Every person has his or her own bias and it is important to be aware of these biases during the interview process to ensure they are not blocking you from seeing a great candidate or making a bad hire. Below are some common biases that can occur during the interview process.  Stereotyping Forming generalized opinions about how people of a given gender, religion, or race appear, think, act, feel, or respond. Assuming a woman would want a desk job versus a landscaping job.  First-impression error Making snap judgments and letting your first impression influence the entire interview. Giving more credence to the applicant graduated from the same school that you did.  Negative emphasis Rejecting an applicant on the basis of a small amount of negative information. Interviewers give unfavorable information twice the weight of favorable information.  Halo/horn effect Allowing one strong point that you value to overshadow all other information.  Nonverbal bias Placing undue emphasis on nonverbal cues. Hair length or distracting mannerisms  Contrast effect Strong applicants who interview after weak ones may appear even more qualified than they actually are because of the contrast.  Similar-to-me error Picking candidates based on personal characteristics that they share with you. Hiring Manager Guide Page 9 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE When looking for your star employee, here is a list of traits to look for in every candidate. 7 Traits of Truly Sensational Startup Employees http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/240883 1. They would much rather act than deliberate. Things change quickly in the startup world. Very few startups resemble their original business plan. Great startup employees are the same way. They think a little and then do a lot. And then they adapt and modify. 2. They don’t care about what’s behind the curtain. Startups generally avoid politics. Instead of obsessing who has the bigger desk/office, they obsess over the customer. Sensational start-up employees understand energy is best spent making a real difference for customers. Every business has finite resources. The key is to spend as much of those resources as possible on things that matter most. 3. They don’t see money as the solution to every problem. Startup star employees are remarkably resourceful. They're not looking to build an army of people to do their bidding, and they’re not looking to spend thousands on advertising to avoid the hard work of writing a blog. They're constantly looking for creative ways to make the most of the resources they have. In short, they throw brains at problems, not money. 4. They see every customer as an individual that deserves respect. Great startup employees never lose sight of the fact that every customer is a person: a person with hopes, dreams, expectations, needs… and a person who ultimately wants to be treated as a person. Great startup employees solve for the customer – and in so doing, they solve for the business. 5. They love a meritocracy. Sensational startup employees hate politics. They hate hidden agendas. They hate the “good old boys” network. They’re willing to succeed on their own merits – because they believe in themselves. And they believe in others, too. 6. They care much more about their peers than the perks. The 1 benefit of working at a startup is that you get to learn. And, how much you learn is largely a function of how much autonomy you have and who you're around. 7. They instinctively focus on the company’s mission. Great start-up employees focus on the core mission of the company. The best people don't just bide their time while they're at work. They squeeze as much value out of that time as they possibly can in furthering the organization's mission. “They try to make tomorrow better than today for everyone around them – because that’s what they love to do.” Hiring Manager Guide Page 10 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Application Form Once you have your short list it is always a good idea to have the applicants fill out an application form. Looking at the application form you will be able to get the clearest understanding of the candidate’s credentials. The application will also give you information that you may use during the reference checks. Most companies include a statement on the application form asking the candidate’s permission to ask information from former employees. If you do not already have this statement/waiver on your application, it is recommended that you include it moving forward (see Exhibit C for Application template). While most HR departments will only release information after they have seen this signed form giving them permission to do so, they will usually only give out the persons employment dates and the ending salary. While it is always good to confirm this information, it is not entirely useful as it pertains to getting meaningful input on the candidates work, values, and skill set. Reference and Background checks: The objective of the reference check is to obtain external input into the interviewing process, check inconsistencies, and validate some of the candidate’s answers. If you want in depth information about the quality of the candidate’s work, it is always best to contact former supervisors, clients, and colleagues in the industry, but always with the permission of the candidate. Candidates will obviously provide referees who will speak highly of them. It is important to probe beneath the surface to get as real a sense of the candidate as possible, specifically answering queries that emerged through the interviewing process as needed. Usually the most valuable information will come from the former supervisors, and so it is always good to reach out to them first. Please see Exhibit D for a sample reference check form. Please note that you do not need to follow a script when checking references- as stated before, it is best to probe and in doing so, ask follow up questions based on the information you receive. If references suggest that we should not proceed with a candidate, this should be seen as a success of the recruiting process rather than a failure. We want reference checking to be an essential part of the process, rather than a rubber stamping exercise. When completing reference checks it is recommended to do the following: • Create a sense of responsibility from the referee: try to make the conversation matter to them rather than it being an opportunity to do a favor for a colleague: e.g. give a little context about the organization and explain how every recruitment decision we make at this stage is Hiring Manager Guide Page 11 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE crucial to our success. Or explain the importance to you personally of getting this hire right so that their loyalty to the candidate is balanced with their commitment to help you make a good decision. • Explain the culture and what will be expected from the individual in role, and then challenge the referee to think about the individual in that specific context. • Don’t be shy about asking specific questions, this can often generate very helpful data • Cover off the basics e.g. check that the person worked for them as stated in the resume, ask for how long they have known the individual etc. • Other questions which may be helpful: - What should we be aware of that may not have come up through the interviews? - Would you personally be willing to vouch for this person’s values and ethics? What makes you say that? - What advice would you give us to get the best out of them? What should I know to manage this person most effectively? - If you were to hire them tomorrow, what role would you put them in. Why? - What was the biggest piece of constructive criticism that you gave this person? How did they respond? - What was the single best piece of work they did/what was their biggest accomplishment? - How did the people that worked under them perceive them as a manager? - What do you see this person doing in 5 years? - How does this person deal with conflict? Example? - Why did the person leave? • Blind reference checks can also be very useful; check who you have in common with the person on LinkedIn or who you know at their former employers. In addition to the references they give you, you should check your network for further validation. Other checks which should be verified are: Verification of academic credentials Criminal background checks Credit checks (only for finance positions, or positions which will have direct impact on cash flow) Hiring Manager Guide Page 12 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Recruitment Effectiveness Evaluating your company’s recruitment efforts is crucial. Without doing this you run the risk of recruiting the way you always have, possibly without regard to outstanding issues. Below are some short term and long term considerations that are important to review. Short term considerations Average time to recruit applicants Selection and acceptance rates Cost per applicant hired (cost of source, time spent, etc.) Quantity of applicants Quality of applicants Long term considerations Performance of hires Tenure/turnover of hires (6 months, year, 2 years) Absenteeism per hire Training costs By looking at recruiting data you will also be able to analyze the cost and effectiveness of your recruiting sources. Some things to consider: Quality CV’s generated from source Interview offers made from source Interview offers accepted from source Cost per source Hiring Manager Guide Page 13 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Exhibit A When asking interview questions, regardless of local labor law, it is always best to err on the side of caution to ensure compliance and a sense of respect and dignity for your applicants. This is specifically for US companies, but are things to be cautious of anywhere. Category May ask: May not ask:  How many children do you have? Gender and family issues Do you have relatives already  What are your child care employed by Company? arrangements?  Are you married?  What does your spouse do?  Do you have health care coverage through your spouse?  What is your maiden name?  What is your race? Race No questions may be asked  Please attach a photo to your application  What is the ethnic association with National origin or ancestry  Are you eligible to work in the your surname? Country?  Where were you/your parents born?  Do you speak/write needed  What is your language fluently? (if job- nationality/lineage/national origin? related)  What nationality is your spouse?  What other languages do you  Are you a citizen of another speak? (if job-related) country?  What is your native language?  What is your religious affiliation? Religion Are you able to work on the  What religious holidays do you days/times required by the job? observe?  What is your date of birth? Age  Are you over the age of 18?  When did you graduate from high  Are you over the age of 21? (if job school? related)  How old are you?  Do you have a disability? Disability Are you able to perform the  What is your disability? How severe essential job-related functions? is it?  Have you ever filed a workers’ compensation form?  Have you had any surgeries?  Have you had any medical problems?  Convictions (background check)  How many times have you been Other  Academic, vocational, or arrested? professional schooling  What is your height and weight  Are you a member in a trade or (unless it is a bona fide occupational professional association related qualification) to the position? Hiring Manager Guide Page 14 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE  Job references  Who should we contact in case of an emergency? (done post-hire) SHRM, Module Two Workforce Planning and Employment, page 2-178 Exhibit B Behavioral Interview Sample Questions for Company The following questions are all general guidelines. Behavioral based interview questions are suggested as past behavior is an indicator of future success. It is also important that you know the qualities and attributes of your top performers and think critically about the culture you’re trying to create. What questions should you ask that will help you identify the qualities and attributes your company needs? Every company culture is different, and so it is important that your questions are a reflection of your unique culture. MOTIVATION AND VALUES  Talk about Company’s work, mission, and vision. Can you tell me how you have embodied our values?  Discuss the vision or potential of the company. Can you tell me how you think you fit in to this and how your experience and/or skills can help us meet our goals?  What was a time that you struggled to produce excellence in your work?  What is the one thing you have accomplished in your career that you are most proud of?  Tell me about a time when you worked under close supervision or extremely loose supervision. How did you handle that? Which did you prefer?  Tell me about a time when you had to work in an environment where there was little to no structure? How did you like it? Did you feel you were able to succeed in that environment?  Tell me about a time when you were given creative freedom to complete a project? What was that project and how did it turn out?  Tell me about a time you were dissatisfied in your work. What did you do?  What would you most like to learn here that would help you in the future? ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT  Describe a time when you took a risk and failed, and one where you took a risk and succeeded. What was the difference?  Walk me through the first 3 things you would do if you got this job.  What are 3-5 things you need to be successful in this job? What are the deal breakers?  What were you doing the last time you looked at a clock and realized you had lost track of time?  What do you like about our business? How would you change what you don’t like? Hiring Manager Guide Page 15 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE CREATIVE THINKING  What book do you think everyone on the team should read?  What are you currently doing to improve your knowledge and/or skills?  Tell me about a problem you were tasked with solving in your current job. How did you fix it?  Describe a time you felt you were right but you still had to follow directions or guidelines?  Tell me about a time you felt company leadership was wrong. What did you do? COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Describe a time when you were the resident technical expert. What did you do to make sure everyone was able to understand you?  What forms of communication do you prefer?  How do you deal with communicating remotely? Can you provide examples of times you’ve had to do it in the past?  Tell me about a time when you had to rely on written communication to get your ideas across to your team.  Tell me about a successful presentation you gave and why you think it was a hit. TEAMWORK/COLLABORATION  How do you handle working with personalities that are very different from yours? What personality traits in others are difficult for you to work effectively with?  Give me an example of a time you faced a conflict while working on a team. How did you handle that?  Describe a time when you struggled to build a relationship with someone important. What did you do?  Tell me about a time you needed to get information from someone who wasn’t very responsive. What did you do?  Give me an example of a time when you motivated others.  Tell me about a time when you were forced to make an unpopular decision. ABILITY TO ADAPT  Tell me about a time you were under a lot of pressure. What was going on, and how did you get through it?  Describe a time when your team or company was undergoing some change. How did that impact you?  Tell me about the first job you’ve ever had. What did you do to learn the ropes?  Give me an example of a time when you had to think on your feet in a difficult or awkward situation.  Tell me about a time you failed. How did you deal with this situation? Hiring Manager Guide Page 16 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE TIME MANAGEMENT SKILLS  Describe a long-term project that you managed. How did you keep everything moving along in a timely manner?  How do you prioritize competing needs of others?  Tell me about a time when you had too many things to do and you were required to prioritize your tasks.  Tell me about a time you set a goal for yourself. How did you go about ensuring that you would meet your objective?  Give me an example of a time you managed numerous responsibilities. How did you handle that? EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE  Who inspires you and why?  If you were starting a company tomorrow, what would be your top three values?  If our company priorities change, how would you help us carry out the shifted goals?  Did you build lasting friendships while working at another job?  What skill or expertise do you feel you are still missing?  What are the top three factors you would attribute to your success? Hiring Manager Guide Page 17 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Exhibit C Date EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION WE ARE AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER. Applicants and employees are considered for positions and are evaluated without regard to mental or physical disability, race, color, religion, gender, national origin, age, genetic information, military or veteran status, sexual orientation, marital status or any other protected Federal, State/Province or Local status unrelated to the performance of the work involved. Please answer all questions completely. Please do not provide any information not specifically requested on this Employment Application form. PERSONAL Last Name First Name Middle Address (Number & Street, Apartment or Box No.) City State/Province Country Zip/Postal Code Home Phone Work Phone Cell/Mobile Phone Other Phone E-mail Address Desired Type of Employment Are you eligible to work in the Are you age 18 or over? Willing to Relocate? Country? Yes No Yes No Yes No Date Available to Start How did you hear about us? Have you ever been previously employed here? If yes, list dates employed: Desired Salary From: To: Yes No Do you have any relatives employed by this organization? If yes, give name and title: Yes No EDUCATION School/Institution (City, State/Province, Country) Did you Graduate? Major/Area of Study Degree 1. High School Yes No Currently Enrolled 2. College/University Yes No Currently Enrolled 3. Graduate School Yes No Hiring Manager Guide Page 18 HIRING MANAGER GUIDE Currently Enrolled 4. Business/Trade School Yes No Currently Enrolled 5. Other Yes No Currently Enrolled WORK EXPERIENCE Begin with present or most recent employer and list prior employers. You may, but are not required to, include any verified work performed on a volunteer basis. May we contact your present employer? Yes No 1. Name of Employer Address City State/Province Country Zip Code Dates Employed Salary Your Job Title Full-Time From: To: Start: End: Part-Time Temporary Phone Supervisor’s Name Supervisor’s Title Describe Major Duties Reason For Leaving 2. Name of Employer Address City State/Province Country Zip Code Dates Employed Salary Your Job Title Full-Time From: To: Start: End: Part-Time Temporary Phone Supervisor’s Name Supervisor’s Title Describe Major Duties Reason For Leaving 3. Name of Employer Address City State/Province Country Zip Code Dates Employed Salary Your Job Title Full-Time From: To: Start: End: Part-Time Temporary Phone Supervisor’s Name Supervisor’s Title Hiring Manager Guide Page 19

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