Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools

Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools 1
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Cambridge University Press 09-2004 Guidance Curriculum and Standards Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and Learning in Senior leaders, Secondary Schools subject leaders and teachers in secondary schools Leadership guide Status: Recommended Date of issue: 09-2004 Ref: DfES 0444-2004 G Copies of this document may be available from: The content of this publication may be reproduced Disclaimer free of charge by schools and local education The Department for Education and Skills wishes DfES Publications authorities provided that the material is to make clear that the Department and its agents Tel: 0845 60 222 60 acknowledged as Crown copyright, the publication accept no responsibility for the actual content of Fax: 0845 60 333 60 title is specified, it is reproduced accurately and not any materials suggested as information sources in Textphone: 0845 60 555 60 used in a misleading context. Anyone else wishing this document, whether these are in the form of e-mail: dfesprolog.uk.com to reuse part or all of the content of this publication printed publications or on a website. should apply to HMSO for a core licence. Ref: DfES 0444-2004 G In these materials icons, logos, software products The permission to reproduce Crown copyright and websites are used for contextual and practical Crown copyright 2004 protected material does not extend to any © reasons. Their use should not be interpreted as an material in this publication which is identified endorsement of particular companies or their Produced by the as being the copyright of a third party. products. Department for Education and Skills Applications to reproduce the material from this The websites referred to in these materials existed www.dfes.gov.uk publication should be addressed to: at the time of going to print. Tutors should check all website references carefully to see if they have If this is not available in hard copy it can be HMSO, The Licensing Division, St Clements House, changed and substitute other references where downloaded from: 2–16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ appropriate. Fax: 01603 723000 www.standards.dfes.gov.uk e-mail: hmsolicensingcabinet-office.x.gsi.gov.ukLeadership guide Contents Introduction 1 1 Teaching and learning and whole-school improvement 2 2 Pedagogy and practice: study units 4 3 The Key Stage 3 National Strategy and the continuing professional 9 development of teachers 4 How to use the study units 11 5 Using the Teaching and learning evaluation schedule 15 Record of strengths and development needs 28 Follow-up review 29 References 30 Introduction This guide is for all secondary school leaders and teachers as they seek to improve teaching and learning both within their own institutions and in collaboration with colleagues in other schools. It provides information about the Pedagogy and practice study guides, looks at ways that schools may use them to support their own plans for improvement and how teachers may use them to further their own professional development. This booklet is divided into five sections. • The first section outlines the central importance of teaching and learning to whole-school improvement. • The second section provides an overview of the Pedagogy and practice study units and explains how they have been produced. • The third section looks briefly at continuing professional development (CPD), emphasising the role of reflection, coaching, opportunities to test out ideas in the classroom and receiving feedback to fully embed practice. This is further supported by the publication, Leading and coordinating professional development in secondary schools (Ref. DfES 0682-2004). • The fourth section describes the ways in which the units may be used to support CPD. • The fifth section provides guidance and a framework for assessing CPD needs to identify the study units that should be followed. Finally, there is guidance on where to find further information and support. 1 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-20041 Teaching and learning and whole-school improvement A systematic and integrated approach to staff development, that focuses on the professional learning of teachers and establishes the classroom as an important centre for teacher development, is central to successful school improvement. Hopkins, Harris, Singleton and Watts (2000) Creating the conditions for teaching and learning. David Fulton Publishers. Used with permission. The Pedagogy and practice materials consist of a suite of 20 study guides supported by a series of video sequences on DVD. They have been created to support the professional development of teachers working at secondary level and have been refined in the light of a national pilot involving over 500 schools. The materials are designed to be used in a variety of ways, for example by teachers collaborating in networks across schools; by groups within schools (subject or cross-subject teams); by pairs, as in peer coaching or coaching and mentoring; or even by individuals. ASTs and other leading professionals can use them to support their work with colleagues. The principles in the following table may be used to ensure that CPD can play an integral part of school improvement. Principles of school improvement Implications for CPD Focus systematically on teaching and The classroom should be the focus and the primary site for learning improving teaching and learning. CPD will involve both enquiry into and reflection on classroom practice, and opportunities to learn from good practice. Base all improvement activity on Professional development needs should be identified at three evidence about relative performance levels: school, team and personal. School and team development needs should be identified through whole- school review; personal needs should be identified through performance management. Build collective ownership and CPD should draw in as many people as possible to build develop leadership expertise across the school, enable individuals to both contribute and lead, and so make the success of whole- school initiatives more assured. Professional development arising out of school and team priorities places individual development in the context of whole-school improvement. Involve collaboration with other Teachers should have regular opportunities for collaborative organisations working (e.g. joint planning, team teaching, observation and feedback, coaching). Successful collaboration requires time for teachers to share their learning with colleagues. It may be necessary to go beyond the department or school to find suitable colleagues to work with. Table continues 2 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Create time for staff to learn together It is important to create opportunities, both internally and externally through links with other schools, for staff to learn with and from others. The value of informal learning as well as effective use of structured time should also be recognised. Embed the improvements in the The professional development system should be integrated school’s systems and practices with other planning and review cycles. Individual professional development should endeavour to meet whole-school, team and personal needs. Many schools have improved by applying these principles and by paying particular attention to teaching and learning. The headteacher in video sequence M1 makes this point. Notice the emphasis on developing the school as a professional learning community. ‘The two main areas of activity that have had the greatest impact on our improvement have been the focus on teaching and learning and the professional development of teachers. We set out a strict priority to become a professional learning community. In other words, we are all here to learn and we are all here to do our jobs better.’ It is worth pausing at this point to watch the whole sequence. Two teachers in video sequences M2 and M3 also make the point that a whole- school focus on teaching and learning can bring dividends. One explains how they created agreement across the whole staff about what a ‘good lesson’ should look like. Developing and agreeing a teaching and learning policy across the whole school, or partnership of schools, is a powerful strategy. It brings ownership and a sense of community to the school or partnership. The second teacher in the sequence explains what happened in their school: ‘Across the whole school we are using the same approach, so the pupils are comfortable and know what to expect. … It may be true to say that teaching experienced teachers how to plan a lesson would have been treated with a bit of suspicion, but it is also true to say that everyone is completely convinced that this has added real quality to our work.’ You might like to watch video sequences M2 and M3 now, and consider as a senior leadership team or as a subject leader how you might use the video to introduce staff to the Pedagogy and practice materials. Unit 1 Structuring learning provides a good starting point for schools wishing to develop their own ‘good lesson guide’. Particularly important are the actions taken by some schools to include the entire school community in promoting a whole- school approach to teaching and learning. Increasingly, schools are involving not only teachers and teaching assistants, but also other adults such as governors and parents. Another very powerful strategy is to invite the pupils themselves to contribute to the policy. 3 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-20042 Pedagogy and practice: study units An effective teacher has a wide-ranging repertoire of different teaching and learning models, strategies and techniques and knows how to create the right conditions for learning. The choice is determined by the nature of the learning objective. The Key Stage 3 National Strategy booklet Key messages: Pedagogy and practice (Ref. DfES 1025/2003) provides guidance on the relationship between pedagogic approaches (teaching models), teaching strategies, techniques and methods of creating the conditions for learning in order to inform lesson design. The units are divided into four distinct colour-coded categories: Designing lessons, Teaching repetoire, Creating effective learners and Creating conditions for learning. The units in the Creating effective learners category support the Key Stage 3 National Strategy whole-school initiatives. The study guides do not require teachers to attend any external course, although they do complement the Key Stage 3 National Strategy’s training. A unit requires about five hours of study and five hours of work in the classroom. Each contains: • a clear presentation of the main ideas; • case studies; • tasks and classroom assignments; • practical tips; • opportunities for reflection; • a summary of related research; • suggestions for further professional development and guidance; • an opportunity to set future targets, perhaps related to performance management; • accompanying video sequences. 4 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Designing lessons Unit 1 Structuring learning: This key unit provides teachers with a model for the process of designing lessons. It starts by considering factors affecting lesson design, including the influence of the type of learning objective on the choice of approach. It goes on to explore effective methods of sharing learning objectives with pupils. There is guidance on how to structure learning by splitting lessons into a series of episodes, and on choosing from a range of strategies and techniques to motivate pupils. Finally, there is an examination of three pedagogic approaches – direct interactive, inductive and exploratory – to show how they can help pupils develop tools for learning, such as inductive thinking or enquiry skills. Unit 2 Teaching models: This unit develops further the principles and practice of teaching reviewed in unit 1. It explores a range of teaching models and encourages teachers to review their teaching practice against the models described. For each teaching model outlined, episodes are clearly defined showing how the model might be applied in classrooms. There are also some examples to illustrate ideas, and the importance of metacognition within each is made explicit. This will enable pupils to use the technique to support their own learning. Unit 3 Lesson design for lower attainers: This unit explores a range of strategies and techniques that will help pupils who tend to learn more slowly. It demonstrates the importance of ‘assessment for learning’ – research has shown that lower-attaining pupils, in particular, make significant gains when these techniques are used. There are also guidelines on developing literacy and numeracy skills in the context of different subjects, and on strategies for aiding recall. Unit 4 Lesson design for inclusion: This unit considers some principles for ensuring the inclusion of all pupils in lessons, and how to hold them all into the learning process. It provides a first insight into the needs of many groups that need to be included, such as boys, EAL, lower attainers, gifted and talented and SEN pupils. It considers various episodes in a lesson, such as starters and plenaries, and some early strategies that help to ensure all pupils are actively engaged and are able to make progress in their learning in all subjects. Unit 5 Starters and plenaries: The beginnings and ends of learning sequences are important. This unit describes the purpose and importance of starters and plenaries at the beginnings and ends of lessons, and also within lessons as part of teaching episodes. It provides a range of strategies and ideas as well as guidance on planning and making starters and plenaries effective. 5 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Teaching repertoire Unit 6 Modelling: Modelling is a powerful strategy that can be used across all subjects to help pupils to learn and to develop confidence in a new skill or procedure. This unit sets out the principles of this strategy and provides guidance on how to introduce modelling into lessons and make it effective. Unit 7 Questioning: This unit outlines the different types and purposes of questioning. It explains how to organise questioning for whole-class and group work, and offers strategies such as providing ‘wait time’ for making it effective. Bloom’s taxonomy is used to provide a framework for planning questions that challenge and develop pupils’ thinking. Alternatives to direct questioning are also explored. Unit 8 Explaining: This unit looks at the purpose of explanations in teaching and outlines the characteristics, features and skills of successful explanations. It explores different types of explanation, how to plan for them, which strategies are effective – particularly for those involving abstract ideas. It also provides guidance on how to support pupils in planning and articulating their own successful explanations. Unit 9 Guided learning: This unit explores how the principles and approaches involved in guided reading and writing can be used to support guided learning in subjects across the curriculum. It describes an instructional sequence for the teacher working with small groups, which is integrated into lessons to act as a bridge between whole-class teaching and independent work. It provides a range of examples and addresses practical questions of organisation including time, classroom layout, management of behaviour and resources. Unit 10 Group work: This unit looks at how effective group work can help to improve pupils’ speaking, listening, thinking, problem-solving and social skills. It emphasises the need for establishing clear rules and procedures and sets out a range of techniques to ensure pupil engagement and cooperation, such as allocating roles and setting group targets. Methods for structuring group work, such as ‘snowballs’, ‘jigsaws’, ‘envoys’ and ‘rainbows’, are suggested and the benefits and limitations of different grouping criteria explored. Unit 11 Active engagement techniques: This unit explores what is meant by engagement and why it is important. A range of strategies to motivate and engage pupils is examined, for example directed activities related to text (DARTs) to promote active reading, strategies to promote active listening, thinking strategies, and the use of drama across subjects. 6 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Creating effective learners Unit 12 Assessment for learning: This unit explores what is meant by assessment for learning and its importance. It explains how good assessment practice can contribute to better learning and higher achievement. This unit focuses on the key characteristics of assessment for learning and examines a range of practical strategies for incorporating these principles into classroom routines. Unit 13 Developing reading: This unit focuses on improving pupils’ ability to understand and to respond to written texts. It considers teaching subject-specific vocabulary; how teachers can support pupils by clarifying the approach they need; how pupils need to access their prior knowledge before they read; some of the ways pupils can be encouraged to engage with text and some aspects of note- taking. It shows how the teacher can use shared and guided reading to enable pupils to develop more independence and skill as readers. Unit 14 Developing writing: This unit focuses on improving the quality of pupils’ writing through actively teaching the techniques they will need. Pupils write best when they know what, how and why they have to write. Writing is often best taught through teacher modelling and then sharing the writing with the class. The route is from examples, modelled and shared work, through guided writing to independence. Unit 15 Using ICT to enhance learning: The use of ICT in classrooms enhances learning and teaching. This unit looks at the relationship between teachers’ use of ICT as a medium for teaching and the development of pupil capability. There are guidelines on the use of classroom support assistants and technicians, on classroom management and on organisation in the ICT-rich classroom. Unit 16 Leading in learning: This unit provides an introduction to thinking skills by clarifying the nature of higher-order thinking and different approaches to ‘teaching’ thinking. It also provides practical guidance for improving the teaching of aspects of thinking skills lessons, such as improving the teaching of the plenary, helping pupils to see the relevance of thinking in everyday contexts and developing their use of ‘thinking words’. Unit 17 Developing effective learners: Through the use of case studies, this unit explores what is meant by an effective learner, what learning skills might be expected of pupils at each key stage and how learning skills can be developed within subjects. 7 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Creating conditions for learning Unit 18 Improving the climate for learning: The physical environment can make a significant difference to learning, and this unit explores how even small changes to the classroom can help. It looks at arranging furniture to suit the teaching approach and creating displays that really contribute to learning. Teacher–pupil relationships are another important factor in classroom climate, and the unit also describes how pupil expectation and motivation can be improved through the use of appropriate classroom language. Unit 19 Learning styles: This unit outlines some of the current thinking and research on learning styles. It provides advice on how to identify different learning styles but, more importantly, emphasises the need to provide a variety of activities to suit different styles, over time. There is guidance on how to plan and adapt activities to accommodate visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learners. Unit 20 Classroom management: The emphasis in this unit is on developing the concept of teaching behaviour that is conducive to learning. The fundamentals of good pedagogy and practice, which are explored in the other units, are the bedrock of successful teaching and learning. Consideration is given to the core values and beliefs which underpin the teacher’s relationships with the pupils. Just as importantly, pupils’ perceptions of effective teaching are examined. Pupils respond positively to clear structures and routines, and the teacher’s verbal and non-verbal language is pivotal in securing and maintaining relationships for learning. 8 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-20043 The Key Stage 3 National Strategy and the continuing professional development of teachers Effective leadership is the key to schools making good use of the Key Stage 3 National Strategy. With greater freedom and flexibility, teachers are now able to select and use the Strategy materials that are most appropriate to the individual learning needs of their pupils. The Key Stage 3 National Strategy plays a key role in helping teachers to realise the government’s vision of providing high-quality continuing professional development (CPD) to teachers. It provides well-researched, extensively trialled material, as well as ‘on-the-job’ support from consultants, advanced skills teachers (ASTs) and other leading professionals including leading teachers and subject leaders. These study units provide professional development through active enquiry, measured and timely support and enable networking and collaborative working. ‘We found it really good to work in pairs; for long-serving teachers like me it added real interest to the planning.’ (Teacher of 20 years’ experience) ‘We have been looking for a way to share the skills staff already have and these units provide us with a useful vehicle for doing this. More of our staff CPD will be like this now with staff working in groups, rather than going out on individual courses. The units help establish a common language which enables us to identify strategies that suit us and our pupils.’ (Deputy headteacher) David Hargreaves (2003) in his publication Working laterally: how innovation networks make an education epidemic, which advocates creating networks of teachers in and between schools in order to spread good practice and to generate innovation and improvement, underlines the importance of teachers collaborating when he states: The best way to spread new practices that people choose voluntarily is on a peer-to-peer basis. Developing effective approaches to CPD There has been much research, particularly in the past two decades, on the effectiveness of staff development. In particular, Joyce and Showers have shown that in order to really embed change in pedagogy, a number of elements are required. These are indicated in the table on the next page, where elements of training are related to impact in terms of long-term change. 9 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Training method Level of impact General awareness Understanding of Internalising the Able to apply the of a new approach how to implement new approach new approach in a the approaches in range of contexts a new context Presentation of the evidence approach through workshop or reading Modelling of the evidence evidence new approach by demonstration or video Practice in non- evidence evidence evidence threatening settings, e.g. simulated Constructive evidence evidence evidence evidence feedback on performance In-class support evidence evidence evidence evidence such as coaching by peer or expert Adapted from Hopkins, Harris, Singleton and Watts (2000) Creating the conditions for teaching and learning. David Fulton Publishers. ISBN: 1853466891. Used with permission. 10 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-20044 How to use the study units The study units have been designed with maximum flexibility in mind. They do not require attendance at external courses. Teachers of varying experience and competence can use them. While they are best used by groups or pairs of teachers working collaboratively, they could be used by an individual teacher (who should still have the support of a mentor or coach). They focus on the classroom as the workshop for professional development. However, while the study units offer flexibility, there is also a need to introduce an element of rigour into their use. Successful changes in practice depend on an understanding of the theory behind the change, so it is important not to ‘cherry pick’. The study units offer a means by which teachers can investigate and develop a teaching competence or skill in a practical manner that will have an immediate impact on classroom activity and pupil learning. The way in which the study units are used in a school will depend on the culture of the school, current and competing priorities, resources, and strengths and weaknesses of teaching and learning. It will depend on the maturity and robustness of the schools’ CPD provision. During the pilot, schools used the study units in a variety of ways. Some are described in Table 1. Table 1 Mode of use Advantages and disadvantages Whole-school use of single Provides a whole-school focus on a single set of related issues, unit and a coherent set of expectations and experiences for pupils but … could compete with alternative priorities for some teachers. Subject department use of Provides a whole-department focus on a single set of issues single unit but … may have less impact on pupils if not supported by whole-school approaches. Whole-school use of a range Provides a whole-school focus on strengthening teaching and of units learning based on priorities identified by audits but … individual changes in teaching and learning styles may have less impact on pupils if not supported by whole-school approaches. Teaching and learning Allows schools to build expertise and experience of new development group use of a approaches where whole-staff involvement may not be possible single unit or range of units but … may not have significant impact on pupils until new approaches are more widely adopted. NQT, GTP or trainee use of a Based on an assessment of needs and the use of the NQTs’ single unit or a range of units career entry development profile, could provide a useful ‘rolling programme’ of skill acquisition but … needs to be part of a coherent induction programme and have the support of an induction tutor or mentor. Use of units across a group Provides valuable opportunities to share and build on experiences of schools, e.g. a LIG beyond those available in a single school but … confidence and collaborative expertise may need to be developed before it can be shared. 11 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004School leaders’ promotion of and support for the study units The study units are designed to ensure that most of the activities are carried out in classrooms with pupils. Teachers using the study units will require encouragement, time and resources from those with leadership roles, especially if the going gets tough. Most teachers will benefit from the support of a coach, induction tutor, mentor or Key Stage 3 consultant who is able to listen, encourage, guide and provide feedback. Peer coaching is extremely effective in creating a shared dialogue in which both the coach and coached teacher learn and adopt new models within a confidential and non-threatening relationship. Where the coached teacher may need a more direct relationship with a mentor or line manager, the opportunity to receive feedback and discuss changes in practice is an essential feature of the use of the study units. Senior leaders involved in performance management, timetabling and networking should: • take an active interest and make it clear that they are promoting the use of the study units; • consider how use of the units can support objectives in performance management; • use the study units to support developments identified in the school improvement plan; • consider how to timetable teachers’ learning as well as that of pupils; • provide planned opportunities for teachers to meet, plan, observe others and reflect; • use, with subject leaders, the Teaching and learning evaluation schedule (see page 17) to build a picture of teaching and learning across the school and to identify priorities for development; • discuss with the LEA Key Stage 3 Strategy manager or lead consultant how Key Stage 3 consultants can be used to support the work; • discuss with other schools in a collaborative or network how they may be used to support a plan for improvement; • ensure that the impact on learning is evaluated rigorously using the Follow-up review (see page 29). Senior leaders including CPD coordinators and Strategy managers should: • take an active interest in the use of the study units and make it clear that they are promoting their use; • agree, with subject leaders and senior leaders, a programme of support for teachers using a study unit; • explore ways in which teachers’ CPD activities can be accredited (see Leading and coordinating professional development in secondary schools (Ref. DfES 0682-2004)); 12 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004• consider how the units can be used on school closure days to promote collaborative work; • set up school network groups and identify similar groups in other schools and across the LEA; • use the Teaching and learning evaluation schedule (see page 17) to investigate which units could best be used by particular groups of teachers (e.g. supply teachers, NQTs) and the support that they would need to be successful; • ensure that the use of the study units is evaluated rigorously using the Follow-up review (see page 29). Subject leaders should: • seek active and practical support from senior leaders; • use the Teaching and learning evaluation schedule (see page 17) to build a picture of teaching and learning and to identify priorities for development; • agree which units can be used or support departmental priorities as well as whole-school implementation of units; • encourage teachers using the units and help them to network with other teachers; • create time on departmental meeting agendas to discuss teaching and learning issues and especially work relating to the units; • ensure that the use of the study units is evaluated rigorously using the Follow-up review (see page 29), and discuss with teachers involved how changes in teaching and learning brought about by using the units may require integration into the scheme of work; • discuss with the CPD coordinator, Strategy manager and other senior leaders how success with the units can be disseminated more widely across the school; • encourage teachers involved to plan lessons together, to observe each other teaching and to discuss outcomes; • create a teaching and learning information board or area within the school website; • discuss with senior leaders how timetabling can enable collaborative work; • discuss with the LEA Key Stage 3 National Strategy manager or lead consultant how Key Stage 3 consultants could support the work, both of the team and of subject and team leaders. LEA support and advice The LEA school improvement adviser (SIA) can provide advice and support on how to make the best use of the Pedagogy and practice study units and in particular: • how to develop support collaboratives; • where to seek LEA or other external support; 13 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004• how to manage CPD within a collaborative or network, including advice on timetabling; • researching local sources of accreditation for teachers. The LEA CPD adviser can provide advice about: • networking and collaboration between schools; • effective methods of CPD within and between schools; • local partners able to support schools; • how CPD can be integrated into school improvement cycles. The LEA Key Stage 3 National Strategy manager can provide advice about: • how the Key Stage 3 consultants can support collaborative or network initiatives; • whom to contact to provide training on coaching, networking and building capacity. The LEA Key Stage 3 National Strategy consultants can provide: • training for coaching (for ASTs and teachers); • coaching for classroom teachers; • mediation of the study units, working directly with groups of teachers. Accreditation of the study units Following discussions with the Universities Council for the Education of Teachers (UCET) it has been agreed that teachers who use the self-study material contained in the Pedagogy and practice pack will be eligible to receive accreditation up to and including Master’s level. Colleagues wishing to seek accreditation for the study they are about to undertake (or have undertaken) should register with their local higher education institution as soon as possible. Details are given in Leading and coordinating professional development in secondary schools (Ref. DfES 0682-2004). 14 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-20045 Using the Teaching and learning evaluation schedule This schedule is intended to assist individual teachers, pairs or groups of teachers to identify areas of teaching and the Pedagogy and practice units that will be most appropriate for study. An individual’s development of their teaching is best achieved when it is shared and supported by another, often more experienced or skilled, colleague, and where ideas for improvement can be tried out in the classroom, observed, reflected upon and discussed. It is recommended that teachers use the units in collaboration with another colleague who can act as their mentor or coach. The Teaching and learning evaluation schedule (see page 17) is intended for use by the following: 1. Individual teachers and groups of teachers. 2. The mentor, coach, induction tutor or other supportive colleague. It provides a means to help identify and then discuss the professional development needs of an individual teacher or a group of teachers. It can be used as a focus for lesson observation. 3. School leaders who wish to identify and plan for professional development for departments or other teams of teachers. It can be used as a focus for lesson observation. Individual teachers and groups of teachers In the Teaching and learning evaluation schedule (see page 17) you will find a series of tables corresponding to each of the Pedagogy and practice units, and within each there is a series of statements of effective practice in that area of teaching. The recommended procedure is as follows: • consider each statement and tick the cell that indicates how much it is a feature of your practice; • look back at the ticks you have placed on the sheet and highlight the areas which reflect your strengths; • look back at the ticks you have placed on the sheet and highlight the areas which indicate your development needs; • record your strengths and development needs on the Record of strengths and development needs (see page 28); • discuss these with your mentor or coach to help you decide which study unit to tackle first; • complete the action plan in the Record of strengths and development needs. Once you have worked through the study unit and the action plan, you should meet with your mentor or coach to review your progress using the Follow-up review (see page 29). 15 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Mentor, coach, induction tutor The teacher or group that you are working with should be using the Teaching and learning evaluation schedule (see page 17) to help them identify the areas and the study units which most reflect their strengths and their development needs. When you discuss their self-evaluation with them, you should make your judgements from as many sources as possible, for example: • observation of their teaching (by you or another colleague, if appropriate); • units of work and lesson plans; • marking and record keeping; • career entry and development profile (CEDP), which all NQTs have. You should then decide on the areas (e.g. structuring learning, questioning) in which the teacher or the group has most strengths, and the areas which are most in need of development. After that, set up a meeting to discuss and compare your analysis with that of the teacher or the group in order to agree and record (using the Record of strengths and development needs, see page 28) a prioritised action plan based on the use of the study units. When the teacher has completed the study unit and the action plan, you should convene a meeting to review and record their progress using the Follow-up review (see page 29). School leaders Use the Teaching and learning evaluation schedule (see page 17) to help you identify and plan for professional development for departments or other teams of teachers. You should make your judgements based on as many sources as possible, for example: • observation of teaching (by you or another colleague, if appropriate); • units of work and lesson plans; • marking and record keeping; • Ofsted reports. Then decide which areas (e.g. structuring learning, questioning) are strongest and which aspects are most in need of development. After that, set up a meeting to discuss your analysis with those involved in order to agree and record a prioritised action plan based on the use of the study units (using the Record of strengths and development needs, see page 28). Try to ensure that a mentor or coach is included at the start and throughout the process to provide good support, discussion and reflection for the participating teachers. When the teachers have completed the study unit and the action plan, you should convene a meeting to review and record their progress using the Follow-up review (see page 29). 16 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Teaching and learning evaluation schedule Consider the feature of teaching and learning identified in the left-hand column of the evaluation schedule. Identify whether the feature is always evident, only sometimes evident, or not evident at all, and then tick the appropriate box. Unit 1 Structuring learning When designing lessons to structure Always Sometimes Never learning I/we/teachers … have a clear understanding about the nature and use of learning objectives and how they inform choice of teaching model, strategy or technique have a good knowledge of teaching repertoire and are able to select appropriately to meet learning objectives make a clear distinction between objective and outcome and are able to share this effectively with pupils so that they understand what is expected of them are clear about the purpose of starters and plenaries and separate starters from the introduction in a clear way divide lessons into clear ‘episodes’, each of which has a clear outcome sequence episodes to make logical sense and to enable pupils to sustain concentration and to structure learning have a good understanding of the three teaching models: direct, inductive and enquiry, and are able to employ them appropriately 17 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Unit 2 Teaching models When designing lessons with teaching Always Sometimes Never models in mind I/we/teachers … have an overview of a range of teaching models, e.g. inductive, deductive, metaphor, concept attainment and constructing meaning understand the episode sequence in each model match the teaching model to learning objectives so that the teaching is efficient and effective make metacognition explicit to pupils as part of the teaching make opportunities for sharing approaches to teaching with colleagues Unit 3 Lesson design for lower attainers When designing lessons for groups of Always Sometimes Never lower attainers I/we/teachers … involve pupils in identifying what helps them learn design lessons that support lower-attaining pupils through structures that allow progress in small steps help pupils connect ideas in every lesson so that they see the ‘big picture’ and concentrate on, and constantly reinforce, the key concepts include techniques to develop recall in every lesson pay attention to the key skills of literacy and numeracy (data handling) in every lesson make sure the examples given to illustrate key points relate to the reality of pupils’ life experiences, and do not make assumptions that pupils see abstract ideas in the way that the teacher does use a high proportion of interactive teaching, including clear demonstrations and modelling of skills and procedures use assessment for learning regularly in every lesson 18 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004Unit 4 Lesson design for inclusion When designing lessons for inclusion Always Sometimes Never I/we/teachers … know and understand the data about particular individuals and groups in classes, and their specific learning needs plan lessons with specific groups in mind, and plan in advance how to include them in each episode (e.g. starter, plenary) include other adults, when available, not only as support in class, but also to plan in advance what each adult will do know strategies and techniques to include various groups in each part of the lesson know and understand the considerations that Ofsted and others have offered about particular groups Unit 5 Starters and plenaries When designing lessons Always Sometimes Never I/we/teachers … use starters and plenaries as a consistent part of classroom practice begin lessons with whole-class interactive involvement and make a distinction between the starter and the introduction (sharing of objectives and outcomes) plan starters to accommodate the range of ability levels in classes, ensuring that they are well paced and motivating, and either link to the main part of the lesson or meet longer-term ongoing objectives with clear outcomes in mind, use ‘mini- plenaries’ during lessons and review learning within an episode allocate sufficient time in lessons for plenaries to take place and plan to finish early involve pupils fully in each plenary, making sure they occupy more time talking than the teacher does 19 Key Stage 3 National Strategy Pedagogy and practice © Crown copyright 2004 Leadership guide DfES 0444-2004

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