Pedagogy approach teaching

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PEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY PEDAGOGY i HANDBOOK FOR HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE LOCAL LANGUAGE iPEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGEPEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC) is grateful to Oxfam-Novib, Educational Trust and, Literacy and Adult Basic Education (LABE) for the financial and technical support that led to the production of this book. NCDC extends her gratitude to all people whose tireless contributions have made this work possible. We recognise the professional input rendered by Mr Gabriel Obbo-Katandi (Curriculum Specialist) for coordinating the activities that have led to the development and production of this book. We are grateful to the following writing team: Josephine Lubwama of Vari Consult; Geraldine Bukenya of NCDC and Godfrey Ssentumbwe of LABE for their contributions. We are also indebted to the District Education and Civic leadership of the following focus districts for LABE’s Mother Tongue Education Project: Adjumani, Amuru, Arua, Gulu and Koboko. These are the areas where the need for such support material was realised. Finally, we recognise the contribution of different stakeholders who were consulted on the draft of this book. Their input was instrumental in improving the content in this book. Connie Kateeba DIRECTOR, NATIONAL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE ii iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC) is grateful to Oxfam-Novib, Educational Trust and, Literacy and Adult Basic Education (LABE) for the financial and technical support that led to the production of this book. NCDC extends her gratitude to all people whose tireless contributions have made this work possible. We recognise the professional input rendered by Mr Gabriel Obbo-Katandi (Curriculum Specialist) for coordinating the activities that have led to the development and production of this book. We are grateful to the following writing team: Josephine Lubwama of Vari Consult; Geraldine Bukenya of NCDC and Godfrey Ssentumbwe of LABE for their contributions. We are also indebted to the District Education and Civic leadership of the following focus districts for LABE’s Mother Tongue Education Project: Adjumani, Amuru, Arua, Gulu and Koboko. These are the areas where the need for such support material was realised. Finally, we recognise the contribution of different stakeholders who were consulted on the draft of this book. Their input was instrumental in improving the content in this book. Connie Kateeba DIRECTOR, NATIONAL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE ii iii iiiPEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III ACRONYMS - X PREFACE - XI BACKGROUND - 1 Rationale - 3 How to Use this Handbook - 3 CHAPTER 1 - 4 EDUCATION AND LOCAL LANGUAGE 4 The Early Days of Western Education 5 CHAPTER 2 - 7 MOTHER TONGUE VIS-A-VIS LOCAL LANGUAGE - 7 CHAPTER 3 - 10 COMMON CHALLENGES IN USING LOCAL LANGUAGE AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION 10 Teacher-Related Challenges 10 Attitude - 10 Materials 11 iv v iv Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III ACRONYMS - X PREFACE - XI BACKGROUND - 1 Rationale - 3 How to Use this Handbook - 3 CHAPTER 1 - 4 EDUCATION AND LOCAL LANGUAGE 4 The Early Days of Western Education 5 CHAPTER 2 - 7 MOTHER TONGUE VIS-A-VIS LOCAL LANGUAGE - 7 CHAPTER 3 - 10 COMMON CHALLENGES IN USING LOCAL LANGUAGE AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION 10 Teacher-Related Challenges 10 Attitude - 10 Materials 11 iv v vPEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE Translation 11 Listening 25 Primary One to Primary Three (P1- P3) - 25 Messages 12 Primary One to Primary Two (P1- P2) - 26 Primary Two to Primary Three (P2- P3) 26 Punishments - 12 Primary Three - 26 Teaching in Multi-Lingual Schools 12 Preparing for Effective Listening 26 Coping strategies in a multi-lingual school - 12 Speaking 27 CHAPTER 4 - 14 Primary One - 27 Competences to be developed by the learner at P2 and P3 - 27 LOCAL LANGUAGE IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM - 14 Literacy I: Reading - 28 Literacy in the Thematic Curriculum - 16 Primary One - 28 Primary Two - 29 CHAPTER 5 - 18 Primary Three 29 PREPARING TO TEACH IN LOCAL LANGUAGE 18 Literacy II: Writing - 30 Primary One - 30 Teacher’s Attitude - 18 Primary Two - 31 Sound System 19 Primary Three 31 Syllable Structure 19 Working with Learners who have Special Learning Needs - 32 Vocabulary - 19 Teaching the Mathematics Strand using Local Language - 35 Grammar - 20 Teaching Religious Education, Physical Education and Penmanship - 20 Creative Arts - 37 CHAPTER 6 - 21 CHAPTER 7 - 38 GUIDANCE ON THE TEACHING OF LITERACY 1, LITERACY 2 METHODS OF TEACHING READING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE 38 AND OTHER STRANDS 21 Phonic Method 38 Literacy - 21 vi vii viTranslation 11 Listening 25 Primary One to Primary Three (P1- P3) - 25 Messages 12 Primary One to Primary Two (P1- P2) - 26 Primary Two to Primary Three (P2- P3) 26 Punishments - 12 Primary Three - 26 Teaching in Multi-Lingual Schools 12 Preparing for Effective Listening 26 Coping strategies in a multi-lingual school - 12 Speaking 27 CHAPTER 4 - 14 Primary One - 27 Competences to be developed by the learner at P2 and P3 - 27 LOCAL LANGUAGE IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM - 14 Literacy I: Reading - 28 Literacy in the Thematic Curriculum - 16 Primary One - 28 Primary Two - 29 CHAPTER 5 - 18 Primary Three 29 PREPARING TO TEACH IN LOCAL LANGUAGE 18 Literacy II: Writing - 30 Primary One - 30 Teacher’s Attitude - 18 Primary Two - 31 Sound System 19 Primary Three 31 Syllable Structure 19 Working with Learners who have Special Learning Needs - 32 Vocabulary - 19 Teaching the Mathematics Strand using Local Language - 35 Grammar - 20 Teaching Religious Education, Physical Education and Penmanship - 20 Creative Arts - 37 CHAPTER 6 - 21 CHAPTER 7 - 38 GUIDANCE ON THE TEACHING OF LITERACY 1, LITERACY 2 METHODS OF TEACHING READING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE 38 AND OTHER STRANDS 21 Phonic Method 38 Literacy - 21 vi vii viiPEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE Sounds can be made by a combination of two, three or more CHAPTER 9 - 54 letters - 39 Procedure 1 39 ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL LANGUAGE - 54 Procedure 2 40 Areas for Continuous Assessment - 55 Syllabic Method - 41 a) Literacy 55 Phonemic awareness 56 Look and Say Method - 42 Alphabetic principle (phonics) 56 b) Mathematics - 58 Whole Word - 42 Sample procedure 42 Reflective Practice - 58 Whole Sentence - 43 REFERENCES - 59 Sample procedure 43 Eclectic Method - 44 Sample procedure 44 CHAPTER 8 - 47 INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS - 47 Development 48 Pictures - 48 Letter cards 49 Flash cards - 49 Work cards - 49 Alphabet cards or charts 49 Jig-saws - 50 Picture cards- 50 Writing cards/papers/booklets - 50 Reading Materials 51 Usage 51 Storage 52 viii ix viiiSounds can be made by a combination of two, three or more CHAPTER 9 - 54 letters - 39 Procedure 1 39 ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL LANGUAGE - 54 Procedure 2 40 Areas for Continuous Assessment - 55 Syllabic Method - 41 a) Literacy 55 Phonemic awareness 56 Look and Say Method - 42 Alphabetic principle (phonics) 56 b) Mathematics - 58 Whole Word - 42 Sample procedure 42 Reflective Practice - 58 Whole Sentence - 43 REFERENCES - 59 Sample procedure 43 Eclectic Method - 44 Sample procedure 44 CHAPTER 8 - 47 INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS - 47 Development 48 Pictures - 48 Letter cards 49 Flash cards - 49 Work cards - 49 Alphabet cards or charts 49 Jig-saws - 50 Picture cards- 50 Writing cards/papers/booklets - 50 Reading Materials 51 Usage 51 Storage 52 viii ix ixPEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE ACRONYMS PREFACE ALB Area Language Board The language of instruction (LoI) especially for early grade CMS Church Missionary Society learning plays a key role in developing a child’s understanding. DES Directorate of Education Standards The learning becomes interesting and meaningful when a child ESCC Education Sector Consultative Committee is taught using a language he/she is familiar with. Uganda’s LABE Literacy and Adult Basic Education Education Policy as spelt out in the Government White Paper LI Literacy One (Speaking and Reading) on Education (1992) underscores the importance of teaching LII Literacy Two (Writing) using the language that the learner is familiar with. LL Local Language In order to implement this Government Policy, a Thematic LoI Language of Instruction Curriculum which emphasises the development of literacy, MoES Ministry of Education and Sports numeracy, life skills and values was introduced in 2007. The MoI Medium of Instruction curriculum emphasises the use of a local or familiar language as NCDC National Curriculum Development Centre a medium of instruction from Primary One to Primary Three. NGO Non Government Organisation Despite the government language policy and the Thematic PTC Primary Teachers’ College Curriculum in place, there has been inadequate literature to TG Teacher’s Guide guide the teacher implement the policy. This poses a serious TIET Teacher Instructor Education and Training need to support teachers in the implementation of teaching TPR Total Physical Response using local language. This Pedagogy Handbook for Teaching in Local Language is for a teacher who is teaching using the local language as a medium of instruction from P1-P3. The Handbook has been written to guide and empower teachers to teach with confidence using local language as a medium of instruction. When teaching using the local language, the grammar, orthography, spellings and correct pronunciation are taken care of indirectly in the process of teaching. Teachers need information and guidance regarding how children learn literacy through their local languages. A number of educational researches have shown that learners who first learn in local language easily transfer language acquisition to other languages including the learning of English. x xi xACRONYMS PREFACE ALB Area Language Board The language of instruction (LoI) especially for early grade CMS Church Missionary Society learning plays a key role in developing a child’s understanding. DES Directorate of Education Standards The learning becomes interesting and meaningful when a child ESCC Education Sector Consultative Committee is taught using a language he/she is familiar with. Uganda’s LABE Literacy and Adult Basic Education Education Policy as spelt out in the Government White Paper LI Literacy One (Speaking and Reading) on Education (1992) underscores the importance of teaching LII Literacy Two (Writing) using the language that the learner is familiar with. LL Local Language In order to implement this Government Policy, a Thematic LoI Language of Instruction Curriculum which emphasises the development of literacy, MoES Ministry of Education and Sports numeracy, life skills and values was introduced in 2007. The MoI Medium of Instruction curriculum emphasises the use of a local or familiar language as NCDC National Curriculum Development Centre a medium of instruction from Primary One to Primary Three. NGO Non Government Organisation Despite the government language policy and the Thematic PTC Primary Teachers’ College Curriculum in place, there has been inadequate literature to TG Teacher’s Guide guide the teacher implement the policy. This poses a serious TIET Teacher Instructor Education and Training need to support teachers in the implementation of teaching TPR Total Physical Response using local language. This Pedagogy Handbook for Teaching in Local Language is for a teacher who is teaching using the local language as a medium of instruction from P1-P3. The Handbook has been written to guide and empower teachers to teach with confidence using local language as a medium of instruction. When teaching using the local language, the grammar, orthography, spellings and correct pronunciation are taken care of indirectly in the process of teaching. Teachers need information and guidance regarding how children learn literacy through their local languages. A number of educational researches have shown that learners who first learn in local language easily transfer language acquisition to other languages including the learning of English. x xi xiPEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE Teaching using local languages presents several challenges to teachers, including inadequate literature and instructional BACKGROUND materials in local languages, how to teach in local language in Several efforts have been made towards improving the quality of multilingual classroom settings, inadequate skills to interpret education in Uganda. One such effort has been the use of local language as the medium of instruction in the lower primary school. and translate the Thematic Curriculum and parents’ negative From a global perspective, UNESCO in its 2003 Education Position attitude towards using local language. The Handbook seeks to Paper supports local language instruction as a means of improving assist primary teachers in addressing these challenges and education quality by building upon the knowledge and experience of other related issues more confidently by showing them how to the learners and teachers. The Position Paper stresses that use existing materials from the NCDC as references for instruction in local language is essential for initial instruction and preparing to teach in local language, developing their local literacy. It further argues that every pupil should begin his or her materials and how to carry out continuous assessment. The formal education in his or her mother tongue and that if mixed groups are unavoidable, instruction should be in the language which examples and methods suggested by the authors are based on gives the least hardship to the majority of the pupils. their practical experience gained from long years of teaching and wide consultation in the field. In Uganda, the need to have local language in the curriculum stems way back from the Phelps Stokes Commission of 1924 and the Castle This Handbook is well written, user friendly, takes the user Report of 1963. The 1989 Kajubi Commission re-emphasised the through the full length of teaching in local language and need to have local language as a medium of instruction in lower provides the essential knowledge and techniques that teachers primary. The recommendation to have local language as a medium of require in order to face most challenging classroom situations. instruction was finally agreed to in the 1992 Government White Paper on Education. It contains nine chapters which cover important issues such as the justification for teaching in local language and how to teach Uganda’s Language Policy was put in place to reinforce recommendation 31 of the Government White Paper on Education in local language. The Handbook is particularly commended to (1992) which calls for use of local language as a medium of student and practicing primary teachers, tutors in Primary instruction from P1-P4. It was, however, later agreed that the use of Teachers’ Colleges (PTCs), researchers and those working in local language as the medium of instruction should go up to P3, while primary school local language improvement programmes in P4 becomes a transition class where local language can be taught as a Uganda. subject. Other subjects of P4 have to be taught in English as a medium of instruction. In P4, the teacher is free to use local language especially to explain difficult concepts. English is gradually increased to replace the use of local language. This is the transition nature of P4. It should be noted that use of local language in P4 does not mean Dr Yusuf Nsubuga teaching by translation. Local language in a curriculum takes two DIRECTOR, dimensions: It can be sparingly used as a medium of instruction in P4 and taught as a subject from P4–P7. BASIC AND SECONDARY EDUCATION This Handbook focuses on the teacher who is teaching using the local MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SPORTS language as a medium of instruction. In the process of teaching, the xii 1 xiiTeaching using local languages presents several challenges to teachers, including inadequate literature and instructional BACKGROUND materials in local languages, how to teach in local language in Several efforts have been made towards improving the quality of multilingual classroom settings, inadequate skills to interpret education in Uganda. One such effort has been the use of local language as the medium of instruction in the lower primary school. and translate the Thematic Curriculum and parents’ negative From a global perspective, UNESCO in its 2003 Education Position attitude towards using local language. The Handbook seeks to Paper supports local language instruction as a means of improving assist primary teachers in addressing these challenges and education quality by building upon the knowledge and experience of other related issues more confidently by showing them how to the learners and teachers. The Position Paper stresses that use existing materials from the NCDC as references for instruction in local language is essential for initial instruction and preparing to teach in local language, developing their local literacy. It further argues that every pupil should begin his or her materials and how to carry out continuous assessment. The formal education in his or her mother tongue and that if mixed groups are unavoidable, instruction should be in the language which examples and methods suggested by the authors are based on gives the least hardship to the majority of the pupils. their practical experience gained from long years of teaching and wide consultation in the field. In Uganda, the need to have local language in the curriculum stems way back from the Phelps Stokes Commission of 1924 and the Castle This Handbook is well written, user friendly, takes the user Report of 1963. The 1989 Kajubi Commission re-emphasised the through the full length of teaching in local language and need to have local language as a medium of instruction in lower provides the essential knowledge and techniques that teachers primary. The recommendation to have local language as a medium of require in order to face most challenging classroom situations. instruction was finally agreed to in the 1992 Government White Paper on Education. It contains nine chapters which cover important issues such as the justification for teaching in local language and how to teach Uganda’s Language Policy was put in place to reinforce recommendation 31 of the Government White Paper on Education in local language. The Handbook is particularly commended to (1992) which calls for use of local language as a medium of student and practicing primary teachers, tutors in Primary instruction from P1-P4. It was, however, later agreed that the use of Teachers’ Colleges (PTCs), researchers and those working in local language as the medium of instruction should go up to P3, while primary school local language improvement programmes in P4 becomes a transition class where local language can be taught as a Uganda. subject. Other subjects of P4 have to be taught in English as a medium of instruction. In P4, the teacher is free to use local language especially to explain difficult concepts. English is gradually increased to replace the use of local language. This is the transition nature of P4. It should be noted that use of local language in P4 does not mean Dr Yusuf Nsubuga teaching by translation. Local language in a curriculum takes two DIRECTOR, dimensions: It can be sparingly used as a medium of instruction in P4 and taught as a subject from P4–P7. BASIC AND SECONDARY EDUCATION This Handbook focuses on the teacher who is teaching using the local MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SPORTS language as a medium of instruction. In the process of teaching, the xii 1 1PEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE local language grammar, orthography, spellings and correct the focal schools acknowledge the usefulness of local language as pronunciation are taken care of indirectly. medium of instruction. In line with the above, the Government introduced a Thematic Rationale Curriculum which promotes the use of local language as the medium This Handbook has been developed to guide and promote quality of instruction from P1-P3. The Thematic Curriculum is organised in teaching using the local language as a medium of instruction. It themes and emphasises the development of literacy, numeracy, life skills and values. The learners are to be instructed and helped to provides knowledge, skills and values, and highlights effective develop concepts in the languages they are familiar with at home. methods and activities that teachers can use to implement the This is because language directly relates to learner participation in Thematic Curriculum. At the same time, it addresses the identified the classroom. The Thematic Curriculum suggests activities that are challenges and suggests different ways a teacher can address them, enjoyable for learners such as songs, games, role play, dialogues and such as learner-centred methods and activities in teaching literacy, drawing. The teachers are encouraged to organise other activities numeracy and life skills. Furthermore, the Handbook provides the that keep all learners involved. necessary support materials teachers need in the implementation of the Thematic Curriculum as well as enhance the teachers’ skills in Field visits and monitoring reports from NCDC, Directorate of employing learner-centred teaching approaches. Education Standards (DES), NGO Forum/UWEZO (a Swahili word meaning `capability’) and LABE (especially from the focus districts of How to Use this Handbook northern Uganda), all indicate that teachers are meeting challenges This handbook has been developed to act as a ‘mentor on the side’ for in implementing the policy of using local language as a medium of the teacher. It contains information that explains the ‘what’ ‘why’ and instruction. These reports are based on research, classroom ‘how’ of instruction in local languages. Guidance is given on how observations and interactions with teachers and pupils in primary teachers can: handle the Literacy Hour during their lessons; develop, schools. The identified challenges include: use and store local language material; handle teaching of multilingual a) Complaints by teachers that during their own schooling they classes; and assess the learners’ competences. were never taught in local languages. In addition, some The teacher is expected to refer to this Handbook together with teachers were not equipped with skills of teaching using local languages during their training, meaning they have little existing relevant curriculum materials during scheming, lesson knowledge of teaching in local languages. planning, instructional materials preparation and assessment. b) There is lack of adequate teaching and learning materials in the different local languages. c) Some languages have not yet developed orthographies. This suggests that teachers find it hard to implement the Thematic Curriculum effectively. They still need information and practical suggestions tailored to their realities to ensure that they improve their classroom practices in using the local languages as a medium of instruction. Findings by LABE from the four-year (2009-2013) advocacy project on using local languages as medium of instruction in Adjumani, Amuru, Arua, Gulu, Koboko and Yumbe districts confirm these observations. In spite of the above challenges, the teachers in 2 3 2local language grammar, orthography, spellings and correct the focal schools acknowledge the usefulness of local language as pronunciation are taken care of indirectly. medium of instruction. In line with the above, the Government introduced a Thematic Rationale Curriculum which promotes the use of local language as the medium This Handbook has been developed to guide and promote quality of instruction from P1-P3. The Thematic Curriculum is organised in teaching using the local language as a medium of instruction. It themes and emphasises the development of literacy, numeracy, life skills and values. The learners are to be instructed and helped to provides knowledge, skills and values, and highlights effective develop concepts in the languages they are familiar with at home. methods and activities that teachers can use to implement the This is because language directly relates to learner participation in Thematic Curriculum. At the same time, it addresses the identified the classroom. The Thematic Curriculum suggests activities that are challenges and suggests different ways a teacher can address them, enjoyable for learners such as songs, games, role play, dialogues and such as learner-centred methods and activities in teaching literacy, drawing. The teachers are encouraged to organise other activities numeracy and life skills. Furthermore, the Handbook provides the that keep all learners involved. necessary support materials teachers need in the implementation of the Thematic Curriculum as well as enhance the teachers’ skills in Field visits and monitoring reports from NCDC, Directorate of employing learner-centred teaching approaches. Education Standards (DES), NGO Forum/UWEZO (a Swahili word meaning `capability’) and LABE (especially from the focus districts of How to Use this Handbook northern Uganda), all indicate that teachers are meeting challenges This handbook has been developed to act as a ‘mentor on the side’ for in implementing the policy of using local language as a medium of the teacher. It contains information that explains the ‘what’ ‘why’ and instruction. These reports are based on research, classroom ‘how’ of instruction in local languages. Guidance is given on how observations and interactions with teachers and pupils in primary teachers can: handle the Literacy Hour during their lessons; develop, schools. The identified challenges include: use and store local language material; handle teaching of multilingual a) Complaints by teachers that during their own schooling they classes; and assess the learners’ competences. were never taught in local languages. In addition, some The teacher is expected to refer to this Handbook together with teachers were not equipped with skills of teaching using local languages during their training, meaning they have little existing relevant curriculum materials during scheming, lesson knowledge of teaching in local languages. planning, instructional materials preparation and assessment. b) There is lack of adequate teaching and learning materials in the different local languages. c) Some languages have not yet developed orthographies. This suggests that teachers find it hard to implement the Thematic Curriculum effectively. They still need information and practical suggestions tailored to their realities to ensure that they improve their classroom practices in using the local languages as a medium of instruction. Findings by LABE from the four-year (2009-2013) advocacy project on using local languages as medium of instruction in Adjumani, Amuru, Arua, Gulu, Koboko and Yumbe districts confirm these observations. In spite of the above challenges, the teachers in 2 3 3PEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE The Early Days of Western Education CHAPTER 1 Western education was introduced in Uganda upon the arrival of Christian Missionaries in the 1880s. The primary objective of early EDUCATION AND LOCAL LANGUAGE Christian missionaries was to convert Africans to Christianity through the use of education. Knowledge of reading the Bible, reciting the Catechism and communicating orally using local The term education is derived from a Latin word ‘educare’, which languages were the first essential skills introduced by Western means to ‘bring up’. In its technical sense, education is the process by education. After the Phelps-Stokes Commission’s report of 1924, the which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, colonial government adopted the use of local language as the skills and values from one generation to another. Education can also medium of instruction in the lower primary grades. Vernacular be looked at as a stimulation of inquiry and reasoning skills that are textbooks were produced and teachers trained to teach in local beneficial to the development of the learners’ independent thought. languages. Impressive reading and writing outcomes as a result of It is the process of bringing up the young generation to full using local languages as a medium of instruction were registered knowledge, skills, values and norms of a society. This is easily done during that period. The teaching then, was considered effective through a common language. because it was delivered in known languages by knowledgeable people who used effective methods and relevant materials. Before European colonisation, African societies had their traditional ways of transmitting knowledge, skills and values, which is referred In the 1965 Curriculum Review, English was introduced as a subject to as indigenous education. This education emphasised a sense of starting from Primary One. This was mistaken by most schools who responsibility, skill and work ethics, spiritual and moral values which interpreted the policy to mean using English as the medium of are today emphasised in the Thematic Curriculum. The aim, content instruction from the first class. By 1970’s, nearly all schools had and methods of indigenous education were not divided into separate adopted the use of English as a medium of instruction right from disciplines and the learner’s local language was the medium of Primary One. Local language was even dropped as a subject. This instruction. trend caused the Primary Teachers’ Colleges which had been set up according to regional local languages to relax the emphasis in Local language helps the learners to learn by doing through teaching in the local languages they were set up to do. As a result, imitation, recitation and demonstration which are child-centred teachers continued to be trained without any guidance on teaching in approaches. The learner gets involved in practical skills such as local language. farming, cooking and weaving from which related grammar, sentence structure and vocabulary are learned. In addition, storytelling, Teaching today is associated with enabling learners acquire puzzles, tongue twisters, rhymes, riddles and proverbs help the knowledge; develop skills, values and positive attitudes. This is learners in mental training. Indigenous education employed all the achieved by use of different methods which include telling, above approached and they were very successful. Recreational explaining, discovery and demonstration, among others. The practical activities such as games, dances, singing and instrumental curriculum gives guidance to the teacher on how to enable the play provided integrated experiences combining physical and mental learners acquire the specified competences in the three learning training with character building, the same principle that the domains: cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. The Thematic Curriculum applies. The teacher is advised to use these competences in the curriculum are carefully selected and are similar approaches to enhance learner’s competences. This will important in the development of a holistic learner. Besides guiding enable the learner to transfer the concepts and knowledge in other the development of competences, teaching also enables the learning situations in life. 4 5 4The Early Days of Western Education CHAPTER 1 Western education was introduced in Uganda upon the arrival of Christian Missionaries in the 1880s. The primary objective of early EDUCATION AND LOCAL LANGUAGE Christian missionaries was to convert Africans to Christianity through the use of education. Knowledge of reading the Bible, reciting the Catechism and communicating orally using local The term education is derived from a Latin word ‘educare’, which languages were the first essential skills introduced by Western means to ‘bring up’. In its technical sense, education is the process by education. After the Phelps-Stokes Commission’s report of 1924, the which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, colonial government adopted the use of local language as the skills and values from one generation to another. Education can also medium of instruction in the lower primary grades. Vernacular be looked at as a stimulation of inquiry and reasoning skills that are textbooks were produced and teachers trained to teach in local beneficial to the development of the learners’ independent thought. languages. Impressive reading and writing outcomes as a result of It is the process of bringing up the young generation to full using local languages as a medium of instruction were registered knowledge, skills, values and norms of a society. This is easily done during that period. The teaching then, was considered effective through a common language. because it was delivered in known languages by knowledgeable people who used effective methods and relevant materials. Before European colonisation, African societies had their traditional ways of transmitting knowledge, skills and values, which is referred In the 1965 Curriculum Review, English was introduced as a subject to as indigenous education. This education emphasised a sense of starting from Primary One. This was mistaken by most schools who responsibility, skill and work ethics, spiritual and moral values which interpreted the policy to mean using English as the medium of are today emphasised in the Thematic Curriculum. The aim, content instruction from the first class. By 1970’s, nearly all schools had and methods of indigenous education were not divided into separate adopted the use of English as a medium of instruction right from disciplines and the learner’s local language was the medium of Primary One. Local language was even dropped as a subject. This instruction. trend caused the Primary Teachers’ Colleges which had been set up according to regional local languages to relax the emphasis in Local language helps the learners to learn by doing through teaching in the local languages they were set up to do. As a result, imitation, recitation and demonstration which are child-centred teachers continued to be trained without any guidance on teaching in approaches. The learner gets involved in practical skills such as local language. farming, cooking and weaving from which related grammar, sentence structure and vocabulary are learned. In addition, storytelling, Teaching today is associated with enabling learners acquire puzzles, tongue twisters, rhymes, riddles and proverbs help the knowledge; develop skills, values and positive attitudes. This is learners in mental training. Indigenous education employed all the achieved by use of different methods which include telling, above approached and they were very successful. Recreational explaining, discovery and demonstration, among others. The practical activities such as games, dances, singing and instrumental curriculum gives guidance to the teacher on how to enable the play provided integrated experiences combining physical and mental learners acquire the specified competences in the three learning training with character building, the same principle that the domains: cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. The Thematic Curriculum applies. The teacher is advised to use these competences in the curriculum are carefully selected and are similar approaches to enhance learner’s competences. This will important in the development of a holistic learner. Besides guiding enable the learner to transfer the concepts and knowledge in other the development of competences, teaching also enables the learning situations in life. 4 5 5PEDAGOGY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHING IN LOCAL LANGUAGE of content from the curriculum that must be guided through CHAPTER 2 organised activities. It is through a known language as a medium of instruction that pupils MOTHER TONGUE VIS-A-VIS LOCAL LANGUAGE understand what they are supposed to do, why they should do it, how to do it and when to do it. If pupils do not understand what they are supposed to do and how to do it, they may not get full advantage Mother Tongue is the first language an infant is exposed to as soon as of the learning activity. These learning activities should include he/she gets ready to communicate verbally. Children learn their modelling, drawing and shading as well as measuring and observing mother tongue naturally through imitating the sounds from their things in the environment with a purpose of helping the learner to immediate environment. That immediate environment consists of carry out and learn from the activities. This is the learner-centred mother, siblings, father and any other members who live in the approach and the teacher must gather information on how well a household. If the household uses more than one language, that child’s learner has been able to benefit from the learning activities, thus language acquisition may be delayed as he/she tries to sort out the culminating into continuous assessment. sounds that occur frequently enough to give meaning. Speech for Integrating continuous assessment in the teaching-learning process majority of children begins at the age of twelve months. Early enables learners to receive immediate feedback about their developers say their first word at ten months. However, a few may performance. This provides them with the opportunity to know how delay until they are eighteen months and speech is accelerated by the well they are doing and what else they can do to correct their age of three years. By three years, children are able to communicate mistakes. The teacher must carry out continuous assessment in the in the known language for instance telling and retelling a story, same medium of instruction. reciting a rhyme and singing a song. The mother tongue of a child is closely linked to the child’s growth and development. As the child matures, his/her language develops, and, through language, personality and experience are expressed provided the necessary guidance is given at home. For purposes of continuity, this guidance must correctly be given at lower primary school level to enhance proper learning and acquisition of language skills and knowledge. This is the continuation of what the learner will have started at home. Learners get influenced by a language spoken in the community where they live and play. Such a language is referred to as a local language. Local language may be referred to as area language. The area language is understood by the majority of the people in that area, including those whose mother tongue is different. The local language therefore is a mother tongue to a large group alongside the other mother tongues in that locality. It evolves as people simply endeavour to communicate and be understood. They then find themselves using one particular language more commonly. Local language must be learnt well because it lays the foundation to 6 7 6

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