Abbreviations and their meanings

abbreviation for example in english and abbreviation meaning and examples
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ITIL® glossary and abbreviations English ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 1 Glossary terms and definitions Term Definition acceptance Formal agreement that an IT service, process, plan or other deliverable is complete, accurate, reliable and meets its specified requirements. Acceptance is usually preceded by change evaluation or testing and is often required before proceeding to the next stage of a project or process. See also service acceptance criteria. access management (ITIL Service Operation) The process responsible for allowing users to make use of IT services, data or other assets. Access management helps to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of assets by ensuring that only authorized users are able to access or modify them. Access management implements the policies of information security management and is sometimes referred to as rights management or identity management. account manager (ITIL Service Strategy) A role that is very similar to that of the business relationship manager, but includes more commercial aspects. Most commonly used by Type III service providers when dealing with external customers. accounting (ITIL Service Strategy) The process responsible for identifying the actual costs of delivering IT services, comparing these with budgeted costs, and managing variance from the budget. accounting period (ITIL Service Strategy) A period of time (usually one year) for which budgets, charges, depreciation and other financial calculations are made. See also financial year. accredited Officially authorized to carry out a role. For example, an accredited body may be authorized to provide training or to conduct audits. active monitoring (ITIL Service Operation) Monitoring of a configuration item or an IT service that uses automated regular checks to discover the current status. See also passive monitoring. activity A set of actions designed to achieve a particular result. Activities are usually defined as part of processes or plans, and are documented in procedures. agreed service time (AST) (ITIL Service Design) A synonym for service hours, commonly used in formal calculations of availability. See also downtime. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 3 Term Definition agreement A document that describes a formal understanding between two or more parties. An agreement is not legally binding, unless it forms part of a contract. See also operational level agreement; service level agreement. alert (ITIL Service Operation) A notification that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a failure has occurred. Alerts are often created and managed by system management tools and are managed by the event management process. analytical modelling (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Strategy) A technique that uses mathematical models to predict the behaviour of IT services or other configuration items. Analytical models are commonly used in capacity management and availability management. See also modelling; simulation modelling. application Software that provides functions which are required by an IT service. Each application may be part of more than one IT service. An application runs on one or more servers or clients. See also application management; application portfolio. application management (ITIL Service Operation) The function responsible for managing applications throughout their lifecycle. application portfolio (ITIL Service Design) A database or structured document used to manage applications throughout their lifecycle. The application portfolio contains key attributes of all applications. The application portfolio is sometimes implemented as part of the service portfolio, or as part of the configuration management system. application service provider (ASP) (ITIL Service Design) An external service provider that provides IT services using applications running at the service provider’s premises. Users access the applications by network connections to the service provider. application sizing (ITIL Service Design) The activity responsible for understanding the resource requirements needed to support a new application, or a major change to an existing application. Application sizing helps to ensure that the IT service can meet its agreed service level targets for capacity and performance. architecture (ITIL Service Design) The structure of a system or IT service, including the relationships of components to each other and to the environment they are in. Architecture also includes the standards and guidelines that guide the design and evolution of the system. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 4 Term Definition assembly (ITIL Service Transition) A configuration item that is made up of a number of other CIs. For example, a server CI may contain CIs for CPUs, disks, memory etc.; an IT service CI may contain many hardware, software and other CIs. See also build; component CI. assessment Inspection and analysis to check whether a standard or set of guidelines is being followed, that records are accurate, or that efficiency and effectiveness targets are being met. See also audit. asset (ITIL Service Strategy) Any resource or capability. The assets of a service provider include anything that could contribute to the delivery of a service. Assets can be one of the following types: management, organization, process, knowledge, people, information, applications, infrastructure or financial capital. See also customer asset; service asset; strategic asset. asset management (ITIL Service Transition) A generic activity or process responsible for tracking and reporting the value and ownership of assets throughout their lifecycle. See also service asset and configuration management; fixed asset management; software asset management. asset register (ITIL Service Transition) A list of fixed assets that includes their ownership and value. See also fixed asset management. asset specificity (ITIL Service Strategy) One or more attributes of an asset that make it particularly useful for a given purpose. Asset specificity may limit the use of the asset for other purposes. attribute (ITIL Service Transition) A piece of information about a configuration item. Examples are name, location, version number and cost. Attributes of CIs are recorded in a configuration management database (CMDB) and maintained as part of a configuration management system (CMS). See also relationship; configuration management system. audit Formal inspection and verification to check whether a standard or set of guidelines is being followed, that records are accurate, or that efficiency and effectiveness targets are being met. An audit may be carried out by internal or external groups. See also assessment; certification. authority matrix See RACI. automatic call distribution (ACD) (ITIL Service Operation) Use of information technology to direct an incoming telephone call to the most appropriate person in the shortest possible time. ACD is sometimes called automated call distribution. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 5 Term Definition availability (ITIL Service Design) Ability of an IT service or other configuration item to perform its agreed function when required. Availability is determined by reliability, maintainability, serviceability, performance and security. Availability is usually calculated as a percentage. This calculation is often based on agreed service time and downtime. It is best practice to calculate availability of an IT service using measurements of the business output. availability management (AM) (ITIL Service Design) The process responsible for ensuring that IT services meet the current and future availability needs of the business in a cost-effective and timely manner. Availability management defines, analyses, plans, measures and improves all aspects of the availability of IT services, and ensures that all IT infrastructures, processes, tools, roles etc. are appropriate for the agreed service level targets for availability. See also availability management information system. availability management information system (ITIL Service Design) A set of tools, data and information that is used to support availability management. (AMIS) See also service knowledge management system. availability plan (ITIL Service Design) A plan to ensure that existing and future availability requirements for IT services can be provided cost-effectively. back-out (ITIL Service Transition) An activity that restores a service or other configuration item to a previous baseline. Back-out is used as a form of remediation when a change or release is not successful. backup (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Operation) Copying data to protect against loss of integrity or availability of the original. balanced scorecard (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) A management tool developed by Drs Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School) and David Norton. A balanced scorecard enables a strategy to be broken down into key performance indicators. Performance against the KPIs is used to demonstrate how well the strategy is being achieved. A balanced scorecard has four major areas, each of which has a small number of KPIs. The same four areas are considered at different levels of detail throughout the organization. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 6 Term Definition baseline (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Transition) A snapshot that is used as a reference point. Many snapshots may be taken and recorded over time but only some will be used as baselines. For example:  An ITSM baseline can be used as a starting point to measure the effect of a service improvement plan  A performance baseline can be used to measure changes in performance over the lifetime of an IT service  A configuration baseline can be used as part of a back-out plan to enable the IT infrastructure to be restored to a known configuration if a change or release fails. See also benchmark. benchmark (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Transition) A baseline that is used to compare related data sets as part of a benchmarking exercise. For example, a recent snapshot of a process can be compared to a previous baseline of that process, or a current baseline can be compared to industry data or best practice. See also benchmarking; baseline. benchmarking (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) The process responsible for comparing a benchmark with related data sets such as a more recent snapshot, industry data or best practice. The term is also used to mean creating a series of benchmarks over time, and comparing the results to measure progress or improvement. This process is not described in detail within the core ITIL publications. Best Management Practice (BMP) The Best Management Practice portfolio is owned by the Cabinet Office, part of HM Government. Formerly owned by CCTA and then OGC, the BMP functions moved to the Cabinet Office in June 2010. The BMP portfolio includes guidance on IT service management and project, programme, risk, portfolio and value management. There is also a management maturity model as well as related glossaries of terms. best practice Proven activities or processes that have been successfully used by multiple organizations. ITIL is an example of best practice. billing (ITIL Service Strategy) Part of the charging process. Billing is the activity responsible for producing an invoice or a bill and recovering the money from customers. See also pricing. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 7 Term Definition brainstorming (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Operation) A technique that helps a team to generate ideas. Ideas are not reviewed during the brainstorming session, but at a later stage. Brainstorming is often used by problem management to identify possible causes. British Standards Institution (BSI) The UK national standards body, responsible for creating and maintaining British standards. See www.bsi- global.com for more information. See also International Organization for Standardization. budget A list of all the money an organization or business unit plans to receive, and plans to pay out, over a specified period of time. See also budgeting; planning. budgeting The activity of predicting and controlling the spending of money. Budgeting consists of a periodic negotiation cycle to set future budgets (usually annual) and the day-to-day monitoring and adjusting of current budgets. build (ITIL Service Transition) The activity of assembling a number of configuration items to create part of an IT service. The term is also used to refer to a release that is authorized for distribution – for example, server build or laptop build. See also configuration baseline. build environment (ITIL Service Transition) A controlled environment where applications, IT services and other builds are assembled prior to being moved into a test or live environment. business (ITIL Service Strategy) An overall corporate entity or organization formed of a number of business units. In the context of ITSM, the term includes public sector and not-for-profit organizations, as well as companies. An IT service provider provides IT services to a customer within a business. The IT service provider may be part of the same business as its customer (internal service provider), or part of another business (external service provider). business capacity management (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) In the context of ITSM, business capacity management is the sub-process of capacity management responsible for understanding future business requirements for use in the capacity plan. See also service capacity management; component capacity management. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 8 Term Definition business case (ITIL Service Strategy) Justification for a significant item of expenditure. The business case includes information about costs, benefits, options, issues, risks and possible problems. See also cost benefit analysis. business continuity management (BCM) (ITIL Service Design) The business process responsible for managing risks that could seriously affect the business. Business continuity management safeguards the interests of key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value-creating activities. The process involves reducing risks to an acceptable level and planning for the recovery of business processes should a disruption to the business occur. Business continuity management sets the objectives, scope and requirements for IT service continuity management. business continuity plan (BCP) (ITIL Service Design) A plan defining the steps required to restore business processes following a disruption. The plan also identifies the triggers for invocation, people to be involved, communications etc. IT service continuity plans form a significant part of business continuity plans. business customer (ITIL Service Strategy) A recipient of a product or a service from the business. For example, if the business is a car manufacturer, then the business customer is someone who buys a car. business impact analysis (BIA) (ITIL Service Strategy) Business impact analysis is the activity in business continuity management that identifies vital business functions and their dependencies. These dependencies may include suppliers, people, other business processes, IT services etc. Business impact analysis defines the recovery requirements for IT services. These requirements include recovery time objectives, recovery point objectives and minimum service level targets for each IT service. business objective (ITIL Service Strategy) The objective of a business process, or of the business as a whole. Business objectives support the business vision, provide guidance for the IT strategy, and are often supported by IT services. business operations (ITIL Service Strategy) The day-to-day execution, monitoring and management of business processes. business perspective (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) An understanding of the service provider and IT services from the point of view of the business, and an understanding of the business from the point of view of the service provider. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 9 Term Definition business process A process that is owned and carried out by the business. A business process contributes to the delivery of a product or service to a business customer. For example, a retailer may have a purchasing process that helps to deliver services to its business customers. Many business processes rely on IT services. business relationship management (ITIL Service Strategy) The process responsible for maintaining a positive relationship with customers. Business relationship management identifies customer needs and ensures that the service provider is able to meet these needs with an appropriate catalogue of services. This process has strong links with service level management. business relationship manager (BRM) (ITIL Service Strategy) A role responsible for maintaining the relationship with one or more customers. This role is often combined with the service level manager role. business service A service that is delivered to business customers by business units. For example, delivery of financial services to customers of a bank, or goods to the customers of a retail store. Successful delivery of business services often depends on one or more IT services. A business service may consist almost entirely of an IT service – for example, an online banking service or an external website where product orders can be placed by business customers. See also customer-facing service. business service management The management of business services delivered to business customers. Business service management is performed by business units. business unit (ITIL Service Strategy) A segment of the business that has its own plans, metrics, income and costs. Each business unit owns assets and uses these to create value for customers in the form of goods and services. call (ITIL Service Operation) A telephone call to the service desk from a user. A call could result in an incident or a service request being logged. call centre (ITIL Service Operation) An organization or business unit that handles large numbers of incoming and outgoing telephone calls. See also service desk. call type (ITIL Service Operation) A category that is used to distinguish incoming requests to a service desk. Common call types are incident, service request and complaint. capability (ITIL Service Strategy) The ability of an organization, person, process, application, IT service or other configuration item to carry out an activity. Capabilities are intangible assets of an organization. See also resource. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 10 Term Definition Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) A process improvement approach developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University, US. CMMI provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes. It can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division or an entire organization. CMMI helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes. See www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi for more information. See also maturity. capacity (ITIL Service Design) The maximum throughput that a configuration item or IT service can deliver. For some types of CI, capacity may be the size or volume – for example, a disk drive. capacity management (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) The process responsible for ensuring that the capacity of IT services and the IT infrastructure is able to meet agreed capacity- and performance-related requirements in a cost-effective and timely manner. Capacity management considers all resources required to deliver an IT service, and is concerned with meeting both the current and future capacity and performance needs of the business. Capacity management includes three sub-processes: business capacity management, service capacity management, and component capacity management. See also capacity management information system. capacity management information system (ITIL Service Design) A set of tools, data and information that is used to support capacity management. (CMIS) See also service knowledge management system. capacity plan (ITIL Service Design) A plan used to manage the resources required to deliver IT services. The plan contains details of current and historic usage of IT services and components, and any issues that need to be addressed (including related improvement activities). The plan also contains scenarios for different predictions of business demand and costed options to deliver the agreed service level targets. capacity planning (ITIL Service Design) The activity within capacity management responsible for creating a capacity plan. capital budgeting (ITIL Service Strategy) The present commitment of funds in order to receive a return in the future in the form of additional cash inflows or reduced cash outflows. capital cost (ITIL Service Strategy) The cost of purchasing something that will become a financial asset – for example, computer equipment and buildings. The value of the asset depreciates over multiple accounting periods. See also operational cost. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 11 Term Definition capital expenditure (CAPEX) See capital cost. capitalization (ITIL Service Strategy) Identifying major cost as capital, even though no asset is purchased. This is done to spread the impact of the cost over multiple accounting periods. The most common example of this is software development, or purchase of a software licence. category A named group of things that have something in common. Categories are used to group similar things together. For example, cost types are used to group similar types of cost. Incident categories are used to group similar types of incident, while CI types are used to group similar types of configuration item. certification Issuing a certificate to confirm compliance to a standard. Certification includes a formal audit by an independent and accredited body. The term is also used to mean awarding a certificate to provide evidence that a person has achieved a qualification. change (ITIL Service Transition) The addition, modification or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT services. The scope should include changes to all architectures, processes, tools, metrics and documentation, as well as changes to IT services and other configuration items. change advisory board (CAB) (ITIL Service Transition) A group of people that support the assessment, prioritization, authorization and scheduling of changes. A change advisory board is usually made up of representatives from: all areas within the IT service provider; the business; and third parties such as suppliers. change evaluation (ITIL Service Transition) The process responsible for formal assessment of a new or changed IT service to ensure that risks have been managed and to help determine whether to authorize the change. change history (ITIL Service Transition) Information about all changes made to a configuration item during its life. Change history consists of all those change records that apply to the CI. change management (ITIL Service Transition) The process responsible for controlling the lifecycle of all changes, enabling beneficial changes to be made with minimum disruption to IT services. change model (ITIL Service Transition) A repeatable way of dealing with a particular category of change. A change model defines specific agreed steps that will be followed for a change of this category. Change models may be very complex with many steps that require authorization (e.g. major software release) or may be very simple with no requirement for authorization (e.g. password reset). See also change advisory board; standard change. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 12 Term Definition change proposal (ITIL Service Strategy) (ITIL Service Transition) A document that includes a high level description of a potential service introduction or significant change, along with a corresponding business case and an expected implementation schedule. Change proposals are normally created by the service portfolio management process and are passed to change management for authorization. Change management will review the potential impact on other services, on shared resources, and on the overall change schedule. Once the change proposal has been authorized, service portfolio management will charter the service. change record (ITIL Service Transition) A record containing the details of a change. Each change record documents the lifecycle of a single change. A change record is created for every request for change that is received, even those that are subsequently rejected. Change records should reference the configuration items that are affected by the change. Change records may be stored in the configuration management system, or elsewhere in the service knowledge management system. change request See request for change. change schedule (ITIL Service Transition) A document that lists all authorized changes and their planned implementation dates, as well as the estimated dates of longer-term changes. A change schedule is sometimes called a forward schedule of change, even though it also contains information about changes that have already been implemented. change window (ITIL Service Transition) A regular, agreed time when changes or releases may be implemented with minimal impact on services. Change windows are usually documented in service level agreements. chargeable item (ITIL Service Strategy) A deliverable of an IT service that is used in calculating charges to customers (for example, number of transactions, number of desktop PCs). charging (ITIL Service Strategy) Requiring payment for IT services. Charging for IT services is optional, and many organizations choose to treat their IT service provider as a cost centre. See also charging process; charging policy. charging policy (ITIL Service Strategy) A policy specifying the objective of the charging process and the way in which charges will be calculated. See also cost. charging process (ITIL Service Strategy) The process responsible for deciding how much customers should pay (pricing) and recovering money from them (billing). This process is not described in detail within the core ITIL publications. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 13 Term Definition charter (ITIL Service Strategy) A document that contains details of a new service, a significant change or other significant project. Charters are typically authorized by service portfolio management or by a project management office. The term charter is also used to describe the act of authorizing the work required to complete the service change or project. See also change proposal; service charter; project portfolio. chronological analysis (ITIL Service Operation) A technique used to help identify possible causes of problems. All available data about the problem is collected and sorted by date and time to provide a detailed timeline. This can make it possible to identify which events may have been triggered by others. CI type (ITIL Service Transition) A category that is used to classify configuration items. The CI type identifies the required attributes and relationships for a configuration record. Common CI types include hardware, document, user etc. classification The act of assigning a category to something. Classification is used to ensure consistent management and reporting. Configuration items, incidents, problems, changes etc. are usually classified. client A generic term that means a customer, the business or a business customer. For example, client manager may be used as a synonym for business relationship manager. The term is also used to mean:  A computer that is used directly by a user – for example, a PC, a handheld computer or a work station  The part of a client server application that the user directly interfaces with – for example, an email client. closed (ITIL Service Operation) The final status in the lifecycle of an incident, problem, change etc. When the status is closed, no further action is taken. closure (ITIL Service Operation) The act of changing the status of an incident, problem, change etc. to closed. COBIT (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) Control OBjectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT) provides guidance and best practice for the management of IT processes. COBIT is published by ISACA in conjunction with the IT Governance Institute (ITGI). See www.isaca.org for more information. code of practice A guideline published by a public body or a standards organization, such as ISO or BSI. Many standards consist of a code of practice and a specification. The code of practice describes recommended best practice. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 14 Term Definition cold standby See gradual recovery. commercial off the shelf (COTS) (ITIL Service Design) Pre-existing application software or middleware that can be purchased from a third party. compliance Ensuring that a standard or set of guidelines is followed, or that proper, consistent accounting or other practices are being employed. component A general term that is used to mean one part of something more complex. For example, a computer system may be a component of an IT service; an application may be a component of a release unit. Components that need to be managed should be configuration items. component capacity management (CCM) (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) (ITIL Service Design) The sub-process of capacity management responsible for understanding the capacity, utilization and performance of configuration items. Data is collected, recorded and analysed for use in the capacity plan. See also business capacity management; service capacity management. component CI (ITIL Service Transition) A configuration item that is part of an assembly. For example, a CPU or memory CI may be part of a server CI. component failure impact analysis (CFIA) (ITIL Service Design) A technique that helps to identify the impact of configuration item failure on IT services and the business. A matrix is created with IT services on one axis and CIs on the other. This enables the identification of critical CIs (that could cause the failure of multiple IT services) and fragile IT services (that have multiple single points of failure). computer telephony integration (CTI) (ITIL Service Operation) Computer telephony integration is a general term covering any kind of integration between computers and telephone systems. It is most commonly used to refer to systems where an application displays detailed screens relating to incoming or outgoing telephone calls. See also automatic call distribution; interactive voice response. concurrency A measure of the number of users engaged in the same operation at the same time. confidentiality (ITIL Service Design) A security principle that requires that data should only be accessed by authorized people. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 15 Term Definition configuration (ITIL Service Transition) A generic term used to describe a group of configuration items that work together to deliver an IT service, or a recognizable part of an IT service. Configuration is also used to describe the parameter settings for one or more configuration items. configuration baseline (ITIL Service Transition) The baseline of a configuration that has been formally agreed and is managed through the change management process. A configuration baseline is used as a basis for future builds, releases and changes. configuration control (ITIL Service Transition) The activity responsible for ensuring that adding, modifying or removing a configuration item is properly managed – for example, by submitting a request for change or service request. configuration identification (ITIL Service Transition) The activity responsible for collecting information about configuration items and their relationships, and loading this information into the configuration management database. Configuration identification is also responsible for labelling the configuration items themselves, so that the corresponding configuration records can be found. configuration item (CI) (ITIL Service Transition) Any component or other service asset that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT service. Information about each configuration item is recorded in a configuration record within the configuration management system and is maintained throughout its lifecycle by service asset and configuration management. Configuration items are under the control of change management. They typically include IT services, hardware, software, buildings, people and formal documentation such as process documentation and service level agreements. configuration management See service asset and configuration management. configuration management database (CMDB) (ITIL Service Transition) A database used to store configuration records throughout their lifecycle. The configuration management system maintains one or more configuration management databases, and each database stores attributes of configuration items, and relationships with other configuration items. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 16 Term Definition configuration management system (CMS) (ITIL Service Transition) A set of tools, data and information that is used to support service asset and configuration management. The CMS is part of an overall service knowledge management system and includes tools for collecting, storing, managing, updating, analysing and presenting data about all configuration items and their relationships. The CMS may also include information about incidents, problems, known errors, changes and releases. The CMS is maintained by service asset and configuration management and is used by all IT service management processes. See also configuration management database. configuration record (ITIL Service Transition) A record containing the details of a configuration item. Each configuration record documents the lifecycle of a single configuration item. Configuration records are stored in a configuration management database and maintained as part of a configuration management system. configuration structure (ITIL Service Transition) The hierarchy and other relationships between all the configuration items that comprise a configuration. continual service improvement (CSI) (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) A stage in the lifecycle of a service. Continual service improvement ensures that services are aligned with changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to IT services that support business processes. The performance of the IT service provider is continually measured and improvements are made to processes, IT services and IT infrastructure in order to increase efficiency, effectiveness and cost effectiveness. Continual service improvement includes the seven-step improvement process. Although this process is associated with continual service improvement, most processes have activities that take place across multiple stages of the service lifecycle. See also Plan-Do-Check-Act. continuous availability (ITIL Service Design) An approach or design to achieve 100% availability. A continuously available IT service has no planned or unplanned downtime. continuous operation (ITIL Service Design) An approach or design to eliminate planned downtime of an IT service. Note that individual configuration items may be down even though the IT service is available. contract A legally binding agreement between two or more parties. control A means of managing a risk, ensuring that a business objective is achieved or that a process is followed. Examples of control include policies, procedures, roles, RAID, door locks etc. A control is sometimes called a countermeasure or safeguard. Control also means to manage the utilization or behaviour of a configuration item, system or IT service. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 17 Term Definition Control OBjectives for Information and See COBIT. related Technology control perspective (ITIL Service Strategy) An approach to the management of IT services, processes, functions, assets etc. There can be several different control perspectives on the same IT service, process etc., allowing different individuals or teams to focus on what is important and relevant to their specific role. Examples of control perspective include reactive and proactive management within IT operations, or a lifecycle view for an application project team. control processes The ISO/IEC 20000 process group that includes change management and configuration management. core service (ITIL Service Strategy) A service that delivers the basic outcomes desired by one or more customers. A core service provides a specific level of utility and warranty. Customers may be offered a choice of utility and warranty through one or more service options. See also enabling service; enhancing service; IT service; service package. cost The amount of money spent on a specific activity, IT service or business unit. Costs consist of real cost (money), notional cost (such as people’s time) and depreciation. cost benefit analysis An activity that analyses and compares the costs and the benefits involved in one or more alternative courses of action. See also business case; internal rate of return; net present value; return on investment; value on investment. cost centre (ITIL Service Strategy) A business unit or project to which costs are assigned. A cost centre does not charge for services provided. An IT service provider can be run as a cost centre or a profit centre. cost element (ITIL Service Strategy) The middle level of category to which costs are assigned in budgeting and accounting. The highest-level category is cost type. For example, a cost type of ‘people’ could have cost elements of payroll, staff benefits, expenses, training, overtime etc. Cost elements can be further broken down to give cost units. For example, the cost element ‘expenses’ could include cost units of hotels, transport, meals etc. cost management (ITIL Service Strategy) A general term that is used to refer to budgeting and accounting, and is sometimes used as a synonym for financial management. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 18 Term Definition cost model (ITIL Service Strategy) A framework used in budgeting and accounting in which all known costs can be recorded, categorized and allocated to specific customers, business units or projects. See also cost type; cost element; cost unit. cost type (ITIL Service Strategy) The highest level of category to which costs are assigned in budgeting and accounting – for example, hardware, software, people, accommodation, external and transfer. See also cost element; cost unit. cost unit (ITIL Service Strategy) The lowest level of category to which costs are assigned, cost units are usually things that can be easily counted (e.g. staff numbers, software licences) or things easily measured (e.g. CPU usage, electricity consumed). Cost units are included within cost elements. For example, a cost element of ‘expenses’ could include cost units of hotels, transport, meals etc. See also cost type. cost effectiveness A measure of the balance between the effectiveness and cost of a service, process or activity. A cost- effective process is one that achieves its objectives at minimum cost. See also key performance indicator; return on investment; value for money. countermeasure Can be used to refer to any type of control. The term is most often used when referring to measures that increase resilience, fault tolerance or reliability of an IT service. course corrections Changes made to a plan or activity that has already started to ensure that it will meet its objectives. Course corrections are made as a result of monitoring progress. crisis management Crisis management is the process responsible for managing the wider implications of business continuity. A crisis management team is responsible for strategic issues such as managing media relations and shareholder confidence, and decides when to invoke business continuity plans. critical success factor (CSF) Something that must happen if an IT service, process, plan, project or other activity is to succeed. Key performance indicators are used to measure the achievement of each critical success factor. For example, a critical success factor of ‘protect IT services when making changes’ could be measured by key performance indicators such as ‘percentage reduction of unsuccessful changes’, ‘percentage reduction in changes causing incidents’ etc. CSI register (ITIL Continual Service Improvement) A database or structured document used to record and manage improvement opportunities throughout their lifecycle. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 19 Term Definition culture A set of values that is shared by a group of people, including expectations about how people should behave, their ideas, beliefs and practices. See also vision. customer Someone who buys goods or services. The customer of an IT service provider is the person or group who defines and agrees the service level targets. The term is also sometimes used informally to mean user – for example, ‘This is a customer-focused organization.’ customer asset Any resource or capability of a customer. See also asset. customer agreement portfolio (ITIL Service Strategy) A database or structured document used to manage service contracts or agreements between an IT service provider and its customers. Each IT service delivered to a customer should have a contract or other agreement that is listed in the customer agreement portfolio. See also customer-facing service; service catalogue; service portfolio. customer portfolio (ITIL Service Strategy) A database or structured document used to record all customers of the IT service provider. The customer portfolio is the business relationship manager’s view of the customers who receive services from the IT service provider. See also customer agreement portfolio; service catalogue; service portfolio. customer-facing service (ITIL Service Design) An IT service that is visible to the customer. These are normally services that support the customer’s business processes and facilitate one or more outcomes desired by the customer. All live customer-facing services, including those available for deployment, are recorded in the service catalogue along with customer-visible information about deliverables, prices, contact points, ordering and request processes. Other information such as relationships to supporting services and other CIs will also be recorded for internal use by the IT service provider. dashboard (ITIL Service Operation) A graphical representation of overall IT service performance and availability. Dashboard images may be updated in real time, and can also be included in management reports and web pages. Dashboards can be used to support service level management, event management and incident diagnosis. Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom (ITIL Service Transition) A way of understanding the relationships between data, information, knowledge (DIKW) and wisdom. DIKW shows how each of these builds on the others. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 20 Term Definition definitive media library (DML) (ITIL Service Transition) One or more locations in which the definitive and authorized versions of all software configuration items are securely stored. The definitive media library may also contain associated configuration items such as licences and documentation. It is a single logical storage area even if there are multiple locations. The definitive media library is controlled by service asset and configuration management and is recorded in the configuration management system. deliverable Something that must be provided to meet a commitment in a service level agreement or a contract. It is also used in a more informal way to mean a planned output of any process. demand management (ITIL Service Design) (ITIL Service Strategy) The process responsible for understanding, anticipating and influencing customer demand for services. Demand management works with capacity management to ensure that the service provider has sufficient capacity to meet the required demand. At a strategic level, demand management can involve analysis of patterns of business activity and user profiles, while at a tactical level, it can involve the use of differential charging to encourage customers to use IT services at less busy times, or require short-term activities to respond to unexpected demand or the failure of a configuration item. Deming Cycle See Plan-Do-Check-Act. dependency The direct or indirect reliance of one process or activity on another. deployment (ITIL Service Transition) The activity responsible for movement of new or changed hardware, software, documentation, process etc. to the live environment. Deployment is part of the release and deployment management process. depreciation (ITIL Service Strategy) A measure of the reduction in value of an asset over its life. This is based on wearing out, consumption or other reduction in the useful economic value. design (ITIL Service Design) An activity or process that identifies requirements and then defines a solution that is able to meet these requirements. See also service design. design coordination (ITIL Service Design) The process responsible for coordinating all service design activities, processes and resources. Design coordination ensures the consistent and effective design of new or changed IT services, service management information systems, architectures, technology, processes, information and metrics. ITIL® Glossary of Terms English v.1.0 © AXELOS Limited 2011 All rights reserved Reproduction of this material requires the permission of AXELOS Limited The swirl logo™ is a trade mark of AXELOS Limited ITIL® is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited 21