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CHAPTER 3 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY by Julie Bulmash LEARNING OUTCOMES AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO Describe how HR technology has evolved. Explain what a human resources information system (HRIS) does, and identify its main components. Describe the key functions of an HRIS system and the different types of HRIS systems. Explain the process organizations use to choose an HRIS system. Discuss the impact that HR technology has on the REQUIRED PROFESSIONAL role of HR professionals, and describe the five core competencies that have emerged. CAPABILITIES Discuss what is meant by e-HR and the benefits of Web-enabled service applications. • Ensures that the organization complies with legislated and contractual requirements for Identify key trends in technology. information management (e.g., record of hours worked, and records of exposure to hazardous substances) • Assesses requests for HR information in light of corporate policy, freedom of information legislation, evidentiary privileges, and contractual or other releases • Contributes to the development of information security measures50 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY Those of us who have been hired know that it is necessary to complete forms so that we can become an “official” employee. The type of information requested usually includes first name, last name, address, emergency contacts, banking information, beneficiaries for benefit plans, marital status, and of course Social Insurance Number. There are data and the human resources (HR) department has always been the custodian of employee data. The type of data collected, where the data are stored, how the data are used, and the type of system used for these purposes has changed over time, but the need to collect information relating to hiring, promoting, and fir- ing employees has not changed. HR technology is increasingly being used by small, medium, and large employers to meet the needs of its 1 stakeholders. What sets high-performing organizations apart from others is how they use technology to deliver HR services. This chapter is going to explore the relationship of information technology (IT) to HR and how HR leverages technology to manage a firm’s human capital. The chapter begins with a discussion of the evolution of HR technol- ogy, and then explores HRIS systems, the HR components Technology permeates business life today. that make up a system, and the process that organizations engage in to implement an appropriate system. Next we discuss electronic HR (e-HR) and how organizations are using Web-based technologies to enhance their delivery of service. Then we look at the core competencies required to manage in today’s technology-driven marketplace in order to meet the expecta- tions of HR stakeholders. To conclude, we discuss some IT-HR trends and how these trends will impact human resources management (HRM). EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY HR technology Any technology HR technology can be defined as any technology that is used to attract, hire, that is used to attract, hire, retain, retain, and maintain human resources, support HR administration, and optimize and maintain human resources, 2 HRM. This technology can used in different types of human resource informa- support HR administration, and tion systems (HRIS) and by various stakeholders, such as managers, employees, optimize human resource and HR professionals. This technology can be accessed in different ways. management. There is no doubt that technology has made it easier and faster to gather, collate, and deliver information and communicate with employees. More impor- tantly, it has the potential to reduce the administrative burden on the HR department so it is better able to focus on more meaningful HR activities, such as providing managers with the expertise they need to make more effective HR- 3 related decisions. Research has indicated that companies who effectively use technology to manage their HR functions will have a significant advantage over 4 those that do not. However, not all companies have the latest and greatest technology, nor do all companies need the most advanced technology, but all companies do have HR-related information needs. Consider the information needs of a small com- pany as opposed to a large organization of 3000 employees. A small company may use a simple Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel file to keep basic employeeChapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 51 data, whereas a company with 3000 employees manages a greater volume of data. This activity can be daunting without a more sophisticated tool to store and retrieve data We can reflect on the various levels of sophistication by examining the evo- lutionary aspects of HR technology. These aspects can be characterized into four stages of development: (1) paper-based systems, (2) early personal computer 5 (PC) technology, (3) electronic databases, and (4) Web-based technology. Figure 3.1 illustrates the evolution of HR technology. Stages in the Evolution of HR Technology Stage 1: Paper-Based Systems Initially HR systems were “paper-based.” These systems operated independently and did not integrate with any other business-related functions. Features were added as needed. Data were typically stored on mainframe computers, the reporting was very rudimentary, and HR was the sole custodian of the data. It was common for managers during this period to send employees to HR to get their all their “personnel” questions answered. Stage 2: Early Personal Computer (PC) Technology In the next stage, there was a migration of the information resident in these paper-based systems to PCs and local area network (LAN) systems. These HR tombstone data List of basic employee information. databases were able to produce reports that simply listed “tombstone” data, FIGURE 3.1 Evolution of HR Technology Legacy mainframe systems LANS/PC-based Electronic databases Web-based technology Level of access increases from HR staff having access through to all managers and employees having access Source: Julie Bulmash, 2006.52 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective meaning basic employee information. Advances in database technology included payroll and some very basic versions of employee tracking. client server A network The HR data were typically stored on a client server—a network architec- architecture in which each ture in which each computer on the network is either a client or a server. Servers computer on the network is either a are powerful computers dedicated to managing disk drives (file servers), print- client or a server. ers (print servers), or network traffic (network servers). Clients are PCs or other workstations on which users, such as HR professionals, run software applica- tions. Clients rely on servers for resources, such as files; devices, such as print- 6 ers; and even processing power. For example, when sourcing information from Wikipedia, the user’s computer and Web browser would be the client, and the computers, databases, and applications that compose Wikipedia would be the server. When the user’s Web browser requests a particular article from Wikipedia, the Wikipedia server finds all of the information required to display the article in the Wikipedia database, assembles it into a Web page, and sends it 7 back to the Web browser for the user to look at. HR continued to be the only group who had access to the system and continued to be the owner of the data. Stage 3: Electronic Database Systems The next stage began with the emergence of relational database technology. A relational database Database in relational database means that a piece of data can be stored in more than one which data can be stored in more file, each one containing different types of data. The different files can be linked than one file, each one containing so that information from the separate files can be used together. A relational different types of data. The different database allows databases to be established in several different locations and the files can be linked so that information linked. This technology provided organizations with the ability to information from the separate files 8 can be used together. develop more complex reports that integrated several data elements. For exam- ple a report could be generated from different databases that included name, address, and salary and benefit information. With this move toward electronic databases, HR systems began to become integrated with other business-related systems. Leading HR organizations began to purchase enterprise-wide systems that included HR-related modules. An enterprise-wide system is defined as a system that supports enterprise-wide or cross-functional requirements, rather than a single department or group within 9 the organization. A popular enterprise-wide system at the time was SAP. At this time, use of the Internet was increasing, and managers began to con- sider what it could offer to HR technology. HR continued to own the HR data, but HR began to evolve into a more integral part of the business, as these data- bases became important in aiding HR with the generation of reports and empowering HR to provide managers with meaningful HR-related information. In addition, other functional areas could share information from these data- bases. For example, if the company decided it wanted to send out a mass mail- ing to employees to introduce a new product or organizational change, it would access the data from the HR system. At this point, HR entered fully into the digital world of electronic HR and the term “e-HR” began to appear. Stage 4: Web-Based Technology interactive voice response (IVR) At the present time, many companies have started to embrace HR technology. A telephone technology in which a The benefits of automation are becoming widely known to HR and other areas touch-tone phone is used to interact of the business. The focus has shifted to automating as many transactions as with a database to acquire possible to achieve effectiveness and efficiencies. Call centres and interactive information from it or enter data into it. voice response systems are widely used by organizations. An interactive voiceChapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 53 response (IVR) system is a telephone technology in which a touch-tone phone is used to interact with a database to acquire information from it or enter data 10 into it. For example, employees can call in to report their attendance by enter- ing a specific code. Web-based applications Web-based applications use a Web browser as a user interface (called the Applications that use a Web “front-end”). Users can access the applications from any computer connected to browser as a user interface (i.e., the the Internet via a secure, password-protected login page and from that point “front-end”). Users can access the forward all the data are encrypted. applications from any computer For the most part, the HR department continues to be the owner and custo- connected to the Internet via a dian of HR information but others have begun to recognize the value of this secure, password-protected login page and from that point forward information to the business. The reports that HR is able to produce have become all the data are encrypted. more sophisticated. At this point, the majority of systems are still not Web-based, but some leading-edge organizations have embraced this technology. What’s Next? The technology of the future will be about speedy access to accurate current information, and the ability to access this information via multiple systems will give organizations a strategic edge. HR is expected to relinquish its role as sole owner of HR information, so that managers and employees can use this infor- 11 mation to solve their own problems using Web-based systems. This new sys- 12 tem will not necessarily mean a reduction in HR staff. The new system will enable HR professionals to focus on transforming information into knowledge that can be used by the organization for decision making; it will be about HR 13 and IT working together to leverage this technology. A recent study by the Hackett Group, a business process advisory firm, found that high-performing organizations spend 25 percent less than their peers on HR because they use 14 technology effectively. Our discussion of HR technology will begin with an examination of HRIS systems, the structural components that make up an HRIS system, the types of data resident in these systems, and how HR uses these data to aid managers in decision making. HUMAN RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEMS There are more than 140 human resources information systems being offered by 15 more than 100 vendors in Canada and the United States. A recent survey indi- cated that overall costs of system implementation ranged from US1000 to 16 US12 million. Also referred to as human resources management systems human resources information system (HRIS) Integrated systems (HRMS), human resources information systems (HRIS) can be defined as used to gather, store, and analyze integrated systems used to gather, store, and analyze information regarding an information regarding an 17 organization’s human resources. Using HRIS technology can help HR auto- organization’s human resources. mate and simplify tasks, reduce administration and record keeping, and provide management with HR-related information when required. These systems provide a repository for information/data to be stored and maintained, and they possess varying degrees of reporting capability. However, for the data to be useful, they need to be transformed into information that is meaningful to managers. This is the challenge facing HR departments today and what will ultimately determine whether HR is able to deliver strategic HR services.54 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective The Relationship of HRM to HRIS HRIS is the composite of databases, computer applications, and hardware and software necessary to collect, record, store, manage, deliver, manipulate, and pres- 18 ent data for human resources. It is important to note that the term “systems” does not just refer to hardware and software. Systems also include the people, policies, procedures, and data required to manage the HR function. In reality, computer technology is not the key to being successful at managing human resource information, but what it does do well is provide a powerful tool for “operationalizing” the information—making it easier to obtain and disseminate 19 and ensuring that it is specific to the organization’s HR policies and practices. A sound HRIS must allow for the assimilation and integration of HR poli- cies and procedures with an organization’s computer hardware and its software 20 applications. For example, a simple business rule (e.g., promotions are not to exceed 8 percent of salary) could easily be programmed into the system, and errors could be flagged when they occur. Let’s now look at important HRIS subsystems and the types of data that can 21 be resident in these systems. HRIS Subsystems There are several different components, called subsystems, that compose an HRIS. They are employee administration, recruitment, time and attendance, training and development, pension administration, employment equity, performance evaluation, compensation and benefits administration, organizational management, health and safety, labour relations, and payroll interface, and as shown in Figure 3.2. FIGURE 3.2 HRIS Subsystems Training and Employment Time and development/ Pension Administration equity attendance knowledge administration management Compensation Payroll Performance and benefits interface evaluation administration Labour Organizational relations management Recruitment Health and and applicant safety tracking Source: Julie Bulmash, 2006.Chapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 55 Employee Administration A basic component of an HRIS system is its administrative function. The typi- cal information you would find in an HRIS system for each employee would include hire date, name, address, telephone, e-mail address, birth date, sex, salary, emergency contact information, department code, location, employment status (full-time, part-time, or contract), the start date of each position held, position titles, and benefit information. Recruitment This subsystem includes information on the position name and number, the department in which the position resides, whether the position has been approved, and whether the position is full-time or part-time. In some cases, online forms will be available so that applicants can be tracked and résumés can be scanned for key words to identify skills and experience. Time and Attendance This subsystem includes the information necessary to calculate vacation time, such as hire date, any leaves of absences (paid or unpaid), termination date if applica- ble, and any other events that interrupted service. In addition, the company’s pol- icy details, such as “use it or lose it,” might be programmed into the system. If there are any special rules, then this information is programmed into the system. For example, employees often continue to accumulate vacation on some type of leaves. Other data in this subsystem often include the number of days an employee was absent, leaves of absence, whether these leaves were sabbatical leave, personal leave, or maternity/paternity/paternal/adoption leaves, and the dates the employee started and ended each leave. Policy details would also be programmed; for exam- ple, some companies have a policy that states if absenteeism exceeds a certain number of days, then pay will be decreased by a certain amount. Figure 3.3 illus- trates a screen from the PeopleSoft Enterprise Time and Labour system. Training and Development This subsystem includes data on an employee’s skills and competencies, training courses taken, costs of courses, developmental activities, and career planning in terms of which positions might be most appropriate for an employee based on skills and competencies. FIGURE 3.3 PeopleSoft Enterprise Time and Labour Screen56 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective Pension Administration Information as to the design of the plan is found in this subsystem. In addition, employee contributions and company contributions for each employee would be included. Employment Equity Organizations that are subject to employment equity legislation could include information on the number of employees in the four designated groups (women, Aboriginals, visible minorities, and people with disabilities), type of industry, and geographic region in this subsystem in order to provide the information required by the legislation. Performance Evaluation This subsystem includes information regarding performance ratings, the date these ratings were received, the type of appraisals that were used, comments about the appraisal, and performance objectives and goals. Figure 3.4 provides an example of a screen from the PeopleSoft Enterprise ePerformance system. Compensation and Benefits Administration Information regarding the company’s compensation and benefits plans and the policies relating to these plans are found in this subsystem. For example, poli- cies on the type of increases allowable when an employee receives a promotion, data regarding pay grades and ranges for each position, positions that are enti- tled to a bonus, and bonus structure could be included. In addition, information regarding the type of benefit plans, whether there is a cost-sharing arrangement, and what that arrangement would be if an employee took an unpaid leave would also be available in this subsystem. Organizational Management This subsystem includes the organizational structure and job descriptions. It may have a field to enter the National Occupational Classification (NOC) codes; described in the next chapter). It may also link positions/jobs to specific workers. Health and Safety Accidents happen at work and organizations are responsible for reporting these accidents to the Workers’ Compensation Board (or equivalent) in their jurisdic- tion. Data on the number of accidents, types of accidents, health and safety complaints, resolutions, Workers’ Compensation claims, and related forms may be included in this subsystem. FIGURE 3.4 PeopleSoft Enterprise ePerformance ScreenChapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 57 Labour Relations Such information as seniority lists, union membership, grievances, and resolu- tions of grievances can be found in this subsystem. Payroll Interface This subsystem has information on salary, wages, and benefits to make it easier to interface with accounting (payroll). Most HRIS systems today have a payroll component, and the more sophisticated systems have an ability to directly inter- face with payroll providers, such as ADP and Ceridian. Key Functions of an HRIS The HRIS is made up of a number of subsystems, and data can be stored, main- REQUIRED PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES tained, and generated from the system. These data can be used to create in- Ensures that the organization 22 formation that will serve different purposes for many different stakeholders. complies with legislated and The key functions of an HRIS are shown in Figure 3.5. contractual requirements for information management (e.g., The HRIS can do the following: record of hours worked, and 1. create and maintain employee records records of exposure to hazardous substances) 2. ensure legal compliance 3. enable managers to forecast and plan future HR requirements 4. provide information to managers and HR so they can manage knowledge and manage talent (career and succession planning) 5. provide information to enable HR plans and activities to align more effec- tively with the organization’s strategic plan 6. assist managers with decision making by providing relevant data so they can make more effective and informed decisions Create and Maintain Employee Records The data being entered create an employee record and this record is maintained throughout employment. In most organizations the HRIS administrator is FIGURE 3.5 Key Functions of an HRIS Record and Strategic maintain Forecasting Compliance and planning Talent Decision management making knowledge Source: Julie Bulmash, 2006.58 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective responsible for creating (entering the information into the system) and main- taining these records. Accuracy and timeliness are critical. For example, if an employee recently received a promotion and salary increase, this information would need to be entered into the system. Over time, managers, employees, and 23 human resource professionals will all need to access employee records. Compliance Data entered into the HRIS can be used to help the organization comply with Hints to Ensure government regulations in an accurate and timely fashion. Ensuring data Legal Compliance integrity and accuracy is very important and a key responsibility of the HR pro- fessional. For example, organizations that are subject to employment equity leg- islation are required to file an annual report. If the data required to produce the necessary information have been recorded and maintained appropriately, these reports can be generated with ease. Some organizations have software that inter- faces directly with the Employment Equity Computerized Reporting System 24 (EECRS) software provided by the federal government, resulting in the infor- mation from the HRIS being downloaded directly into the required reporting system. In addition to employment equity, payroll is another example of a func- tion with a multitude of compliance responsibilities, such as the generation of an employee’s T4 information. HR Planning and Forecasting Information from the recruitment, training and development, and administra- tive subsystems, such as number of open positions, types of positions, employee skills and competencies, job rates (salaries), retirement eligibility, and employee turnover rates, can be used to help managers develop long-range staffing plans and provide valuable information to HR professionals. Talent Management/Knowledge Management The data that are entered into the system, such as skills, competencies, jobs held, training, and employee development interests, can be used to help managers provide development opportunities for their employees, ensure that the appro- priate employees are offered positions that will enhance their skills, provide the appropriate training for employees so they can advance in the organization, and highlight an employee’s interests and development paths. This information will help HR professionals to provide more targeted advice and counsel to managers and help HR to work more effectively with employees and managers to create a development plan that meets organizational and employee needs. Strategic Alignment Information from the system can help organizations align HR activities more effectively with their strategic plan. For example, if the organization’s plan was to enter into a new market and it required a certain number of certain types of employees (say, five accountants), the data from the system can tell management whether it has these employees, and if not, when they are expected to be hired. Enhancing Decision Making The ability to extract data from the HRIS and use these data not just to create data warehouse Primary data information but also to improve the quality of management decisions has become storage repository for all data 25 increasingly important. HRIS can access a data warehouse, or central reposi- collected by an organization’s 26 business systems. tory for all the data collected by an organization’s business systems.Chapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 59 For example, managers are often asked to recommend an appropriate budget for salary increases. In order to make a “quality” decision, managers might need to confirm the current salaries of their employees, look at the past history of salary increases, review the company policies, and review their employees’ per- formance history. To make a more informed decision, the information needs to be relevant, useful, timely, and accurate. Some of the most commonly requested reports from the HRIS include Tips for the • basic information, such as name, address, phone number Front Line • compensation reports, such as salary history • performance evaluations • leaves of absence, paid or unpaid • number of jobs held and position titles • number of vacation days taken and number outstanding • types of training taken and skills acquired In addition to these reports, managers utilize the system to perform HR calcu- lations. The Saratoga Institute has identified a list of the most common calculations requested by managers: health-care cost per employee, pay and benefits as a per- centage of operating expenses, cost per hire, return on training, volunteer turnover 27 rate, turnover cost, time to fill jobs, and return on investment in human capital. Another use of HRIS data is for making decisions regarding the effectiveness of workforce analytics The use of the organization’s human resources. Workforce analytics refers to the use of HRIS HRIS data to assess the data to assess the performance of an organization’s workforce by using statistics 28 performance of an organization’s and research design techniques. Workforce analytics attempts to analyze factors workforce using statistics and contributing to effective HR contribution to the achievement of strategic goals. research design techniques. The ability for HR to use data analytically to aid managers in effective decision making has transformed HR into a “decision science” and enabled it to demonstrate that effective HR management can have a significant and meas- 29 urable impact on a company’s bottom line. Figure 3.6 summarizes the main user groups for the HRIS and the key information provided to each group. Types of HRIS What we have described are some common subsystems that compose an HRIS, who uses these systems, and the major functions of an HRIS. However, it is important to note that there are many different choices in the marketplace, many vendors of software, and different types of systems. FIGURE 3.6 HRIS Users Employee Manager HR Record and maintain ¸ ¸ Compliance ¸ Forecasting and planning ¸ ¸ Talent management ¸ ¸ ¸ Strategic ¸ ¸ Decision making ¸ ¸ ¸ Source: Julie Bulmash, 2006.60 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective For example, HRIS can be part of a larger enterprise-wide system. In an enterprise system there are typically “functional modules,” one of which can be HR/payroll. An example of an enterprise-wide system is SAP or PeopleSoft (now part of Oracle). In addition to enterprise systems, there are stand-alone systems, meaning they are self-contained and do not rely on other systems to operate. An example would be Halogen Software Inc. or stand-alone HRIS that have several 30 HR-related functions, such Sage Abra Inc. These systems can vary with respect to cost, functionality, and level of sophistication. Depending on the organization’s requirements, some systems will be more appropriate than others. Next, we’ll examine the process organizations go through to decide what type of system to purchase and the implementation process that they follow. SELECTING AND IMPLEMENTING AN HRIS It is clear how beneficial an HRIS can be, but what type of system should a com- pany have? Is it necessary to spend 12 million on a system for a small organi- zation? This section will review how companies decide which system to 31 purchase and the process they follow to implement the system. The choice of technology can be described in two ways: (1) how much cus- tomization does the organization want and (2) what type of system does the organization prefer and need? Organizations can decide if they want to pur- chase a system that brings “best practice” or, alternatively, they can purchase a system and customize the software to fit their existing processes. Regarding the type of system, organizations may want a stand-alone system enterprise-wide system A system or an enterprise-wide system that stores all company data together on a single 32 that supports enterprise-wide or “platform.” cross-functional requirements, Companies are different in terms of their information needs, their existing tech- rather than a single department or nology, and their commitment to technology. They are also different in terms of group within the organization. their ability to afford technology, the value they place on HR information, the size and culture of the organization, and the human resources available to devote to a 33 technology upgrade. A company may need a very simple system that captures Tips for the time-card and payroll information or it may need a very sophisticated system. But Front Line all companies can agree on the key reasons for adoption of HR technology: (1) cost savings, (2) faster processing of information, and (3) a system that will pro- 34 vide relevant information to help the organization achieve its goals. Typically, organizations follow a process to select an HRIS, as shown in Figure 3.7. The process can be divided into three steps: (1) adoption phase, (2) 35 implementation phase, and (3) institutionalization phase. The outcome of the process is that organizations choose a system that is either enterprise-wide (often called ERP systems) or stand-alone. But first they have to be informed consumers Adoption Phase In this phase, organizations typically engage in a needs analysis to determine what type of system they will purchase. A needs analysis helps the organization decide on what the system should be capable of doing and what the technical specifications will be, and helps the organization develop an information policy about how the information should be managed with respect to storage and access. Additionally, a needs analysis will provide the organization with a frame- work to use to evaluate vendors of software.Chapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 61 FIGURE 3.7 Three-Step HRIS Implementation Process Adoption phase • Needs analysis • Company background • Management • Technical • HR • Pricing Vendor and software selection Implementation phase • Project teams selected • Data conversion • Configuration • System testing • Privacy and security Institutionalization phase • Training Souce: Julie Bulmash, 2006. There are several main areas to be considered in the needs analysis: company background, management considerations, technical considerations, HR consid- 36 erations, and pricing. Company Background The industry, the size of the company, and the projected growth are important elements to consider. For example, if the company is very small—say, with only four people—and expects to add an additional five people in the next two years, then the type of system that is needed could be something as simple as an Excel spreadsheet. Typically, organizations require HR software after they reach 100 employees. Management Considerations Typically, management would have some preconceived views regarding the type of software and what they will require the system to do. They may want a com- plex system that can assess the value added to the bottom line by HR activities or they may want a very user-friendly system for employees and managers to access regularly. Technical Considerations Such elements as hardware, operating systems, networking, databases, and telecommunications all need to be considered. It is very important to understand the kind of technology the company currently has because integrating software into some systems could be costly. HR Considerations The requirements of the HR function itself need to be assessed. What type of daily requests and which employee transactions would make the most sense to automate? What types of forms, reports, or listings are maintained? For exam- ple, is it necessary to pull together a list manually every time management wants to notify the entire organization about some key event? If so, this activity should be automated. The most critical area that is assessed is the reporting aspect of62 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective HR. As discussed earlier, using reports to help managers make better decisions is an important activity where HR can add value to the organization. The needs assessment should identify the types of data required to produce reports, where these data can be found, and how reliable the data are. HR would look at the man- ual reports currently being maintained and decide how these can be automated. Pricing Organizations want to have the best possible system but might not be able to afford all the “bells and whistles.” Factored in to the price are considerations, such as whether additional hardware must be purchased, how much additional staff will be needed during the implementation phase, training costs, and any ongoing support requirements. request for proposal (RFP) Once the needs analysis is complete, companies then send out a request for Request to vendors to schedule proposal (RFP) to vendors, schedule demonstrations of the various systems, and demonstrations of the various ultimately choose one that most closely aligns with their needs analysis, budgets, systems and ultimately choose one and management requirements. that most closely aligns with their At this point, the adoption phase is complete, and the organization will move needs analysis, budgets, and on to the implementation phase. management requirements. Implementation Phase In this phase, the company selects a project team. This team typically comprises outside consultants who have the knowledge and expertise on the technical side and also expertise in change management to help the organization with the implementation. In addition to the outside consultants, there is typically a sen- ior project manager who leads the team, subject matter experts from HR and payroll, as well as management from the various functional areas across the organization. After all, these managers will be using the system and it is impor- tant for them to ensure that the system is implemented effectively and that their requirements are clearly understood. The activities involved in this phase focus on getting the system “up and run- ning” within a controlled environment so that the system can be tested to ensure it is functioning as the organization requires. The existing data are “converted” into the new system, requiring the transformation of data from the old system to make them compatible with the new system. The software is tested and users are expected to provide feedback before the system goes “live.” Going live means disengaging any other systems and only providing users with access to the new system. In this phase, security profiles are established for the users. Privacy and Security Major privacy concerns focus on what type of information can be stored on the system. For example, should personal medical histories be stored, who should have access to the computer hardware and software, and who should have 37 access to the databases and be authorized to modify them? Establishing security profiles is a very important activity when implementing Tips for the an HRIS system. The staff members who will be working with the HRIS are Front Line identified and security profiles are established. These profiles determine who has access to what screen, which data elements or fields each person can have access to, and who will be authorized to change information, enter information, or merely view the information. Security profiles typically are attached to a job description or to an employee number.Chapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 63 For example, what should the profile look like for an HR administrator An Ethical whose job it is to enter employee information into the system and who is the Dilemma point of contact for all changes that employees make to their tombstone data? You are the HR This individual would be expected to view, enter, and change pertinent data. administrator at a large What about the line manager? What should his or her profile look like? Should firm. Your company has the manager have access to an employee’s SIN? Is that information necessary? just completed its formal appraisal process and What about the addresses, phone numbers, and performance records for their decided on the employee employees? Typically, managers are able to view information relating to data on bonuses for the fiscal their employees, but not confidential data that are irrelevant to the work situa- year. The employees will tion. Additionally, managers can view but not change any records. receive this A final, critical piece of HRIS security is making sure that system users communication by the clearly understand and adhere to the company confidentiality and code of ethics end of the fiscal year in approximately three policies. All users need to understand that they must not share passwords, post weeks. You are them in view of others, or compromise them in any way. responsible for inputting the data into the HRIS system. A senior manager, Institutionalization Phase who happens to be a very The final step in implementing an HRIS is to train the users on the system. The good friend of your parents, approaches you organization’s goal is for the stakeholders to use the system and reap the bene- and asks if you could fits identified through the needs analysis. However, many difficulties can arise possibly tell him what his with the implementation of a new system. As with any change, people need to rating is and how much become comfortable. People typically have difficulties in transitioning to an his bonus will be. It turns 38 HRIS and the organization can experience inertia. Employees need to be out that this person has some serious financial trained but even after training they may not feel fully competent and might not problems and may have to use the system. With any new system, stakeholders typically underestimate the take out a loan today if his complexity of the system. bonus is not high enough. HR may have difficulty with the change as well. Very recently, a popular What would you do? extension of HRIS technology has been self-service for employees and managers 39 in order to automate workflow. With these technological developments, the REQUIRED PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES typical activities that HR used to carry out are no longer required and, as a Assesses requests for HR infor- result, HR staff may feel disenfranchised. A recent survey examined the impact mation in light of corporate of technology on the number of HR staff and found that the implementation of policy, freedom of information HR technology does not necessary mean a reduction in HR staff and that, in legislation, evidentiary 40 fact, the number of HR staff increased or remained the same. privileges, and contractual or One technological development that has impacted HR and the delivery of other releases service has been Web-based self-service applications. The next section will dis- Contributes to the development cuss these new self-service options and how organizations have benefited from of information security measures these innovations. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCES electronic HR (e-HR) A form of Electronic HR (e-HR) is a term that identifies a form of technology that enables technology that enables HR HR professionals to integrate an organization’s human resources strategies and professionals to integrate an 41 processes in order to improve overall HR service delivery. Since the mid-1990s organization’s HR strategies, organizations have been embracing ways to incorporate electronic and com- processes, and human capital to 42 puter functions into their HR strategies. Companies are always looking for improve overall HR service delivery. better ways to manage costs, provide better service, and effectively manage intranet A network that is human capital, and e-HR has become integral to helping organizations achieve interconnected within one these goals. One of the most successful innovations is the migration of HRIS organization, using Web 43 applications onto an intranet. An intranet is a network that is interconnected technologies for sharing information internally. within one organization, using Web technologies for sharing information64 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective 44 internally. The Internet has enabled organizations to harness Web-based tech- nology and use Web-based applications to enhance HR services. More than 45 90 percent of companies are currently using the Web for HR purposes. In this section we will discuss the more popular Web-based HR service deliv- ery trends, such as manager and employee self-service applications, and briefly discuss how organizations are using the Web to optimize HRM though e-HR systems, such as e-recruiting. Web-Based Self-Service Trends The two most popular Web-based HR applications used today are self-service for employees and self-service for managers. These applications have enabled companies to shift responsibility for viewing and updating records onto indi- vidual employees and have fundamentally changed the manner in which employees acquire information and relate to their HR departments. Employee Self-Service Employee self-service (ESS) systems enable employees to access and manage their personal information directly, without having to go through their HR departments or their managers. ESS systems are set up so that employees can sign onto their company system via the Internet and be immediately authenti- cated and verified. Recently, HR organizations have utilized portals as a tool to make this access seamless. A portal is a single site that can be accessed within portal A single site that can 46 be accessed within an existing an existing Internet site. With this technology, HR departments can set up Internet site. employee access to HR services. Access can also be provided through IVR or physical kiosks. Employees who have access to these types of ESS systems are able to use this service on a 24/7 basis. Some common self-service applications these systems feature include allow- ing employees to update their personal information, such as address, phone number, and emergency contact information; revising banking information; researching benefit options and enrolling in benefit programs; viewing payroll information, such as salary deductions; recording vacation time and sick days; recording travel expenses; accessing HR policies; participating in training deliv- ered via the Web; and accessing company communications and newsletters issued by the HR department. As an example, and employee who recently split with a significant other can change his or her emergency contact name, benefi- ciary information, and benefit details by logging onto the company intranet site and clicking on the HR portal. ESS systems have fundamentally changed the way employees relate to their HR departments. Employees are able to access information that is relevant only to them and they no longer need to speak with a HR representative directly for routine updates. These systems have also helped HR departments to reduce their operational costs. From the perspective of the HR professional, the burden of being responsible for basic administrative and transactional activities has been shifted onto the employee. This shift in responsibility allows HR professionals to focus on strategic issues. One study found that the workload of HR general- 47 ists was reduced by an average of 15 percent. Two organizations that have benefited from upgrading their technology and adding employee self-service are the Toronto Police Services and Time Warner. For the Toronto Police Services, one of the most time-consuming and onerous activities had been the scheduling and payment of both overtime andChapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 65 court time for officers. In 2002, the Police Services spent more than 500 mil- lion of their operating budget on salaries, of which 32 million went to paying overtime and court time costs to 7000 officers. With the implementation of an employee self-service system, officers were able to ask for time off online using 48 the ESS system, which in turn reduced administrative costs. Time Warner’s challenge was to find a way to unify its 80 000 employees in geographically diverse regions and give them access to HR services. They cre- ated an employee portal, called “Employee Connection,” that gives employees varying levels of access to benefits enrollment, compensation planning, merit reviews, stock option information, payroll information, administrative HR 49 forms, expense reimbursement forms, and travel planning information. Figure 3.8 provides a sample PeopleSoft Enterprise eProfile screen. Management Self-Service Management self-service (MSS) systems differ from ESS systems in that they allow managers to access a range of information not only about themselves but also about the employees who report to them. MSS systems also give managers the opportunity to process HR-related paperwork that pertains to their staff. Managers view résumés that are on file, view merit reviews, submit job requisi- tions, view employee salaries, and keep track of employee performance and training histories. Typically, this type of application system offers a broader range of services than that available to nonmanagerial staff. MSS is broader than just providing HR-related information. Often these systems provide man- agers with tools to help them with duties, such as budget reviews and report writing, and permit them to authorize expense reimbursements. The benefits are that managers have ready access to information that is use- Research ful both to them and to their employees, and do not have to go through a third Insight party. In this way, MSS systems reduce overall company workloads. In fact, research has indicated that when used properly, MSS systems reduce the work- load of the HR generalists by more than 21 percent because they are not spend- ing the same amount of time on planning annual compensation increases, 50 viewing employee histories, initiating requests for positions, or posting jobs. Managers are receptive to MSS systems because they contribute to data integrity and accuracy, the number of data validations decreases, and process- 51 ing time improves. Imagistics International Inc. (formerly Pitney Bowes Office FIGURE 3.8 PeopleSoft Enterprise eProfile Screen66 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective FIGURE 3.9 Web-Based Self-Service Applications and Benefits Reduced Enhanced administrative services costs Employee self-service Manager self-service Reduced Increased Increased process employee strategic steps satisfaction opportunities for HR Source: Julie Bulmash, 2006. Systems) recently implemented an MSS system. Since the system has been in place, the company has reported a significant reduction in administrative costs and process steps, a reduction in entry errors, and an overall streamlining of its 52 reporting process. MSS can be a very valuable tool, but this technology is currently not as pop- ular as ESS and is slower to gain acceptance. In 2002, 30 to 45 percent of larger organizations (companies with more than 1000 employees) had implemented 53 some form of MSS. Figure 3.9 summarizes Web-based self-service applications and their benefits. Web-Based Delivery Trends: Some Cautions Recent surveys of ESS and MSS system users indicate that 80 percent of respon- dents agree that Web-based self-service systems can lower HR operation costs, but only 40 percent believe that their company is actually achieving this result. Two-thirds of those surveyed agree that Web-based self-service systems effec- tively support the transformation of the HR department into a more strategic partner by redirecting some of its responsibilities to employees, but only 37 per- 54 cent actually feel there was a change. This discrepancy may be due to employees and managers who view this new technology as the “work of HR” and therefore are resistant to using it, or per- haps the technology is not as user-friendly as it should be. The usefulness of this technology will depend on whether the content is considered beneficial and rel- evant, on how easy the system is to navigate, and on its cultural fit with the organization. Towers Perrin consultant Minaz Lalani points out that realizing the potential of any application means that processes associated with the tech- nology must be changed. People need to use the system in the right way. Only 55 then will it reap the expected benefits. E-HR AND HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT The management of human capital is critical and the ability to be able to attract, retain, and develop employees will continue to be a major challenge for HR pro- fessionals. The use of e-HR systems, including Web-based job sites, portals, andChapter 3 Human Resources Management and Technology 67 kiosks, to attract job applicants is becoming a necessity. Two technologies have made e-recruiting a reality—Internet job boards, such as Monster.ca, and the Internet applications that allow companies to screen candidates from those boards and facilitate the process. Research has shown that companies can reduce hiring cycle times by as Research much as 25 percent when using online recruitment tools. The use of these tools Insight 56 has transitioned HR from hiring faster to hiring “better.” The most common practices used for online recruiting are adding recruit- ment pages to the Web site of the organization, using specialty recruitment Web sites (job portals and online job boards), developing tools that are interactive so applications can be processed (auto-responding), and adopting online screening 57 tools (e.g., personality assessments and interviews). Some advantages of online recruiting are reduced time for management of the recruiting process, communication of the company brand, access to a larger number of qualified candidates, reduced recruitment costs from using a stan- dard process, reduced hiring cycle times, and use of the system’s reporting func- tions to analyze the effectiveness of the recruitment strategy. Some disadvantages can be loss of face-to-face contact and discrimination against people who do not have access to the Internet or to information about privacy regarding personal information submitted over the Internet. Some software vendors who offer e-recruiting tools, such as applicant track- ing, are Brass Ring, Deploy, Icarian, Taleo (formally Recruit Soft), and Web 58 Hire. In the next section we will feature some additional software applications that enable organizations to manage HR processes more effectively. The purchase of a system can reduce operating costs significantly. Hounton and Williams, a major law firm with more than 2000 employees globally, recently purchased an HRIS called UltiPro. According to the HRIS manager, the firm is “saving thousands of dollars each year by relying heavily on electronic 59 transactions using UltiPro rather than paper-based processes.” UltiPro is not particularly well known, but SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, and Genesys are more recognizable names of specific software vendors who provide “solutions” to help organizations effectively manage their human capital. This section will provide a brief overview of some specific HRIS software applica- tions and some specialty software vendors. It is not exhaustive nor is it meant to be an endorsement of any particular vendor. Enterprise-Wide Systems An enterprise-wide system (called an enterprise resource planning or ERP system) is defined as a system that supports enterprise-wide or cross-functional require- ments, rather than a single department or group within the organization. These ERP systems have their origin in software that integrates information from dif- ferent applications (modules) into one universal database. This means that finan- cial information can be linked to HR information through one database. The most popular high-end enterprise-wide systems are SAP, PeopleSoft, and Oracle. SAP SAP was founded as Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung in 1972 by five former IBM employees in Mannheim, Germany. This acronym was changed to Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung, which means “systems, applications, and products in data processing,” and in 2005, the com- pany name was officially changed to SAP AG.68 Part 1 Human Resources Management in Perspective SAP is the world’s third-largest software company and its head office is in Walldorf, Germany. In terms of revenue, SAP is the largest business application and ERP solutions provider. The company’s main product is SAP R/3, the “R” stands for real-time data processing and the number “3” relates to a three-tiered system—database, application server, and client. SAP products are used by more than 12 million people in more than 120 coun- tries, and its market has typically been Fortune 500 companies. Recently SAP has targeted small- to medium-sized organizations with some of its new products. SAP is made up of individual, integrated software modules that perform var- ious organizational system tasks such as finance/accounting, controlling, project system, funds management, materials management, and sales distribution. One of its major modules is Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS/HRIS). These systems are very sophisticated and SAP offers a full range of functional- 60 ity, HR products, and Web-based offerings. Companies using SAP include Allstream, Monsanto, Procter and Gamble, Coca-Cola, and Schlumberger. PeopleSoft Inc. PeopleSoft is software that provides HRMS, manufacturing, financial, enter- prise performance management, and student administration software solutions to large corporations and governments. The company was founded in 1987 by David Duffied and Ken Morris. Its software is made up of modules, such as HRMS, which includes payroll, all human resources functions and benefits, financials, manufacturing, student administration, and customer relationship management. PeopleSoft is well known for its ability to be easily customized to fit the specific business needs of each client. PeopleSoft was acquired by Oracle 61 in 2005. One organization using PeopleSoft is the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC). HR processes at CIBC are streamlined and employees are provided with online access to HR services and information. The system enables employees to add dependants to health insurance, change payroll deductions, enroll in benefits programs, calculate pension benefits, and carry out retirement 62 planning. Stand-Alone HRIS HRIS can also be stand-alone. Not all organizations require a sophisticated sys- tem and there are many different vendors in the marketplace who offer every size and type of product imaginable. Some considerations for organizations include cost, the number of employees, the degree of efficiency, and the com- pany’s existing hardware and software. An effective HRIS requires a balance between what it can do from a technical perspective and how it can meet the needs of that organization. These needs typically increase with the size of the 63 organization. Smaller firms might use very basic software applications, such as Microsoft Excel and Access. These firms might only require payroll and benefits adminis- tration, time and attendance, and employee scheduling functions. Midsize firms typically require compliance tracking and reporting, health claims administra- tion, payroll, compensation, and benefit administration. Managers may require information on performance appraisal, time and attendance, succession plan- ning, skills testing, and employee scheduling, and employees may use the system to aid in career development and self-serve applications. Midsize firms require