Effective Pedagogy in the early years

exploring effective pedagogy in primary schools and researching effective pedagogy in the early years
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GemmaBeven,Malaysia,Professional
Published Date:14-07-2017
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st Pedagogies for the 21 Century 1 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century the capacity for schooling to take place in Introduction: Why new both a physical and virtual learning space. If pedagogies? we are to embrace these new opportunities, st we need a 21 century pedagogy – a paradigm which reflects a bold and creative An urgent question demands the attention of commitment to relevance and quality learning every educator: How well does today’s and teaching. schooling prepare students for the 21st century? This question deserves an answer based not on what worked in the past but on Strands of relevance what is a relevant schooling experience today. The past can only inform, not A relevant education for the 21st century must determine the future of schooling. have two essential strands. These strands must be tightly woven together to ensure that For more than 150 years a set of pedagogies the schooling experience is relevant to the life reflecting the priorities of the Industrial Age each student chooses to pursue and the skills has been embedded in the process of mass required to live in today’s world. schooling. The hallmarks of these pedagogies are found in teacher-controlled First, it must be truly humanising in that it learning where deconstructed and must enhance the learners’ humanity, reconstructed information is presented to improving their competence as managers of same-age cohorts of students in standardised their own lives, members of society (both classroom settings. local and global), effective participants in the workforce and active contributors to a changing environment. Its overarching aim is …educators and systems to enable them to pursue wisdom. spent the 20th century perfecting the 19th century Second, it must be truly socialising in that it must enhance the learners’ communal and model of schooling. (Heppell) global consciousness and foster responsible citizenship. Many have worked very hard at making To this end, it must be socio-critical, improvements to schooling within the confines deepening awareness of the nature of society 1 of this paradigm. Stephen Heppell (2005) and its need for development. And it must be wryly observed that educators and systems transformative, enabling learners to make a spent the 20th century perfecting the 19th difference to the lives of individuals, century model of schooling. communities and the changing world in which they live. Globalisation has enabled rapid advancements in technology; we have The learning we are talking about is lifelong entered the knowledge age where social learning which prepares for future, ongoing networking technologies are changing engagement in solving real problems, dealing business, media and political structures. with real events and competently coping with Users can now access information wherever the dynamics of real life. and whenever. It is what Jimmy Wales, the founder of Wikipedia describes as the The skills that are essential for achieving ‘democratisation of knowledge’. these outcomes include collaborative team- work, problem-solving, communicating, However, it has had little impact on the making connections, creating, and expressing processes of schooling. There is an urgent oneself in a variety of ways. These skills will need for a new educational model; a be future-focused but based on successful rethinking of the nature of schooling – its experience and sound evidence. They will purpose, pedagogies, curriculum, structures, lead the way, tapping into the incredible assumptions and expectations. potential of the Web 2.0 technologies. The old pedagogies persisting into the 21st In relation to the last point, this paper argues century are no longer relevant. They ignore that a physical and virtual schooling capacity, underpinned by social technologies, 1 Heppell, S. (2005). Episode 1: Learning in the third challenges us to fundamentally re-think our millennium 2 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century current pedagogies. A supporting one-to-many through blogs, or many-to-many pedagogical framework must go beyond through wikis. connecting schools and providing hardware for students and teachers. It has to be built In September 2006, 60% of Australian on the relational nature of learning and be internet users visited MySpace, and 50% relevant to all those interested in schooling in visited YouTube. The Hitwise survey notes today’s world. that these sites have become the ‘first online destination for Internet users as they integrate social networking into their other daily web The web 2.0 world activities, such as email, search engine use and research’. (www.aimia.com/au/i-cms) It would be hard to find a better example of rapid and dynamic change than the The challenge to today’s development of the worldwide web. In less than five years we have seen the web morph models of schooling from being a place to access information to being a network of social interaction. The obvious challenges posed to schooling as a result of the technological revolution are becoming widely recognised. In its 2001 …. seen the web morph report, Schooling for Tomorrow (Learning to from being a place to change: ICT in schools), the OECD’s Centre access information to being for Educational Research and Innovation a network of social questions existing models of schooling in the strongest terms: interaction. ‘As information-rich technology diffuses Web 2.0 has captured this change. Web 1.0 pervasively into homes and workplaces, it was characterised by static read-only sites increasingly calls into question the relevance where information could be searched for and of much within the knowledge-based retrieved. It was all about content and curricula. In a world with easy access to huge publishing. Web 2.0 has been dubbed the stores of information, the skills of accessing, read/write web or social networking software. handling and using data and materials Its sites are all about people and communities become more important than the ability to as well as content and publishing; they recall in detail ever greater amounts across encourage communication, collaboration and many fields of knowledge. The young people connection in every area. who inhabit this technology-rich information society already question the relevance of the 2 Grossman (2006) expresses the potential of traditional approach. Aspects of existing this very aptly when he says that Web 2.0 is school practice are called into question, as an ‘opportunity to build a new kind of ICT both underlines a need for curriculum international understanding, not politician to change and affords the means whereby the politician, great man to great man but citizen desired change can be achieved.’ (p19) to citizen, person to person’. (p 24) This challenge is repeated throughout the The digital generation who has been online professional literature. According to David since birth is as comfortable in the Web 2.0 4 Warner (2006) , for instance, the emergence world as they are in the physical world. Marc of information communication technologies 3 Prensky (2006) states that, ‘Today's students (ICT) and the development of Web 2.0 (e.g. have mastered a large variety of tools that we YouTube, Flickr, MySpace, del.icio.us) have will never master with the same level of skill. transformed the social and economic From computers to calculators to MP3 players landscape. These changes have a profound to camera phones, these tools are like impact on schooling as educators prepare extensions of their brains.’ (p10) The students for life beyond the classroom – a attraction of using social software is the ease transition which should be seamless and and speed with which they can communicate familiar. either one-to-one through instant messaging, 2 Grossman, L. (2006). Person of the Year, Time Magazine (No 51-52) 3 4 Prensky, M. (2006) Listen to the Natives. Educational Warner, D. (2006) Schooling for the knowledge era ACER: Leadership Vol 63 No 4 January Camberwell 3 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century 5 Mitchel Resnick (2002) refers to the new happens we are left with new wine in old technologies as having ‘the potential to wineskins fundamentally transform how and what people learn throughout their lives. Just as Competing narratives advances in biotechnologies made possible the “green revolution” in agriculture, new Attempts to conceptualise and shape digital technologies make possible a “learning schooling reflect the dominant educational revolution” in education’. (p 32) narrative of those seeking to set the agenda. The term ‘educational narrative’ is used here If we are to ensure that to encompass the story, map or paradigm we teaching remains an ‘art’ for use in describing the nature of education as enabling the acquisition of we understand it, including the pedagogies we employ. It provides us with a structure for powerful learning in the 21st shared reflection, conversation, evaluation, century, we need to question planning, the clarification of mission and the the continuing use of old devising of strategies for development and pedagogies that belong in change. It connects our beliefs, our values other times and and our hopes. circumstances. A strictly utilitarian The message is clear: If we are to ensure that narrative sees school teaching remains an ‘art’ for enabling the basically as an acquisition of powerful learning in the 21st instrument of the century, we need to question the continuing economy. use of old pedagogies that belong in other times and circumstances. Fundamental re- We must clarify and apply our own coherent thinking is necessary. Relevant 21st century and shared 21st century narrative in the pedagogy is not something that can be tacked context of competing narratives. The defining or massaged onto the pedagogies of the 20th themes of these narratives challenge us. Let century. us look briefly at some of them. Calls to transformation A strictly utilitarian narrative sees school basically as an instrument of the economy. A Schools are experiencing strong pressures to well-educated workforce produces national go beyond simple change and to radically wealth. Effective schooling is a return on an transform themselves so that they might investment. reflect the reality of their social and technological context. (eg Caldwell, 2006; A consumerist narrative conceptualises Beare, 2006; Elmore 2004). They are school as a business selling a commodity certainly at a watershed, often confused, called ‘education’ to individual customers overwhelmed and seeking relevance. which it attracts to itself in an open marketplace where it competes with other Admittedly, various initiatives are in place to ‘providers’. It draws heavily on the priorities, improve the quality of schooling. An example images and values of the commercial world. is Education Queensland’s New Basics program which seeks to link content, A pragmatic narrative aims at measurable pedagogy and assessment in a more efficiency and acceptability. It is shaped by productive way. At their best these political and popular perceptions, and is productive pedagogies focus on highly responsive to the special agendas of connectedness and knowledge integration ascendant groups. within an inquiry-based curriculum. But so often such initiatives remain locked in old An individualistic narrative sees schooling as patterns of thinking and do not bring about the serving the interests and aspirations of necessary transformation. When that individuals who pursue personal goals without regard for the common good of society. It has little concern for the communal nature of 5 schooling, unless this facilitates achievement Resnick, M. (2002) Rethinking learning in the digital age from The global information technology report: Readiness of the individual’s purely personal goals. for the networked world. Edited by G Kirkman OUP 4 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century Such narratives overlap – each is reflected in on. They will be informed by research, the metaphors and other images used to reflection and analysis. describe schooling. These narratives govern curriculum constructs, learning environments These principles remain at the core of and school cultures. They influence the effective learning and teaching. The great pedagogies that are employed on a daily educational theorists proclaimed them and basis. the best teachers apply them. The challenge now is to use the principles not only to support learning and teaching in the physical In search of a new narrative space but in a virtual space. New ideas about the nature of schooling, and Effective teaching will always be relational. its most relevant pedagogies, in the 21st However, in a virtual learning space, the role century are taking shape. Canadian theorist, of a teacher will be to guide students in George Siemens, for instance, claims that making the connections to resources, ideas students no longer learn only through and people; how to find and discern what they traditional ways of constructing knowledge but need “instead of depending on us teacher to 7 by connecting with each other and provide them.’ (Richardson 2006 p35) . technology. The essential principles of effective learning ‘We are trying to use theories of learning from provide us with the foundations upon which to a predominantly physical era and force them develop appropriate pedagogies that are to work in a digital era. We need a new creatively applied in ways which complement pedagogy, a new view of learning, a new view each other, maximise opportunities and of knowledge or interacting.’ (Siemens, 2006 respond to 21st century demands. 6 p13) In keeping with this sort of thinking, specific Perhaps there has been no more relevant questions arise, such as how can we fully time for educators to re-visit the core utilise the emerging relational technologies questions of what and why, how and where – and social software in enriching these the rationale, content, methodology and pedagogies and in facilitating the acquisition location of their core concern: quality learning. of new knowledge and skills? And how can This re-visiting must raise some vitally the curriculum be most appropriately important questions about our understanding conceptualised and organised so as to tap of the processes of knowing when the sheer into new capacities? quantity of knowledge is exploding around us. It must lead us, too, to reconsider our concept These foundations can only be built on by a of curriculum and the appropriateness, or teaching profession which has truly come of 8 otherwise, of structuring learning and age. Andy Hargreaves (2003) expresses this teaching within discrete disciplines. fact with blunt honesty: ‘Teaching is not a place for shrinking violets, A challenge to the imagination for the overly sensitive, for people who are more comfortable with dependent children New circumstances and new opportunities than they are with independent adults. It is a offer a prodigious challenge to the job for grown-ups, requiring grown-up norms imagination, a challenge which must be of how to work together.’ (p. 28) probed if we are to develop the most appropriate pedagogies for the 21st century. Key propositions Effective pedagogies will always be based on a thorough understanding of how people I now wish to present five propositions which learn. In general terms, they will be grounded both tie together earlier observations and will in certain principles: quality relationships, lead to more precise descriptions of an respect for individual differences, focus on appropriate range of pedagogies. Needless core processes of making meaning, active to say, all of these propositions overlap, participation in relevant and authentic learning 7 tasks, the development of autonomy, and so Richardson, W (2006) The New Face of Learning. Edutopia (October) p 35-37 6 8 Siemens, G. (2006) What does it mean to know today? Hargreaves, D. (2004) Personalised learning – an Education Review 16(08), 13 interview with Professor D. Hargreaves 5 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century combining to support an urgent appeal for Here, then, is a raft consisting of four planks, radical change. four interconnected sets of pedagogies. When reflected upon and discussed in depth, Proposition 1 these might well stimulate and facilitate learning experiences which will be relevant, ‘Curriculum’, as it has been traditionally timely and transformative. understood, has passed its used-by date. A more appropriate mindset leads us to speak 1. Pedagogies which personalise of ‘frameworks’ that are constructed learning collaboratively and with imagination out of mutual respect for both learner and teacher. Our narrative reminds us that, at the centre of the process of education, is the individual 9 Proposition 2 student. Peters (2003) says, ‘Teaching is about one and only one thing: Getting to know 10 The skills that are appropriately learned and the child,’ and Caldwell (2006) echoes this applied with a 21st century framework are not in his first theme in imagining the self- the same as those that served past eras: managing school: ‘The student is the most memorisation, specialisation, control/order, important unit of organisation – not the sameness/insularity. Rather, they the skills classroom, not the school, not the school needed in a dynamic present and future: system.’ (p71) interconnectedness, managing meaning, living with paradox, working intelligently This commitment leads immediately to towards positive change, and maintaining a recognition of individual differences in the global perspective. backgrounds, abilities, interests and learning styles of students. It underlies the importance Proposition 3 of teachers’ knowing their students as individuals and employing a range of flexible Such skills require transforming pedagogies teaching and organisational strategies in which will focus on the nurturing of clear- responding to them. In other words: to thinking, discerning, flexible and creative personalise learning. problem-solvers who will exercise their developed capacity to make the world a better Structures that reflect a one-size-fits-all place. approach to meeting students’ needs and move students, lock-step, towards achieving Proposition 4 narrow, easily-measured and strictly predetermined goals, do violence to the The emerging technologies must be used to development of responsible, resourceful and enrich these transforming pedagogies. self-directed learners. Proposition 5 Contribution of social To facilitate such learning and teaching, the use of learning spaces both within and technologies beyond the immediate school plant, must be characterised by creativity and adaptability. The commitment of truly effective teachers to personalised learning can be wonderfully A raft of pedagogies enhanced by skilful utilisation of the emerging social technologies. These essential tools of the 21st century pedagogies can be In attempting to answer the question, ‘What employed in creative, transparent and intuitive are the pedagogies most likely to serve ways, as evidenced by application of the new individuals and communities (both local and social software in a Web 2.0 world of global) in the 21st century?’, it is my intention interactions. not to supply a set of recipes or specific teaching formulas but suggest categories or Here individual students readily become directions which teachers might explore in active and contributing participants who are their own search for approaches relevant to their students, to themselves, and to the 9 Peters, T. (2003) Re-image DK: London settings within which they work. 10 Caldwell, B. (2006) Re-imaging educational leadership. ACER: Melbourne 6 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century finding their own ways of applying learning Enabling pedagogies encourage curiosity and and gaining control of the process. This a sense of wonder. They provide learning personalising of learning can be both physical opportunities that are meaningful and relevant and virtual in nature – a possibility undreamt to students, encouraging learners to critique of by earlier generations of teachers. We are and question, to seek meaning, to make only beginning to realise the implications of choices, and to create and express ideas with this for lifelong learning. skill and confidence. The pedagogies will challenge students with ever-richer and more In the school context, the teacher has an complex experiences and opportunities to important role to play in establishing deepen insights and improve skills. In so structures that will facilitate learning of this doing they will develop the metaskills kind, in demonstrating, mentoring, providing necessary for lifelong learning. feedback and helping the student to make connections and construct deeper meaning. Pedagogies that are truly enabling are informed by sensitivity to the individual The whole concept of a curriculum consisting learner. Rather than attracting blame towards of separate subjects or disciplines must the student, they focus on the processes certainly be challenged as students show being used in the attempts to learn. A feature themselves quite capable of using electronic of a classroom culture of high and enabling networks to transcend old boundaries and expectations is the experience of personal learn in integrated ways. They become and collective success. Success deprivation empowered to work, learn and think is devastating. ‘Productivity thrives on differently. (Papert, 1993, quoted in Caldwell success,’ says researcher and clinician, Mel 12 2006). Levine (2004) . At a most practical level, this personalising of ‘Individuals with chronic success deprivation learning requires students to have adequate feel like losers, and out of a sense of access to the relevant technologies. If this is hopelessness they simply shut down their not sufficiently available or not maintained, minds. Success and failure occur in spirals. the result is frustration and sometimes Failure may lead to further failure, while alienation. It also requires flexibility in both success energises the system for more space and time. Students need to be able to success.’ (p155) move and rearrange themselves if they are to work collaboratively; flexible timetabling Questioning assumptions allows for tasks to be pursued extensively and in depth. A third pre-requisite is the teacher’s We see the transforming possibilities of the ability and willingness to operate in a less social technologies in enriching these rigid and controlling environment – one which pedagogies and in engaging students in demonstrates a genuine commitment to constructing personal meaning and taking learning of this kind placing trust in the responsibility for their own learning. Even the learner. rigid scheduling of time for learning can be realistically questioned. 2. Pedagogies which enable the learner The open-ended nature of education through One of our central educational aims is the these technologies can provide rich learning development of the whole person: mind, body challenges which stimulate imagination, and spirit. This calls for pedagogies which provoke deeper thinking and require the enable the learner to develop and move application of core learning skills. The towards becoming an independent, fully- possibilities are endless. functioning, contributing member of society. Such pedagogies must be fundamentally 13 Resnick (2002) reminds us that ‘children liberating in that they will help break the can now use computer simulations to explore chains imposed by ignorance and inadequate 11 the workings of systems in the world opportunities. As Collins (2006) says we are (everything from ecosystems to economic “only good in relation to what we can become.” (p15) 12 Levine, M (2003) The myth of laziness. Simon and Schuster: NY 13 Resnick, M. (2002) Rethinking learning in the digital age 11 Collins, J. (2006) Good to great and the social sectors, from The global information technology report: Readiness Random House: London for the networked world. Edited by G. Kirkman OUP 7 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century systems to immune systems) in ways that School systems can were previously not possible.’ (p 36) promote learning agendas We need to transform curricula so that they that are engaging, social, focus less on ‘things to know’ and more on personal and that link ‘strategies for learning the things you don’t communities. know’. As new technologies continue to quicken the pace of change in all parts of our lives, learning to become a better learner is The social networking tools are now widely far more important than learning to multiply used by students in the out-of-classroom, fractions or memorising the capitals of the collaborative construction and sharing of world.’ (p 36) knowledge. Schools neglect this fact to their peril. MySpace, blogs, podcasts and wikis 3. Pedagogies which highlight the claim an important place in schools seeking to interpersonal nature of learning promote more profound and effective thinking and learning that refuses to be constrained by Quality learning and teaching are grounded in traditional subject boundaries. School powerful relationships that are built on mutual systems can promote learning agendas that respect and trust. These relationships are are engaging, social, personal and that link strongly influenced by the core of shared communities. 14 beliefs. (Hough et al, 1997) . 16 As Hargreaves (2004) explains: ‘We are Such relationships amongst students only at the beginning of this transformation, themselves and between them and their which will not be simply about ICT in teachers provide a supportive context for classrooms but about a new relationship peer-tutoring, group work, modelling, and between what happens in formal education coaching, collaborative problem-solving and and what happens in the home, the workplace constructive risk-taking. and the community.’ This extends beyond school. The ability to An excellent example of how social learn and work as a member of a team networking software is being used for becomes even more important in a society interpersonal learning in the ‘flat classroom where knowledge expands at an incredible project’ (http://flatclassroomproject.wikispaces.com) rate. Cooperation, shared learning and interdependence are taking their place This project links students from the amongst the most desired qualities for International School Dhaka in Bangladesh successful employees. with students from the computer science class at Westwood School in Georgia, USA. Students from each school are paired and Social networking use Web 2.0 tools such as wikis and podcasts to explain and discuss topics from Thomas Web 2.0, or social networking software, can Freidman’s book The World is Flat. Teachers provide very effective ways of strengthening and students cooperate in designing the impact of interpersonal learning. It can meaningful interactive materials that link break down the sense of isolation – texts, images and sounds to structure and to everything can become collaborative and illustrate and represent ideas. 15 social in nature (O’Connell 2006) . While Web 1.0 is static and read-only, Web 2.0 4. Pedagogies which contribute to allows users to write as well as read. Today’s building the learning community students are global citizens, accessing and creating content on demand, usually from The communal nature of the school presents home. a core image and recurring theme of the educational narrative where the school is viewed essentially as a learning community as well as a community of individual learners. In such a community, knowledge is often 14 constructed collaboratively; individuals learn Hough. M., Paine, J. and Austin, L. (1997) Creating quality learning communities. Macmillan Education: South Melbourne 15 16 O’Connell, J (2006) Engaging the Google Generation Hargreaves, D. (2004) Personalised learning – an through Web 2.0: Part 1, Scan, Vol 25, No 3 August interview with Professor D. Hargreaves 8 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century from each other, with each other and, in a • Self-management and self-directed special sense, on behalf of each other. learning Appropriate pedagogies include facilitation of He stresses that these are not new skills but student teamwork, negotiation of learning that they are key skills for the twenty-first tasks, and across-curriculum and across- century paradigm. grade learning and teaching initiatives. Students are conscious of belonging to A particular challenge facing teachers in the networks both within and beyond the school knowledge age relates to re-visiting their where knowledge, resources and problem- existing pedagogies. Experience suggests solving initiatives are shared. In this manner, that, in the first instance, they simply adopt learning becomes a process of creating those elements of technology which serve connections and networks of great variety. their existing teaching style without exploring the full extent of new opportunities to develop In 2005, Dr Tim Tyson, Principal of Mabry interactive, searching and collaborative Middle School, created a blog featuring the approaches for nurturing higher-order thinking work of his staff and students. This blog is skills and learning. now a leading example of innovative educational practice using Web 2.0. ‘While new digital technologies make a However, Dr Tyson readily admits that learning revolution possible, they certainly do technology is not a magic bullet but more a not guarantee it. Early results are not ‘tool that when appropriately leveraged, encouraging. In most places where new brings people together so that they can technologies are being used in education collaboratively create and share with today, the technologies are used simply to unprecedented ease and facility’. reinforce outmoded approaches to learning. (http://nlcommunities.com/communities/blc06/archive/ Even as scientific and technological advances 2006/10/17/95742.aspx) are transforming agriculture, medicine and industry, ideas about and approaches to teaching and learning remain largely Teachers as learners 19 unchanged.’ (Resnick 2002, p 32) Teachers in the twenty-first century need to see themselves as co-learners and Learning communities collaborators within the learning environment. In their role as learners teachers learn a great The importance of schools becoming effective deal about – and often from – their students. learning organisations with teachers engaged They learn from each other, too. And, as a in productive dialogue, teamwork and shared collaborative group, they learn together. This learning is imperative as they rethink their type of learning leads to new ways of assumptions about learning and teaching in understanding and applying existing the 21st century. Together as learning 17 knowledge. (Hough et al, 1997) communities, teachers can reshape pedagogies that are relevant to today’s 18 Warner (2006, p104) identifies a number of learners. ‘knowledge era’ skills for effective teaching. These include: The learning community of the school is networked into other, more expanded, • Collaboration learning communities of schools and other • Negotiation to arrive at shared community agencies where best practice is expectations shared, information systems and links are • Engagement management (managing developed and there is an expanding learning not classrooms) understanding of what is possible. • Creating and managing knowledge • Developing individual learning An important partnership – the one which programs links home and school cannot be overlooked • Self-awareness and self-evaluation in bringing together the learning communities. The emerging technologies can make a major 17 Hough, M., Paine, J. and Austin, L. (1997) Creating quality learning communities. Macmillan Education: South 19 Melbourne Resnick, M. (2002) Rethinking learning in the digital age 18 Warner D. (2006) Schooling for the knowledge era from The global information technology report: Readiness ACER: Camberwell for the networked world. Edited by G. Kirkman OUP 9 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century contribution to this in providing effective happens in the home, the workplace and the avenues of communication and collaboration. community. The new social technologies have a particular There are many forces seeking to re-shape significance in developing transforming the future of schooling. Essential contributors pedagogies within all these learning to this inevitable process must be the communities. Students become content teachers and the learning communities to creators, contributors, evaluators, which they belong. communicators and collaborators both with and beyond their school, experiencing participatory membership in a global learning There are many forces community. seeking to re-shape the future of schooling. Global community Essential contributors to this inevitable process The most dramatic example of the extended – must be the teachers and global – learning community is experienced in the learning communities the Internet which is requiring educators to to which they belong. rethink the processes of teaching, collaborating and communicating. Because of its essential characteristic of being social and participatory, Web 2.0 can play a powerful role in building and sustaining the learning community. Conclusion The composition of the educational narrative is, in the first instance, a work of the imagination. And so, eventually, is its full implementation. This calls for nothing less than an exploration of the way we view schooling, along with a practical framework for possible change. In this paper, the attempt has been made to stimulate the necessary reflection and conversation by focusing on the most practical aspect of the work of schools – pedagogy. The assertion is made that those who work in and for schools will have to work differently if they are to serve their students and society in the knowledge age of the 21st century. They will need to imagine a new model of schooling to match the tools and capabilities, including Web 2.0, now available. For this to occur, transformational leadership needs to be dispersed throughout the school community. We stand together at the beginning of a transformation of schooling for life. While we live in a digital age, the essential conversation is not just about technology in classrooms. Rather, it is about new relationships between teachers and learners, between learners and the process through which they grow in competence and wisdom, and between what happens in formal education and what 10 st Pedagogies for the 21 Century O’Connell, J (2006) Engaging the Google References Generation through Web 2.0: Part 1, Scan, Vol 25, No 3 August Australian Bureau of Statistics (2004) Householders’ use of information technology. OECD (2001) Schooling for tomorrow: http://www.abs.gov.au Learning to change:ICT in schools. Report from the Centre for Educational Research and Beare, H. (2006) How we envisage schooling Innovation: Paris in the 21st century: the new imaginary in practice. Specialist Schools and Academies Peters, T. (2003) Re-imagine DK: London Trust: London. Prensky, M. (2006) Listen to the Natives. Caldwell, B. (2006) Re-imagining educational Educational Leadership Vol 63 No 4 January leadership. ACER: Melbourne Collins, J. 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