Recent trends in Broadcasting management

trends in radio broadcasting and current and future trends of media and information
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Nataliebarry,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:13-07-2017
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TRENDS IN BROADCASTING International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Development Bureau Place des Nations TRENDS IN BROADCASTING: CH-1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland AN OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENTS www.itu.int Report FEBRUARY 2013 Printed in Switzerland Telecommunication Development Sector Geneva, 2013 02/2013Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments 1 Introduction Regulators, spectrum managers and broadcasters are faced with the question how to continue and extend the delivery of broadcasting services and introduce new broadcasting services in a frequency efficient and cost effective way, taking into account the following issues: • local market requirements; • existing transmission networks and receivers; • alternative means of content delivery, including IP broadband, via mobile, fixed and satellite networks; • regional and international regulatory requirements regarding the use of the frequency spectrum 1 and in particular the impact of decisions adopted at the WRC-12 ; • existing broadcasting transmission standards and future developments; • demands of spectrum from other than broadcasting services. This report is intended as a guide to deal with these issues by giving an overview of developments in broadcasting delivery technology and showing trends in the coming years. The emphasis of the report is on terrestrial broadcasting. The structure of the reports is summarized in Table 1.1. Table 1.1: Structure of the report Main developments Milestones and Services and technology Trends in timeframes broadcasting Increasing access to Section 3 broadband Internet Service concepts Section 6 Section 2 Summary of Continuing evolution Section 4 Section 5 Broadcasting by the conclusions and of broadcast Television Audio broadcasting end of the decade main trends technology broadcasting technology technology Two main developments in terrestrial broadcasting will determine the trends in audio and television broadcasting: • The fast expansion of high capacity data networks, offering consumers broadband Internet access. The Internet will be an increasingly important means of delivery of audio-visual content, including broadcasting. • The continuing evolution of digital broadcast technology, resulting in a considerable increase of the capacity in the transmitted bandwidth and enabling more services, better picture quality and improved coverage. Section 2 sets out the milestones and timeframes with regard to the transition to digital broadcasting and the growth of broadband Internet access. Section 3 describes how broadband Internet access to a large part of the population offers an alternative means of broadcast delivery, and how it provides a means for enhanced broadcasting services. Section 4 and 5 reflect the trends and developments in broadcasting technology related to digital television and digital audio respectively. Finally Section 6 gives a summary of the conclusions and highlights the main trends toward the end of the decade. 1 Final acts: www.itu.int/pub/R-ACT-WRC.9-2012/en 1 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments 2 Broadcasting by the end of the decade 2.1 General All players in the broadcasting value chain from content creators to device creators (see Figure 2.1) will be affected by the impact of the evolution of broadcast technology and the growth of broadband Internet access. Figure 2.1: Digital broadcasting value chain Content Content Multiplex Service Content Device Creators Aggregators Operators Providers Distributors Creators Source: ITU These developments will result in the production of higher quality content and offer additional information and interactive services. Digital broadcasting networks will be modified due to: • demand for more services of higher technical quality and with improved coverage; • new technology with improved efficiency in the use of the spectrum; • changed regulations on the use of the spectrum. Receiving devices will appear on the market to enable high quality pictures and sound, able to handle integrated interactive services and to receive several delivery means including terrestrial broadcasting networks and broadband Internet. Such devices will range from large screens and multi-channel audio equipment to handheld devices like smart phones and tablet computers. The market conditions and regulatory situation are different from country to country. The resulting situation by the end of the decade and beyond will therefore also differ in each country, but a number of milestones with general applicability and timeframes can be identified. A principle condition for enjoying the benefit of digital technology is the transition from analogue to digital terrestrial television broadcasting. A milestone in the transition process is the completion of the digital switch-over (DSO) of terrestrial television broadcasting. The first national DSO was completed 2006. It is expected that by 2020 most countries have completed the DSO process. Another milestone is the worldwide allocation of International Mobile Services (IMT) in the 700 and 800 MHz range, expected to become effective in 2015. IMT services will provide mobile broadband Internet access. Together with fixed broadband Internet access, it will facilitate the development of broadcasting and multimedia services via the Internet to a large part of the population. Section 2.2 sets out milestones and time frames for the transition to digital broadcasting. Section 2.3 describes the growth of broadband Internet access. 2.2 Transition to digital broadcasting This section describes the developments in the transition to digital terrestrial television broadcasting (Section 2.2.1) and to digital terrestrial audio broadcasting (Section 2.2.2). 2 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments 2.2.1 Transition to digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) Many countries around the world are embarking on the digital switch-over (DSO) process. In parts of Region 1 and 3 (Figure 2.2), the Geneva 2006 Agreement (GE06) has set a time schedule for the transition: • 17 June 2015: end of the transition period in Band IV/V and Band III, except in 35 countries in 2 Africa and the Middle East ; • 17 June 2020: end of the transition period in Band III in the 35 countries in Africa and the Middle East. Figure 2.2: GE06 planning area Source: ITU Many countries in other regions adapted time schedules for transition to digital television within the same timeframe. ITU promotes the transition to digital TV among others with the publication of the “Guidelines 3 for the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting” . These Guidelines are intended to provide information and recommendations on policy, regulation, technologies, network planning, customer awareness and business planning for the smooth introduction of digital terrestrial television and mobile 4 television. Also the ITU-R BT.2140 report deals with the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting . The transition to digital television results in a Digital Dividend. In addition to the use of the 800 MHz band (i.e. 790-862 MHz) in Region 1, the WRC-12 agreed on the allocation of the extension of the 800 MHz band, i.e., 694-790 MHz in Region 1 available from 2015 for sharing between broadcasting and mobile services (IMT). Subject to confirmation by WRC-15, this provides a worldwide mobile allocation and identification for IMT in all three regions in the band 698-862 MHz to become effective in 2015. To give an understanding of the Digital Dividend and its implications, ITU has published the report “Digital Dividend, 5 insights for spectrum decisions” . In countries where mobile services (IMT) will use a considerable part of the digital dividend it may be necessary to carry out major frequency planning activities and re-engineering of sites to accommodate 2 See footnote 7 to Article 12 of the Geneva 2006 Agreement 3 www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/hdb/D-HDB-GUIDELINES.01-2010-R1-PDF-E.pdf 4 ITU-R BT.2140-4 Transition from analogue to digital broadcasting 5 www.itu.int/ITU-D/tech/digital_broadcasting/Reports/DigitalDividend.pdf 3 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments operational and planned TV broadcasting stations in a reduced frequency band. In many countries the objectives for digital switch-over include more services, extended coverage and better picture quality including HDTV and introduction of interactive services. Section 4 deals in more detail with the technological developments in digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) and the challenges to accommodate more services of higher quality in a limited amount of spectrum. DTTB services are introduced in competition with other means of delivery such as satellite-TV, cable-TV, as well as via broadband networks through IPTV and streaming services on the open Internet. These other TV delivery means have the advantage of intrinsic higher capacity than DTTB. Digital satellite-TV and digital cable-TV have a higher multiplex capacity and also the number of multiplexes is higher than with terrestrial digital television. With IPTV the number of channels is not technically limited. Despite the lower capacity, DTTB is generally seen as the most important. This is stressed by a group of thirteen major broadcasting organisations from Region 1, 2 and 3, who took the initiative to collectively develop the next generation of terrestrial broadcasting standards, the so-called Future of Broadcast Television (FOBTV) 6 initiative (see also Section 4.3.2). This group stated : “Terrestrial broadcasting is uniquely important because it is wireless (supports receivers that can move), infinitely scalable (point-to-multipoint and one-to-many architecture), local (capable of delivering geographically local content), timely (provides real time and non-real time delivery of content) and flexible (supports free-to-air and subscription services). The attribute of wireless delivery of media content to a potentially unlimited number of receivers makes terrestrial broadcasting a vital technology all over the world. Broadcasting is, in fact, the most spectrum- efficient wireless delivery means for popular real-time and file-based media content.” 2.2.2 Transition to digital terrestrial audio broadcasting (DTAB) Contrary to DTTB, there are no international regulations that prescribe a time schedule for the transition from analogue to digital terrestrial audio broadcasting (DTAB). Furthermore there is a wide range of frequency bands for analogue and an even wider range for DTAB. Each band has its channel bandwidth requirements and propagation characteristics. Moreover, for each frequency band there are several DTAB standards that can be applied (Section 5.2, Table 5.1). The main incentives for introduction of DTAB are: • In the LF, MF and HF bands, with AM analogue broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting offers a considerable quality improvement. 7 • In the lower VHF broadcasting band (Band II) , with FM analogue audio broadcasting, the quality improvement of digital audio broadcasting is less apparent to most listeners. But in many countries the band is intensively used by FM transmissions, often in very competitive markets. In some areas the band is approaching its capacity limits and new services cannot be introduced without deteriorating existing coverage areas due to increasing interference levels. In order to accommodate more services, digital audio broadcasting will be required. 6 Future of Broadcast Terrestrial Television Initiative Memorandum of Understanding; see also www.fobtv.org 7 In some European countries the band 66 MHz to 72 or 74 MHz is also used for FM services. However, most of these countries have ceased using Band I for FM broadcasting services. 4 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments In the GE06 Agreement many countries have DTAB assignments or allotments in the upper VHF broadcasting band (Band III) with the T-DAB standard and will likely use these assignments or allotments for transmissions of T-DAB or related standards T-DAB+ and T-DMB, once analogue television in this band has been switched-off. Also countries outside the GE06 planning area have plans or implemented already DTAB services in Band III. In a great number of countries DTAB services have been introduced or tests transmissions are carried out. However, the uptake is much slower than with digital television. The relative slow uptake of DTAB is among others caused by: • the relatively good perceived reception quality of FM stations, hence listeners do not feel an immediate need to switch to digital to listen to existing FM services; • the lack of attractive new services ; • the very large base of low cost AM and FM receivers; • confusion and fragmentation of the market due to the multitude of standards; • the lack of low cost multi-standard receivers. Only very few countries have announced to switch-off analogue radio completely. However, in many countries AM-transmitters in the LF, MF and HF bands have been switched off for cost reasons in cases where the services of these stations were duplicated by FM, DTAB or provided via the Internet. Possible approaches for implementation of digital terrestrial audio broadcasting and phases of migration 8 are described in the Final Report of ITU-D Study Group 2 related to Question 11-2/2 . In addition to terrestrial networks in LF, MF, HF and VHF, audio broadcasting services are also delivered as packages in digital television transmission, via cable and satellite as well as via the Internet. Digital radio by satellite shows limited prospects. An ambitious project to offer a package of digital radio services by satellite in the 1.5 GHz to Africa, Asia and America, called Worldspace, stopped a few years ago due to lack of interest. In North-America a subscription based satellite radio service is operated mainly directed to business, like hotels and retail chains. Similarly as for digital terrestrial television broadcasting, digital terrestrial audio broadcasting is generally seen as the most important means of delivery of audio broadcasting services. This is stressed by the Electronic Communications Committee (EEC) of the CEPT, representing the European telecommunication 9 administrations. The ECC states in ECC Report 177 : “In most countries terrestrial radio is by far the most popular way of receiving radio services; most of the audience uses terrestrial as their primary means of reception. Although radio is available on other platforms, they are used only to a limited extent. Terrestrial distribution of radio offers a combination of many positive characteristics for listeners and broadcasters: • Potential to provide universal coverage; • Tailored coverage (local, regional, national); 8 See Section 9 of ITU-D report QUESTION 11-2/2: Examination of terrestrial digital audio and television broadcasting technologies and systems, including cost/benefit analyses, interoperability of digital terrestrial systems with existing analogue networks, and methods of migration from analogue terrestrial techniques to digital techniques; (2006-2010). www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/stg/D-STG-SG02.11.2-2010-PDF-E.pdf 9 ECC Report 177 Possibilities for Future Terrestrial Delivery of Audio Broadcasting Services; April 2012. www.erodocdb.dk/docs/doc98/official/pdf/ECCRep177.pdf 5 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments • Free to air services; • Fixed, portable (indoor) and mobile reception; • Receivers which are agile in frequency tuning and simple to use; • Reliable as a channel of information, especially in crises and catastrophes; • An important medium for traffic information, shipping, mountain rescue, etc.; • Audio quality and multi-media information is independent of the number of simultaneous listeners.” 2.3 Growth of broadband Internet access Broadband Internet access enables delivery of IP broadcasting services. These kinds of services show a fast development. In particular Internet TV via the open Internet, like catch-up TV and social networking sites (such as YouTube), show high growth figures. Most broadcasters offer free Internet TV and radio services in professional quality, via their own Internet site and also via popular social networking sites. The IMT allocation in the 700 MHz and 800 MHz frequency range and other frequency bands will facilitate the development of cost effective mobile Internet access in many parts of the world. A forecast shows an annual growth rate of mobile video of 90 per cent between 2011 and 2016, whereas the total annual 10 mobile traffic growth is predicted at 78 per cent . It is expected that by 2016 mobile video will generate over 70 per cent of the mobile data traffic (Figure 2.3). Figure 2.3: Forecast of mobile data traffic Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index This increase is facilitated by the increase of the mobile network connection speed. Cisco forecasts that the average data rate will grow at an annual rate of 56 per cent and will exceed 2.9 Mbit/s in 2016. In many developing countries a growth rate above the average is expected (Table 2.1). 10 Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2011–2016. 6 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments Table 2.1: Growth in mobile network connection speed Region Average speed (kbit/s) in Average speed (kbit/s) in Annual growth 2011 2016 2011-2016 Global 315 2 873 56% Asia Pacific 337 2 608 51% Latin America 125 1 627 67% North America 1 138 6 785 43% Western Europe 667 5 549 53% Central and Eastern Europe 205 3 476 76% Middle East and Africa 89 2 618 97% Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index The increase in data rate is due to the increasing application of 4G mobile connections, including Long-Term Evolution (LTE), an IMT implementation. Cisco expects that in 2016, 4G networks will represent 6 per cent of the connections and 36 per cent of the total traffic. The LTE data rates are sufficient to distribute IP based radio services and TV services to smaller screen sizes. LTE support three kinds of delivery modes: 1. unicast, to deliver media content to individual users; 2. multicast, to deliver media content to groups of users; 3. broadcast, to deliver media content to anybody within reach of the transmitters. The data rates of fixed broadband connections, either using ADSL or optical fibre, are sufficient to deliver high quality TV services, including HDTV, to large screens. Wide spread broadband Internet access (mobile, fixed including WLAN extensions) will have a great impact on broadcasting services: • On the one hand it is a competitive means to deliver radio and TV services compared to terrestrial, cable and satellite networks. • On the other hand it is a supportive means of delivery for offering enhanced radio and television services. Section 3 describes broadcasting service concepts including broadband Internet access. 3 Service concepts 3.1 General Broadcasting services are by their nature downlink transmissions with programmes in a time sequence determined by the broadcaster (so called linear broadcasting). Enhanced broadcasting services complement the traditional broadcasting services and offer non-linear services (in an order and at time determined by the viewer) by means of interactivity, time-shifted viewing and continued reception at any location. Enhanced broadcasting services could be offered by terrestrial broadcasting network, cable, IPTV and satellite networks in combination with broadband networks; so called hybrid broadcast-broadband (HBB) services. In addition, some delivery means can offer enhanced broadcasting to a certain extent. For 7 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments instance DTTB can offer mobile and portable reception, MTV handheld reception and cable TV and IPTV may offer video-on-demand services. Section 3.2 and 3.3 describe concepts of enhanced television broadcasting and audio broadcasting respectively. Section 3.4 summarizes the role of broadcast and broadband delivery on the services offered to viewer and listener. 3.2 Enhanced television broadcasting Enhanced broadcasting services are developed around three concepts: 1. TV anytime, aiming at watching a specific programme at the time by choice of the viewer. Time shifted viewing is in particular of interest for shows, documentaries, movies etc., but a relative short time shift for sports and news programmes is also popular. 2. TV anywhere, aiming at watching the broadcast service not only in the living room, but also in other rooms, on the move, etc. Mobile devices like smart phones and tablet computers are used for this application. 3. Interactivity, aiming at contributing or reacting by the viewer to a specific programme, demanding for additional information regarding the programme or receiving programmes or information of particular interest. These three concepts are described below. TV anytime Broadcast services are programmed in a linear way, but consumers may wish to watch the programmes at the time of their convenience, which could be time shifted from the broadcast transmission. There are basically three ways to realize time shifted viewing: 1. Personnel video recorder (PVR). Programmes can be recorded on a hard disk and watched later. The provision of an electronic programme guide (EPG) could facilitate the recording functions considerably. 2. Catch-up TV services via the open Internet. Catch-up TV services are watched at computers, smart phones and tablet computers, but also on television screens if the receiving set is equipped with facilities for Internet connection. So called connected TVs or hybrid broadcast- broadband (HBB) devices combine broadcast and broadband delivery in the TV receiver and offer among others catch-up services (see also the section below on interactivity). Public fixed and mobile networks in combination with domestic WLAN networks will be necessary for uplink and downlink transmission of the catch-up services. 3. Catch-up TV services as part of a video-on demand offer. Providers of digital cable TV services and IPTV services may offer also catch-up TV services as part of a video-on-demand offer. TV anywhere Consumers may wish to watch their favourite programmes anywhere, on route, in the living room and in other rooms. In addition to the main TV set, second sets and other types of receivers such as pc, smart phone and tablet computer are used. Reception of the programme on the latter two devices is realized by means of IPTV and broadband TV via public fixed and mobile networks in combination with domestic WLAN networks. Alternatively, DTTB or dedicated mobile TV networks (MTV) could be used if the devices are equipped with the appropriate systems. Interactivity Consumers may wish to participate actively in the programme by means of voting, giving comments, receiving additional information or wish to receive video-on-demand programmes. Also programme 8 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments independent information may be offered such as news, e-government and e-learning services as well as commercial applications for ordering good or services. For this kind of interactive services, a return path (upload) is necessary and often also a second download path to distribute the requested information. Hybrid broadcast-broadband (HBB) solutions are suitable for offering interactive services. A package of 20 to 30 popular TV services of interest to most of the viewers could be transmitted by digital broadcasting network. The broadband network could provide the uplink for reactions to the programme and selection of additional services, while the downlink of the broadband network is used to deliver the individual information such as video-on demand services. The latter services are also called “long tail” services (Figure 3.1). This refers to a statistical distribution describing the retail strategy of selling a large number of products with small quantities per product (in this case individually requested TV services), in addition to selling low numbers of popular products in large quantities (in this case distribution of TV services via broadcast networks to the general public). Figure 3.1: Long tail curve Source: Wikipedia The broadband connection can also be used for selecting and downloading other information like catch- up TV services, programme related information, news and commercial services through specially designed 11 web pages that can be navigated by means of a remote control . Interactivity is realized by means of “middleware” in the TV receiver or set-top-box. Several proprietary and open standards exist. Examples of the latter category are DVB related MHEG5 (e.g. in the UK) and MHP (e.g. in Italy) and the ISDB-T related Ginga (e.g. in Brazil and Angola) and BML (e.g. in Japan). New standards related to DVB are HbbTV currently in use in France and Germany and other European countries and YouView in the UK. Modern broadcast receivers are often offered with Internet connectivity; two kinds of TV sets with Internet connection exist: 1. TV sets using the “middleware” as indicated above; 2. TV sets with manufacturer-specific brand names offering content based “apps”. With HBB applications and other interactive systems, interactive services are searched and received via applications displayed on the main TV screen and operated with the remote control device of the TV set or set-top-box. This is sometimes referred to as “over the top TV” (OTT). Another approach to interactivity is the use of “second screen”, also called “companion screen”. Search and display of the interactive service is performed a by separate device connected to the Internet, such as a smart phone or a tablet computer. This kind of interactivity is potentially attractive if there are many smart phones and tablet computers in the market. Special software for operation of the interactive 11 Examples of such kind of HBB services can been seen at www.hbbtv.org. 9 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments services has to be provided by the broadcaster for downloading to and installation on the second screen device. The second screen approach has a number of advantages, such as: • a normal digital TV receiver or set-top-box without “middleware” can be used; • the viewing experience of the main (first) screen is not disturbed, as no windows with additional information appear on the screen; • the second screen device (pc, smart phone or tablet computer) are optimized for data entry and have a keyboard. Summary of enhanced television broadcasting concepts A summary of the enhanced television broadcasting concepts is shown on Table 3.1. Table 3.1: Summary of enhanced television broadcasting concepts Enhanced Delivery Terminal devices (must be equipped to receive the broadcasting corresponding transmission standard) TV anytime • Broadcast (DTTB) • PVR/TV set • Hybrid broadcast-broadband • TV set ); tablet computer; smart phone • Broadband • PC; tablet computer; smart phone TV anywhere • Broadcast (DTTB) • TV set; car TV set; tablet computer; smart phone • Broadcast (MTV) • Car TV set; tablet computer; smart phone • Broadband • PC; tablet computer; smart phone Interactivity • Broadcast (DTTB) • TV set (local interactivity) • Broadcast (MTV) • Tablet computer; smart phone • Hybrid broadcast-broadband • TV set ); tablet computer; smart phone • Broadband • PC; tablet computer; smart phone ) With Internet connection 3.3 Enhanced audio broadcasting The service concepts in audio broadcasting follow similar patterns as in television broadcasting. However, the “anywhere” concept is much more developed in audio broadcasting. Reception of analogue audio broadcasting in FM and AM and DTAB takes place almost everywhere: with portable receivers or high-end audio-sets in every room in the house, with car radios while driving, outside and in public places with small pocket radios and mobile phones and in waiting rooms and shopping centres by means of central audio installations. Streaming via the Internet is becoming a very important means of delivery. Thousands of radio stations from all over the world can be received in good quality with radio receivers equipped with Internet access, or with mobile phones and computers. Interactivity and hybrid broadcast-broadband (HBB) is also developing in audio broadcasting. HBB radio receivers with a screen for displaying additional personalised information appear on the market. RadioDNS (Domain Name Service) is an initiative to help broadcasters to offer HBB services with the aim that the listener is unaware that the linear broadcasting services and the personalised broadband services 10 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments are combined. This is achieved by making use of existing identifiers of the radio station used with, e.g. 12 FM-RDS, DAB, DRM or IBOC and to locate the IP delivered services of that station . A summary of the enhanced audio broadcasting concepts is shown on Table 3.2. Table 3.2: Summary of enhanced audio broadcasting concepts Enhanced Delivery Terminal devices (must be equipped to receive the broadcasting corresponding transmission standard) Radio anytime • Broadcast (DTAB) • PVR/ audio set • Hybrid broadcast-broadband • Radio set); tablet computer; smart phone • Broadband (broadcaster’s • PC; tablet computer; smart phone website) Radio • Broadcast (AM/FM) • Any radio set: Hifi audio set, portable radio, car radio, anywhere tablet computer, smart phone, simple mobile phone • Any radio set • Car radio; tablet computer; smart phone • Broadcast (DTAB) • PC; tablet computer; smart phone • Broadcast (MTV) • Broadband Interactivity • Broadcast (FM) • FM radio with RDS (local interactivity) • Broadcast (DTAB) • Radio set (local interactivity) • Broadcast (MTV) • Car radio; tablet computer; smart phone • Hybrid broadcast-broadband • Radio set); tablet computer; smart phone • Broadband • PC; tablet computer; smart phone ) With Internet connection 3.4 Broadcast and broadband delivery It is expected that linear broadcasting services aimed at reception by the general public in a country or region will be enhanced with individualized services delivered by fixed (including domestic distribution by WLAN) and mobile networks. When broadband connections are available to a large part of the population, broadband will not only be the main means of delivery for individual non-linear broadcasting, but could also deliver linear broadcasting to the general public. The relative importance of broadcasting and broadband delivery will be different from country to country depending on the market conditions and the regulatory situation. It may also be different for audio broadcasting and television services. Figure 3.2 shows in a matrix the position of broadcast (BC) and broadband (BB) delivery with regard to the linear and non-linear broadcasting services. 12 More information can be found in EBU Tech Review 2010 RadioDNS — the hybridisation of Radio; 17 March 2010. 11 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments Figure 3.2: Position of broadcast (BC) and broadband (BB) delivery Service provision Delivery Target Service concept Broadcasting (BC) General public TV • TV tx networks • In coverage area Linear services Radio • Radio tx networks • Not addressed • Aggregated TV Data • Cable networks • Some services with services • Satellite networks CA • Aggregated radio services HBB IP TV Non-linear services TV • Integrated Broad- Closed Internet • Data services for Radio BC/BB linear casters • Fixed broadband local interactivity Data and non-linear • Mobile broadband Individuals services • With broadband Internet access Non-linear services • Addressed IP Broadband (BB) TV • Full remote Open Internet Radio interactivity for • Fixed BB Data video, sound and • Mobile BB data services Source: ITU The importance of broadband delivery is expected to increase and will enable integrated hybrid broadcast-broadband (HBB) services. It is not expected that broadband will replace broadcast as the main means of delivery for linear broadcasting to the general public, but it cannot be excluded on the long 13 term . It will depend on national market conditions and regulatory situation. 4 Television broadcast technology 4.1 General As indicated in Section 2, one of the main developments in terrestrial broadcasting is the continuing evolution of digital broadcast technology, resulting in a considerable increase of the capacity in the transmitted bandwidth and enabling more services, better picture quality and improved coverage. There are two main directions of these developments: 1. increased picture quality by means of HDTV, 3DTV and Ultra-HDTV (Section 4.2); 2. more efficient compression and transmission systems (Section 4.3). It is expected that by 2020 most countries have completed the switch-over to digital television. In many countries the objectives for digital switch-over include more services, extended coverage and better picture quality including HDTV. The challenge to accommodate more services of higher quality in limited amount of spectrum is described in Section 4.4. 13 In EBU Technical Report 013 The future of Terrestrial Broadcasting; Geneva November 2011, three scenarios are described for the future of terrestrial broadcasting. The scenarios are called: expansion, reduction and phase out. 12 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments 4.2 HDTV and beyond Broadcasters in many countries are distributing HDTV services; others are preparing for it, or have included HDTV production and transmission in their future plans. In the meantime, technical developments take place to improve picture quality beyond the quality that is currently achieved with HDTV. The demand for HD services is to a great extent driven by the growing number of households with flat panel displays, able to present HD. It is expected that in future all television services will be in HD. Developments on the television presentation formats are taking place in three areas: 1. Improved HDTV (1080p/50 or 60); 2. Stereoscopic 3DTV; 3. Ultra High Definition Television. The developments concentrate currently on standards for programme production and programme exchange. Broadcast delivery of these systems are expected. These developments are described below. Improved HDTV In principle HDTV production should be performed at the highest quality, in order to avoid artefacts and leave room for processing of the signal without quality degradation at delivery. Until recently the highest quality HDTV for production was a horizontal resolution of 1920 bits and a vertical resolution of 1080 lines, using progressive scanning (p) with the half of the frame frequency, 25 Hz or 30 Hz. This is termed as 1080p/25 or 1080p/30. After compression, coding and modulation the HDTV services are broadcast in 14 1080i/25 (i stands for interlaced) or 720p/50, respective 1080i/30 and 720p/60 . It should be noted that broadcasting in 720p is 10 to 20 per cent (depending on type of content) more efficient in transmission 15 capacity than in 1080i, while giving a comparable picture quality . These formats are considered sufficient for display sizes up to about 50 inch. 16 An improved scanning format is now available: 1080p/50 or 1080p/60. Professional and consumer equipment for production of HDTV with this format is already on the market. It is expected that many broadcasters will use 1080p/50-60 for production and contribution. Distribution in 1080p/50-60 lays further ahead, but is in principle possible in existing DTTB networks. The HDTV format 1080p/50 does not require a higher data rate than 1080i/25, while a considerably better 17 picture quality is achieved using large screens . Compared to 720p/50 a 15 to 20 per cent higher data rate would be needed. 14 More information can be found in EBU Technical Report 005 Information Paper on HDTV Formats; Geneva, February 2010. 15 See EBU Recommendation R124, Choice of HDTV Compression Algorithm and Bitrate for Acquisition, Production & Distribution; Geneva, December 2008. 16 More information can be found in EBU Technical Report 014 What follows HDTV, a status report on 1080p/50 and ‘4k’; Geneva, June 2012. 17 See Section 3.1.2 of EBU Technical Report 014 What follows HDTV, a status report on 1080p/50 and ‘4k’; Geneva; June 2012. 13 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments Modern large screens can normally display 1080p/50 or 1080p/60 images, but a new set-top-box would be needed to decode the signal. A solution with a combined 1080p/50-60 and 720p/50-60 or 1980i/50-60 18 signal is possible giving backwards compatibility, but at the cost of 20 to 30 per cent additional capacity . As HDTV 1080p/50-60 distribution would in particular be directed towards screens of more than 50 inch, it seems, for the time being, a niche market. The service may better fit in the “long tail” as a service on demand by viewers that possess the appropriate set-top-box or integrated TV set. 3DTV With 3DTV, images are displayed that are filtered for perception by the left and the right eye. Two methods exist that accomplish the stereoscopic effect: 1. Near the viewers’ eyes, by means of a binocular optical device (3D glasses/spectacles); 2. At the screen, by the light source directing the images into the viewers’ left and right eye. In this method no glasses are required. For watching 3DTV in most cases 3D glasses are needed (first method). However, there are also 3DTV sets in which the second method is applied. It is not expected that eventually 3DTV will replace the usual two- dimensional television; 3DTV will be used for specific programmes. Currently a limited number of broadcasters provide 3DTV services and it is not expected that by the end of the decade 3DTV will form a substantial part of the service bouquet of most broadcasters. It should be noted that watching 3DTV may cause eye discomfort and headache with some viewers. Recently a number of Draft New Recommendations on 3DTV has been agreed in ITU-R, dealing with: • Performance requirements and criteria that should be used worldwide for the production, international exchange and broadcasting of stereoscopic 3DTV, including references to some of the production requirements necessary to achieve a comfortable, high quality 3DTV viewing 19 experience ; • The digital image systems that should be used worldwide for the production and international 20 exchange of stereoscopic 1280 × 720 3DTV programmes for broadcasting . • Methodologies for the assessment of stereoscopic 3DTV systems including general test 21 methods, the grading scales and the viewing conditions . Systems for 3DTV have a certain degree of backward interoperability with existing HD services. In this way 3DTV programmes can be watched as a 2D service on a HDTV screen. As with HDTV in 1080p/50-60 format, distribution of 3DTV seems for the time being a niche market. The service may better fit in the “long tail” as a service on demand by viewers that possess the appropriate set-top-box or integrated TV set. 18 See Section 3.1.2 of EBU Technical Report 014 What follows HDTV, a status report on 1080p/50 and ‘4k’; Geneva; June 2012. 19 Draft New Recommendation ITU-R BT.3DTV-REQS Performance requirements for the production, international exchange and broadcasting of 3DTV Programmes. 20 Draft New Recommendation ITU-R BT.3D-VID_2 1280 × 720 digital image systems for the production and international exchange of 3DTV programs for broadcasting. 21 Draft New Recommendation ITU-R BT.3DTV SUBMETH Subjective methods for the assessment of stereoscopic 3DTV systems. 14 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments UHDTV Ultra High Definition television (UHDTV) aims at providing viewers at home and in public places with an enhanced visual experience by means of a wide viewing angle of up to 100 degrees, while with HDTV the viewing angle is no more than 30 degrees. UHDTV also has an improved colour and audio representation. Two image formats have been specified with UHDTV: • UHDTV1 with 3840 x 2160 pixels (also referred to as the 4k system); • UHDTV2 with 7689 x 4320 pixels (also referred to as the 8k system). The very high resolution (about 8 megapixels at UHDTV1 and about 32 megapixels at UHDTV2) gives viewers a spectacular viewing experience. For comparison: current HDTV broadcasts have a resolution of 1 to 2 megapixels. UHDTV is considered as the next big quality step, comparable with the experience in changing from SDTV to HDTV. 22 Recently a draft new Recommendation has been proposed in ITU-R . This Recommendation specifies UHDTV image system parameters for production and international programme exchange. The first UHDTV implementations are expected in China and Japan in the coming years. UHDTV trials were carried out by the BBC during the London Olympics in the summer of 2012, and transmitted to cinema-size screens in London, Glasgow, Bradford and venues in Tokyo, Fukushima and Washington DC. UHDTV broadcasting via terrestrial digital television networks is not expected in the near future. The capacity requirements (8 Megapixels with UHDTV1) are such that with current technology (DVB-T2 with MPEG4 compression) one UHDTV service can be transmitted in the Transport Stream. More efficient compression and transmission systems would be needed before large scale UHDTV broadcasting will be a reality. Summary of HD developments A summary of HD developments is shown on Table 4.1 Table 4.1: Summary of HD developments System Production Picture Viewing distance Delivery options format resolution (relative to picture 23 height) (megapixel) HDTV 1920 x 1080 ≈ 2 3 times Broadcast incl. DTTB, Broadband UHDTV1 3840 x 160 ≈ 8 1.5 times Not yet, improved compression system required UHDTV2 7689 x 4320 ≈ 32 0.75 times Not yet, improved compression system required 4.3 More efficient television broadcasting systems Since the developments in digital television started in the early 1990s, a number of DTTB transmission standards have been adopted. DTTB transmission systems can be divided in first generation systems and 22 Draft New Recommendation ITU-R BT. IMAGE-UHDTV Parameter values for UHDTV systems for production and international programme exchange. 23 Recommendation ITU-R BT. 1769 - Parameter values for an expanded hierarchy of LSDI image formats for production and international programme exchange. www.itu.int/dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/bt/R-REC-BT.1769-0-200607-IPDF-E.pdf (Appendix 2) 15 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments the more efficient second generation systems. Section 4.3.2 describes the developments of these systems. The DTTB systems allow reception with fixed, portable or mobile receiving installations. Some of the systems have special features to optimize reception to handheld receiving devices, such as smart phones. There are also dedicated systems for reception with handheld devices. Broadcasting to handheld devices is sometimes referred to as Mobile Television (MTV). Section 4.3.3 describes the MTV developments. All standards make use of the compression system MPEG2 or its successor, the more efficient MPEG4. A new even more efficient compression system is under development, this system is called High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC). Section 4.3.1 describes the developments of video compression systems. 4.3.1 Compression systems The first DTTB implementations used MPEG2, also referred to as ITU-T H.222, as video compression system. MPEG2 has been succeeded by MPEG4, also referred to as MPEG-AVC, MPEG-4 part 10 and ITU-T H.264. MPEG4 has been implemented in many countries and the technology is considered to be mature. MPEG4 is about two times more efficient than MPEG2. Standardization of a third generation video compression system is nearing completion. This new video compression standard, called High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), is being jointly developed by ISO/IEC MPEG and ITU-T VCEG. These two standardization bodies also developed MPEG2/H.222 and MPEG4/H.264. The new compression standard aims at a factor two improvement in compression efficiency compared to the MPEG4/H.264. Completion of the new HEVC standard is planned by January 2013. It is then intended to be published by ISO/IEC as MPEG-H and by ITU-T as H.265. The first services using HEVC/MPEG-H/H.265 may be launched in 2015. HEVC may give the opportunity to broadcast UHDTV. Figure 4.1 summarise the developments of compression system by showing the year of specification of the systems and the relative coding efficiency relative MPEG2. Figure 4.1: Compression system developments Year of specification of compression systems 4 MPEGH/ 2 H.265 MPEG4/ 1 H.264 MPEG2/ H.222 1996 2003 2013 Source: ITU 16 Relative coding efficiencyTrends in broadcasting - An overview of developments It should be noted that new generation compression systems are not backwards compatible with the former generations of systems. Therefore existing set-top-boxes have to be replaced when a new generation system is introduced. Existing integrated digital TV receivers will need a set-top-box with the new system. Receivers with the improved system can normally receive the old system as well. It is likely that a transition period will be needed to avoid service interruptions. 4.3.2 First and second generation DTTB systems and beyond Television broadcasting systems are divided in first and second generation systems. The first generation 24 systems are described in Recommendation ITU-R BT.1306 . These systems can be divided in single carrier and multicarrier systems. All systems can be used in 6, 7 and 8 MHz channel arrangements. The main distinctive features are: 25 • Single carrier standards provide a higher bit rate at given C/N in a Gaussian channel . • Multi-carrier standards provide maximum ruggedness against multipath interference. This is important in case of reception with simple antennas; a means of reception commonly used in many countries. Furthermore multi-carrier standards allow the use of single frequency networks. 26 Recommendation ITU-R BT.1877 describes second generation television broadcasting systems. These systems offer a higher data rate capacity per Hertz and better power efficiency in comparison to first generation systems. Currently one second generation system is recommended: DVB-T2. Other second generation systems are being developed, for instance ATSC 2.0, which is expected to be completed by the end of 2012. Table 4.2 shows an overview of first and second generation standards currently recommended by ITU. Table 4.2: First and second generation DTTB systems Standard ITU-R Recommendation Technology Payload in an 8 MHz channel ATSC Rec. BT.1306-6 System A Single carrier 6.0-27.5 Mbit/s DVB-T Rec. BT.1306-6 System B Multi-carrier (OFDM) 5.0-31.7 Mbit/s ISDB-T Rec. BT.1306-6 System C Multi-carrier (segmented OFDM) 4.9-31.0 Mbit/s DTMB Rec. BT.1306-6 System D Single carrier or multi-carrier (OFDM) 4.8-32.5 Mbit/s DVB-T2 Rec. BT.1877 Multi-carrier (OFDM) 5.4-50.4 Mbit/s Second generation standard. Information on protection ratios regarding all standards, including protection ratios of one standard 27 interfered by another is shown in Recommendation ITU-R BT.1368 . Work is in progress on a new ITU 24 Recommendation ITU-R BT.1306-6 Error-correction, data framing, modulation and emission methods for digital terrestrial television broadcasting. 25 A Gaussian channel is a propagation mode when only the wanted signal with no delayed signals is present at the receiver input, but taking into account the Gaussian noise only. 26 Recommendation ITU-R BT.1877 Error-correction, data framing, modulation and emission methods for second generation of digital terrestrial television broadcasting systems. 27 Recommendation ITU-R BT.1368-9 Planning criteria, including protection ratios, for digital terrestrial television services in the VHF/UHF bands. 17 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments Recommendation regarding planning criteria for second generation DTTB standards. However, a detailed description of the technical features of the standard and information on frequency and network planning 28 is given in a Draft New Report . All first and second generation systems are flexible in their application. By choosing the appropriate system variant, the payload (net data rate of the multiplex) and the C/N value (determining the power of the transmitter for a given coverage area) can be varied. As indicated in Section 4.4, a trade-off needs to be made between transmitter power, multiplex capacity and coverage area. This applies to both first and second generation systems; however the ranges with second generation systems are much larger. With a given transmitter power and a given coverage area, the payload of a DTTB transmission using a second generation system is larger than with a first generation system. For instance in the application in the UK the payload increased from 24 Mbit/s with DVB-T to 40 Mbit/s with DVB-T2, while transmitter power and coverage area remained the same. nd Alternatively, with a given transmitter power and a given payload, the coverage area of a 2 generation DTTB transmission is larger. Instead of a larger coverage area, the higher efficiency can also be used in reducing the power of the transmitter, while keeping the coverage area the same. Implementation of the second generation systems are in particular of interest in situations where a need exists to: • broadcast a high data rate, e.g. for HDTV services or a great number of SDTV services and the available spectrum is limited; • reduce transmitter powers as much as possible. 29 In November 2011 the Future of Broadcast Television (FOBTV) initiative was started with the aim to collaborate towards the development of a single global DTTB standard. The goals of FOBTV are: a. develop future ecosystem models for terrestrial broadcasting taking into account business, regulatory and technical environments; b. develop requirements for next generation terrestrial broadcast systems; c. foster collaboration of DTV development laboratories; d. recommend major technologies to be used as the basis for new standards; e. request standardization of selected technologies (layers) by appropriate standards development organizations (ATSC, DVB, ARIB, TTA, etc.). FOBTV expects that within five years a new standard could emerge. 4.3.3 MTV systems MTV networks provide multimedia broadcasting services for handheld receiving devices, using a dedicated MTV transmission standard, or a decided part of the DTTB transmission. Examples of dedicated MTV standards are DVB-H, DVB-NGH (an improved version of DVB-H), DVB-SH, T-DMB, MediaFlo and ATSC-M/H. DTTB standards offering the possibilities for a mobile service within the DTTB multiplex are: 28 Draft New Report ITU-R BT.DVBT2PLAN Frequency and network planning aspects of DVB-T2 (See input document 6/43 of ITU Study Group 6). This report provides guidance on frequency and network planning of DVB-T2. It has been developed by EBU Members involved in planning of DVB-T2 networks. It is intended to help broadcast network operators in their planning and Administrations in defining the most suitable set of parameters from the large possibilities offered by the DVB-T2 system. 29 Future of Broadcast Terrestrial Television Initiative Memorandum of Understanding; see also www.fobtv.org 18 Trends in broadcasting - An overview of developments • ISDB-T, with the option to use 1 RF segment (of the 13 segments in the multiplex) with a rugged modulation and code rate for MTV services; • DVB-T2, with the option to use one the physical layer pipes with a rugged modulation and code rate for MTV services. DVB-T2-Lite contains a subset of the DVB-T2 specifications and some extensions and is meant for implementation in handheld receiving devices. 30 Recommendation ITU-R BT.1833 describes user requirements of MTV systems and system characteristics related to the user requirements of eight of MTV systems. The draft revision to this 31 recommendation describes a ninth system. In Recommendation ITU-R BT.2016 a number of systems are recommended for introduction of multimedia broadcasting for mobile reception using handheld receivers. An overview of the systems is given in Table 4.3. Table 4.3: MTV systems Standard ITU-R Recommendation Characteristic T-DMB Rec. BT 1833 System A Rec. Terrestrial multimedia services based on the T-DAB system BT.2016 System A AT-DMB Rec. BT.2016 System A Enhanced version of T-DMB, two times more efficient, backward compatible ATSC-M/H Rec. BT 1833 System B Terrestrial multimedia services; enhancement of the ATCS system ISDB-T 1seg Rec. BT.1833 System C Terrestrial multimedia services; part of ISDB-T multiplex - Rec. BT.1833 System E Terrestrial component to satellite multimedia services in 2.6 GHz band. Satellite system known as system E in Recommendation 32 ITU-R BO.1130 ISDB-T Rec. BT.1833 System F Terrestrial multimedia services Rec. BT.2016 System F DVB-H Rec. BT.1833 System H Terrestrial multimedia services; enhancement of the DVB-T system DVB-SH Rec. BT.1833 System I Terrestrial component to satellite multimedia services 2.2 GHz. Rec. BT.2016 System I MediaFLo Rec. BT.1833 System M Terrestrial multimedia services DVB-T2-lite Draft revision Rec. BT.1833-1 Terrestrial multimedia services based on the DVB-T2 system System T2 Another system, currently not described in ITU recommendations, is called RAVIS (Real-time AudioVisual 33 Information System) . RAVIS is a digital terrestrial broadcasting system for use in the VHF broadcasting bands I and II with a channel bandwidth of 100, 200 or 250 kHz. The system is intended to deliver audio, video and multimedia services for fixed, mobile and portable reception. The system has been tested in Russia. 30 Recommendation ITU-R BT.1833-1 Broadcasting of multimedia and data applications for mobile reception by handheld receivers. 31 Recommendation ITU-R BT.2016 Error-correction, data framing, modulation and emission methods for terrestrial multimedia broadcasting for mobile reception using handheld receivers in VHF/UHF bands. 32 Recommendation ITU-R BO.1130-4 Systems for digital satellite broadcasting to vehicular, portable and fixed receivers in the bands allocated to BSS (sound) in the frequency range 1 400-2 700 MHz. 33 Section 2.8 and Annex 5 of Report ITU-R 2049-5 Broadcasting of multimedia and data applications for mobile reception. 19

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