Challenges during Teaching practice

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Challenges faced by teachers when teaching learners with developmental disability Humphrey Alexander UDOBA Master’s Thesis Master of Philosophy in Special Needs Education Department of Special Needs Education Faculty of Educational Sciences UNIVERSITY OF OSLO Autumn 2014 I Challenges faced by teachers when teaching learners with developmental disability. By Humphrey Alexander UDOBA Master’s Thesis Master of Philosophy in Special Needs Education Department of Special Needs Education Faculty of Educational Sciences UNIVERSITY OF OSLO Autumn 2014 II © Humphrey Alexander Udoba 2014 Challenges face by teachers when teaching learners with developmental disability Humphrey Alexander Udoba http://www.duo.uio.no/ Trykk: Reprosentralen, Universitetet i Oslo III Dedication I dedicate this master thesis to my lovely wife, Jacqueline Manswet Msofe, my son Brian Humphrey. I really appreciate for their love and support they gave me during the whole period that I have been busy writing this thesis. IV Summary Since the early 1990s the movement to have education for all was launched at the World Conference that involved various international organizations such as UNESCO, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF and the World Bank. The main agenda for this conference was Education for All in the entire world. In Tanzania the aspect of education for all is not effectively implemented despite of having policies and legal framework that advocate education for all. The education should enhance teachers who teach children with developmental disability and also create awareness in the society to accept children with special educational needs. However, children with developmental disability need extra attention in terms of curriculum adaptation, teaching methods, and availability of teaching and learning materials, assistive technology, assessment systems, as well as resources and funds for more assistance in adapting the school environment. This study addressed the issue of children with developmental disability by examining the challenges faced by teachers who teach children with developmental disability and how they try to overcome these challenges. Local teachers in most of the primary schools in Tanzania lack training in special needs education for children with developmental disability. Despite the “Primary Education Development Plan” (PEDP), that ensure education for all, the overall quality of primary education in Tanzania remains generally poor for children with developmental disability. The shortages of teachers trained on special- educational needs- professionals, as well as the lack of teaching facilities, have a negative effect on the delivery of quality education to children with developmental disability. In many schools, class sizes are too big for teachers to facilitate quality learning. The general purpose of this study is to find out what challenges teachers face when teaching children with developmental disability. Very few studies on children with developmental disability have been conducted in Tanzania. Most of these few studies focused on secondary school level. Therefore there is a need to conduct such studies at the primary school level. The empirical investigation is guided by the following objectives: 1. To see Teachers’ understanding of developmental disability. 2. To find out the approach and methods of teaching used by teachers when teaching children with developmental disability. V 3. To see if there are common activities between a unit for children with special educational needs and ordinary classes. 4. To find out to what extent the parents of children with developmental disability collaborate with special needs education teachers. The main research question for this master thesis is: What challenges do teachers face when teaching children with developmental disability and how do they overcome them? The study has interviewed and observed four special needs education teachers who teach in two primary schools with a unit for children with special education needs. The study covered three classes. Two parents were interviewed. The study revealed challenges that are quite universal for teaching learners with developmental disability. Teachers in this study expressed the need for reduced class sizes, modern teaching materials, motivations to teachers, and additional support services from the government. Most teachers teaching children with developmental disability did not receive any special needs education training from the university, they feel that they are not qualified to teach the children with developmental disability. This study revealed that the classrooms for children with developmental disability in Tanzania at large have poor learning environment to support the learners with developmental disability. The study reveals that collaboration between special needs education teachers and parents for children with developmental disability is necessary for the wellbeing of their children. Although the results of this study focused on Tanzania, the suggestions may be useful for other developing countries. In order to improve the poor learning environment for special needs educational for children with developmental disability, the following aspects are recommended.  Specialized training facilities  Resources; both human and materials  Special needs education teachers Future research in this area should involve systematic, long-term development work across a range of sites and settings, which also allows for the examination of the impact of the innovations upon achievement. Such research is necessary if we are to advance knowledge about teaching and learning to understand how combinations of teaching approach. VI Preface This work has been performed at Master of Philosophy in Special Needs Education Department, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Oslo. To evaluate the method to be used a pilot study was performed in Oslo. Since my origin is Tanzania I decided to do the study in Tanzania. The data collection in Tanzania was performed during August 2013. Challenges faced by teachers when teaching learners with developmental disability is the topic for this thesis. However, learners are in this study constrict to children at primary school. This research paper is made possible through the help and support from many people, including: my mother, teachers, family, and friends. Allow me to dedicate my acknowledgment of gratitude toward the following significant contributors: First and foremost, special thanks should go to my advisor, Miriam Skjørten for her tireless supervision she provided to me since the preparation of the proposal to the production of the final report of this thesis. Second, I would like to thank Helge Skjetne for his variable financial support in many ways that I cannot even explain. Thanks to Karen Bibow for helping with the layout of the document. Finally, I sincerely acknowledge also the University of Oslo (UIO) and its Professors for the academic support and consultancy they have provided to me all the time as a student and fellow students who provide the advice. The product of this research paper would not be possible without all of them. VII Acronyms CRC - Conventions on the Right of the Child EFA- Education for All EPSEN- Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs MOEC- Ministry of Education MoEVT- Ministry of Education and Vocational Training NSGRP- National Strategy on economic Growth and Reduction of Poverty NGOs - Non Governmental Organizations NCSE - National Council of Special Education PEDP - Primary Education Development Program SNE- Special Needs Education UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations URT- United Republic of Tanzania UN - United Nations UDHR - The Universal Declaration of Human Rights UNICEF - United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund UNDP - United Nations Development Programme UNFPA - United Nations Fund for Population Activities WHO - World Health Organisation WCPT - World Confederation of Physical Therapy ZPD - Zone of Proximal Development VIII Table of contents 1 INRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................ 1 1.2 PURPOSE, OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS .................................................... 2 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS .................................................................................................. 3 1.4 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS ........................................................................................... 3 1.4.1 Impairment ..................................................................................................................... 3 1.4.2 Disability ........................................................................................................................ 4 1.4.3 Special needs education ................................................................................................. 4 1.4.4 Inclusive education ........................................................................................................ 4 1.5 OUTLINE OF THE THESIS ............................................................................................... 5 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................................. 6 2.1 INTERNATIONAL DECLARATIONS ................................................................................. 6 2.1.1 The universal declaration of human rights ..................................................................... 6 2.1.2 The convention on the rights of the child ...................................................................... 6 2.1.3 Education for all ............................................................................................................. 7 2.1.4 The UN standard rules on the equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities ...................................................................................................................... 7 2.2 REVIEW OF TANZANIA’S NATIONAL POLICIES ON SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION .......... 8 2.2.1 The constitution of the united republic of Tanzania ...................................................... 8 2.2.2 Universal primary education in Tanzania ...................................................................... 8 2.2.3 National strategy for growth and reduction of poverty .................................................. 9 2.2.4 Primary education development program ...................................................................... 9 2.2.5 Tanzania persons with disability act .............................................................................. 9 2.3 SOME INFORMATION ABOUT SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION IN TANZANIA ................... 10 2.4 DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY .................................................................................... 11 2.4.1 Causes of developmental disability.............................................................................. 11 2.5 ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT AND MEDIATION ............................................... 12 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................................................. 14 3.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA ............................................................................. 14 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN ...................................................................................................... 14 3.3 SAMPLING AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE ...................................................................... 15 3.3.1 The target group ........................................................................................................... 15 3.3.2 Criteria for choosing the schools ................................................................................. 15 3.3.3 Criteria for choosing the informants ............................................................................ 16 3.3.4 Sampling process ......................................................................................................... 16 3.4 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION ............................................................................... 16 IX 3.4.1 Semi-structured interview ............................................................................................ 17 3.4.2 Observations ................................................................................................................ 18 3.4.3 Informal talks with the parents .................................................................................... 19 3.5 PILOT STUDY ................................................................................................................ 19 3.6 DATA ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................... 20 3.7 ENSURING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF DATA ....................................................... 21 3.7.1 Validity and reliability ................................................................................................. 21 3.7.2 Securing validity and reliability ................................................................................... 22 3.8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ........................................................................................... 22 3.9 LIMITATIONS ............................................................................................................... 23 4 RESEARCH FINDINGS ........................................................................................... 25 4.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE TEACHERS ................................................ 26 4.1.1 Teacher A1 - school A ................................................................................................ 26 4.1.2 Teacher A2 - school A ................................................................................................ 26 4.1.3 Teacher B1 - school B .................................................................................................. 26 4.1.4 Teacher B2 - school B .................................................................................................. 27 4.2 TEACHERS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY ................................ 27 4.2.1 Teacher A1 ................................................................................................................... 27 4.2.2 Teacher A2 ................................................................................................................... 27 4.2.3 Teacher B1 ................................................................................................................... 28 4.2.4 Teacher B2 ................................................................................................................... 28 4.3 TEACHING APPROACHES AND METHODS USED BY TEACHERS .................................... 28 4.3.1 Teacher A1 ................................................................................................................... 28 4.3.2 Teacher A2 ................................................................................................................... 29 4.3.3 Teacher B1 ................................................................................................................... 29 4.3.4 Teacher B2 ................................................................................................................... 29 4.4 CHALLENGES FACED BY THE TEACHERS .................................................................... 30 4.4.1 Teacher A1 ................................................................................................................... 30 4.4.2 Teacher A2 ................................................................................................................... 33 4.4.3 Teacher B1 ................................................................................................................... 35 4.4.4 Teacher B2 ................................................................................................................... 37 4.5 MEANS USED BY TEACHERS TO OVERCOME CHALLENGES ......................................... 40 4.5.1 Teacher A1 ................................................................................................................... 40 4.5.2 Teacher A2 ................................................................................................................... 41 4.5.3 Teacher B1 ................................................................................................................... 41 4.5.4 Teacher B2 ................................................................................................................... 42 4.6 SHARED ACTIVITIES BETWEEN THE UNIT FOR CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY AND THE ORDINARY SCHOOL ................................................................... 43 4.6.1 Collaboration between special needs teachers and regular teacher ............................. 43 4.6.2 Shared activities between learners with special educational needs and ordinary students ........................................................................................................................ 45 X 4.7 COLLABORATION BETWEEN PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY AND THEIR TEACHERS .............................................................................. 46 4.8 ADDITIONAL OPINIONS GIVEN BY THE TEACHERS ...................................................... 47 4.9 FINDINGS FROM INFORMAL OBSERVATIONS ............................................................... 49 4.9.1 Informal observation at school A ................................................................................. 49 4.9.2 Informal observation at school B ................................................................................. 49 4.10 INFORMAL OBSERVATION DURING BREAK TIME ......................................................... 51 4.11 INTERVIEW FINDINGS FROM PARENTS ........................................................................ 51 4.11.1 Parent 1 from school A ................................................................................................ 51 4.11.2 Parent 2 from school B ................................................................................................ 52 5 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................. 54 5.1 CHALLENGES OBSERVED ............................................................................................. 54 5.1.1 Lack of teaching materials ........................................................................................... 54 5.1.2 Lack of special needs teachers ..................................................................................... 55 5.1.3 Lack of classrooms and poor learning environments................................................... 56 5.1.4 Acceptance in the society ............................................................................................. 56 5.1.5 Motivation and poor salary .......................................................................................... 57 5.2 HOW TEACHERS OVERCOME SOME OF THE CHALLENGES......................................... 58 5.3 TEACHERS UNDERSTANDING OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY ................................ 59 5.4 METHODS AND APPROACHES USED BY THE TEACHERS .............................................. 60 5.5 SHARED ACTIVITIES BETWEEN A UNIT FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND ORDINARY CLASSES .................................................................................. 61 5.6 COLLABORATION BETWEEN PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY AND SPECIAL NEEDS TEACHERS ............................................................... 61 5.7 INFORMAL TALKS WITH THE PARENTS ....................................................................... 62 6 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................... 63 7 RECOMENDATION ................................................................................................. 64 7.1 SPECIALIZED TRAINING FACILITIES ............................................................................ 64 7.2 RESOURCES .................................................................................................................. 64 7.3 SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION TEACHERS ...................................................................... 65 7.4 FURTHER RESEARCH ................................................................................................... 65 8 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 66 9 APPENDIXES ............................................................................................................ 71 XI XII 1 INRODUCTION This chapter gives background information about the study. It also points out the purpose, objectives, and research questions. Furthermore, explanation of relevant terms is presented later in the chapter and finally the organization of the thesis is given. In this thesis Special needs children and Children with special educational needs is equivalent to Children with developmental disability. Learners are in this study constrict to children at primary school. 1.1 Background of the study Since the early 1990s the movement to have education for all was launched at the World Conference that involved various international organizations such as UNESCO, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF and the World Bank. The main agenda for this conference was Education for All in the entire world. However, inclusive education is currently a topical subject that is widely discussed and debated upon in the field of education, Tanzania included. It has invariably been referred to as part of the global education for all agenda as a new education paradigm and as an educational reform goals to make our societies inclusive. The same is accepted in Tanzania; however the aspect of education for all is not effectively implemented despite of having policies and legal framework that advocate education for all. The education should enhance teachers who teach children with developmental disability and also create awareness in the society to accept children with special educational needs. Therefore there is a need to introduce comprehensive special needs education in all teacher- professional development-programs. However, children with developmental disability need extra attention in terms of curriculum adaptation, teaching methods, and availability of teaching and learning materials, assistive technology, assessment systems, as well as resources and funds for more assistance in adapting the school environment. This study addressed the issue of children with developmental disability by examining the challenges faced by teachers who teach children with developmental disability and how they 1 try to overcome these challenges. There have been many problems in teaching children with developmental disability in Tanzania. Local teachers in most of the primary schools in Tanzania lack training in special needs education for children with developmental disability. Despite the “Primary Education Development Plan” (PEDP), that ensure education for all, the overall quality of primary education in Tanzania remains generally poor particularly in schools for children with developmental disability. Many primary schools in Tanzania suffer from a shortage of teachers. The situation is worse in those schools that have special needs units. These schools have lack of trained teachers in the field of special needs education. The shortages of teachers trained on special- educational needs-professionals, as well as the lack of teaching facilities, have a negative effect on the delivery of quality education to children with developmental disability. In many schools, class sizes are too big for teachers to facilitate quality learning. Tanzania is one of the countries which adapted the Dakar Framework which re-affirmed their commitment to achieving Education for All by the year 2015 regarding the world declaration of Education for All (EFA) that was held in Dakar, Senegal from 26th to 28th of April 2000.Children with developmental disability deserve attention in many aspects because they are suffering from limited access to information and they suffer from social stigmatization. Directly or indirectly, these factors reduce the chances of accessing social services, addressing the educational needs, need of economic growth and poverty reduction efforts (URT, 2005). Tanzania has had many setbacks in helping children with disabilities, one of them being lack of qualified Special Needs Education teachers who have knowledge and appropriate methodology on teaching children with disabilities. 1.2 Purpose, Objectives and Research questions The general purpose of this study is to find out what challenges teachers face when teaching children with developmental disabilities. Very few studies on children with developmental disability have been conducted in Tanzania. Most of these few studies focused on secondary school level. Therefore there is a need to conduct such studies at the primary school level. The empirical investigation is guided by the following objectives: 1. To see Teachers’ understanding of developmental disability. 2 2. To find out the approach and methods of teaching used by teachers when teaching children with developmental disability. 3. To see if there are common activities between a unit for children with special educational needs and ordinary classes. 4. To find out to what extent the parents of children with developmental disability collaborate with special needs education teachers. The study is guided by the research questions listed in part 1.3. 1.3 Research questions The main research question for this master thesis is: What challenges do teachers face when teaching children with developmental disability and how do they overcome them? The following sub questions are raised: a. What is the teacher’s understanding of developmental disability? b. What approach and methods of teaching do the teachers use to teach children with developmental disability learn? c. Are there any common activities between the unit for children with developmental disability and the ordinary school classes? 1.4 Definition of key terms 1.4.1 Impairment Impairment is a partial or complete loss of functions of a body part, an organ, a sensory function, and/or brain functions. The loss can be temporary or permanent. Impairments may affect sensory functions (among other hearing and vision, touch), mental functions (memory, consciousness, and cognitive abilities) and/or physical/bodily functions of the limbs or internal organs. Impairment can influence interaction, communication, movement, and/or learning processes and general behaviour in children (and adults), based on (WHO, 1980). 3 1.4.2 Disability Disability is a restriction or an inability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being, mostly resulting from impairment (Barbotte, Guillemin, Chau, & Lordhandicap Group, 2001). It is important to emphasize that activities and roles that a society considers to be “normal,” depend on age, sex, as well as a number of social and cultural factors. UN Convection on the Right of Persons with Disabilities explains a person with disability by including: Those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. (UN, 2008. Article 1). 1.4.3 Special needs education The Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs (EPSEN) Act was passed in Dublin by the Government into law in July 2004. Special educational needs are defined in this act as: A restriction in the capacity of the person to participate in and benefit from education on account of an enduring physical, sensory, mental health or learning disability, or any other condition which results in a person learning differently from a person without that condition (NCSE, 2014). Children with special educational needs are children with a variety of different disability such as health and mental health conditions that require special intervention, services, or support. Parenting a child with special needs can be particularly challenging (Kirk, Gallagher, Coleman, & Anastasiow, 2009). 1.4.4 Inclusive education UNESCO (2009) elaborates on what an inclusive education system should be in the following statement: An ‘inclusive’ education system can only be created if ordinary schools become more inclusive – in other words, if they become better at educating all children in their communities. The Conference proclaimed that: ‘regular schools with aninclusive 4 orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system’ (UNESCO, 2009). Mmbaga (2002) argues that Inclusive Education needs to be part of the whole school equal opportunity policy; in this case children with learning difficulties, girls’ and boys’ learning needs would be incorporated into the curriculum and the school-learning environment. 1.5 Outline of the thesis This thesis is made up of seven chapters which consist of the Introduction, Theoretical Framework, Research Methodology, Research Findings, Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations. Chapter One is the introduction, which includes the background and the purpose of the study; objectives of the research and the research questions. Chapter Two presents the theoretical frame work. Chapter Three describes the methodology and different procedures the study took during data collection. In this chapter, the research design and methods of data collection (interview and observation) are discussed including sampling techniques, data analysis, validity and reliability. This chapter ends with ethical considerations in this study. In chapter Four the study results are presented. In chapter Five the study results are discussed. Chapter six is giving a conclusion based on the findings and the discussion. In chapter seven recommendations for further work is outlined. 5 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter present various literature reviews that are related to the study. Since the main purpose for this study was to reveal the challenges faced by teachers when teaching children with developmental disability and how do they try to overcome these challenges. The chapter starts by reviewing the international and national declarations, policies and acts about learners with special educational needs, then some information about special needs education in Tanzania, followed by developmental disability and finally concluding with Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and Mediation concepts by Vygotsky and other scholars. 2.1 International declarations Tanzania being a member of the International Community follows various UN conventions, e.g. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1949), The Convention on the rights of the Child (CRC) 1989, Education for All EFA 1990, the UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (1993), and the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education (1994). 2.1.1 The universal declaration of human rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General th Assembly in Paris on 10 of December 1948 as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected (www.ohchr.org), accessed on 5/7/2014 2.1.2 The convention on the rights of the child The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is the most ratified of all the United Nations Human Rights treaties. The treaty recognizes the importance of international co- operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries. The treaty affirms and describes the fundamental human rights of all children (all human beings below the age of 18), and the governments that have ratified it 6 have legally agreed to fulfil its provisions. This includes the rights for education for all children. The CRC forms the most comprehensive and well-established international standard for children's rights and provides the framework for the actions of UNICEF, the UN children's agency (www.canadiancrc.com), accessed on 10/10/2014. 2.1.3 Education for all In 1990, delegates from 155 countries, as well as representatives from some 150 governmental and non-governmental organizations, agreed at the World Conference on th th Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand (5 – 9 of March 1990) to make primary education accessible to all children and to massively reduce illiteracy before the end of the decade. In June 1994 UNESCO summoned the world nations to meet in Salamanca in Spain to further the objective of Education for All. The main focus was to enhance inclusive education by enabling all children, those with Special Educational Needs in particular to access schools (World Bank 2000). To continually take further the cause of Education for All, world nations met again in Dakar Senegal in the year 2000. In this forum nations had the opportunity to assess the achievements, lessons and failures encountered. One of the resolutions in Dakar was to ensure all children, with emphasis to the marginalized children like those with special educational needs, to have access to and complete a primary education of good quality by 2015 (UNESCO, 2000). 2.1.4 The UN standard rules on the equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities Among the major outcomes of the Decade of Disabled Persons was the adoption, by the General Assembly, of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities in 1993. Although not a legally binding instrument, the Standard Rules represent a strong moral and political commitment of Governments to take action to attain equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities. The rules serve as an instrument for policy-making and as a basis for technical and economic cooperation. The Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities hold that in situations where the general education system does not adequately meet the needs of all people with disabilities, Special Education may then be considered as a solution. The quality of such 7 education should reflect the same standards, goals and ambitions of a general education and should be closely linked to it (WCPT, 2011). 2.2 Review of Tanzania’s national policies on special needs education Policy documents are very essential as they provide a reflection of a government’s decision making process, hold governments accountable for services delivered, shape societal view points and actions and record a society’s progress and change over time. Having a policy in special needs education is a significant milestone towards achieving various global initiatives to ensure equal education opportunities to people with special needs. Tanzania has adopted, and to some extent, implemented a number of laws, policies and documents pertaining to people with special needs. The following are highlighted: These are The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, Universal Primary Education in Tanzania (UPE), National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP), Primary Education Development Program (PEDP), and Tanzania Persons with Disability Act 2010. 2.2.1 The constitution of the united republic of Tanzania The 1977 Tanzanian Constitution with its amendments stresses the equality and equity of all citizens. For instance, part 3 explains that every person is entitled to recognition and respect for his dignity, and all persons are equal before the law and are entitled to protection without any discrimination and with equality before the law. The constitution prohibits discrimination against people with special needs. 2.2.2 Universal primary education in Tanzania The Universal Primary Education Policy of 1974 (UPE) emphasizes the right of all Tanzanian children to a free primary education. Schools were built in almost every village resulting in high enrolment in primary schools. This remark abled the literacy rates to reach 98% by the mid 1980’s. In relation to Special Needs Education, the Universal Primary Education initiative addressed it in a general manner by the means of including learners with special needs in the general statements such as the right to education to every child of school age 7 to 12 years. 8

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