Aids Medical term

aids abbreviation meaning and definition of hiv and aids and aids medical abbreviation
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Published Date:11-07-2017
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Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms August 2015 • 8th Edition AIDSinfo is a U.S. government source for information on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and research. a Terms and Definitions B C Absolute Contraindication d When a particular treatment or procedure should not be used under any circumstance because of the severe and potentially life-threatening E risks involved. F sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): AIDS Case Definition, AIDS Dementia Complex, Contraindication, Relative Contraindication G h Acanthosis nigricans A skin disorder characterized by velvety, light brown-to-black markings i that develop mainly in the folds of the body, such as in the armpits, J groin, and creases of the neck. Acanthosis nigricans can be an inherited condition or can occur as the result of an endocrine disorder, cancer, or K use of certain medications. l Acquired immunity M Immunity that develops during a person’s lifetime. There are two types of acquired immunity: active immunity and passive immunity. n sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Active Immunity, Immunity, Passive Immunity o Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids) (Fig. 1) P A disease of the immune system due to infection with HIV. HIV destroys Q the CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 cells) of the immune system, leaving the body vulnerable to life-threatening infections and cancers. Acquired r immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most advanced stage of HIV s infection. To be diagnosed with AIDS, a person with HIV must have an AIDS-defining condition or have a CD4 count less than 200 cells/mm³ T (regardless of whether the person has an AIDS-defining condition). U sEE r El At Ed t Er M(s): A c u t e H I V I n f e c t i o n , A I D S C a s e D e n fi i t i o n , C h r o n i c H I V I n f e c t i o n , HIV Progression, Human Immunodeficiency Virus V W X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 1a B C d E F G Figure 1 h Acquired resistance i synonyM(s): Secondary Resistance J When a drug-resistant strain of HIV emerges while a person is on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of HIV infection. K sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Drug Resistance, Transmitted Resistance l Active immunity M Immunity that develops after exposure to a disease-causing infectious n microorganism or other foreign substance, such as following infection or vaccination. o sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Acquired Immunity, Passive Immunity P Acute hiV infection (Fig. 1) Q synonyM(s): Primary HIV Infection r Early stage of HIV infection that extends approximately 1 to 4 weeks from initial infection until the body produces enough HIV antibodies to be s detected by an HIV antibody test. During acute HIV infection, HIV is highly T infectious because the virus is multiplying rapidly. The rapid increase in HIV viral load can be detected before HIV antibodies are present. U sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Acute Retroviral Syndrome, Chronic HIV Infection, HIV Progression, Viral Load V W X y 2 HIV/AIDS GlossaryAcute infection and Early diseases research Program a (AiEdrP) B A federally funded research program that studies how HIV infects humans and how the disease progresses to AIDS. C Acute inflammatory demyelinating Polyneuropathy d synonyM(s): Guillain-Barré Syndrome E Acute retroviral syndrome F Flu-like symptoms of acute HIV infection that may appear approximately G 1 to 4 weeks after infection. Symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes can last from 1 to 4 weeks, and then subside. h During the acute stage of HIV infection, many, but not all, people will i have symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Acute HIV Infection J Adenopathy K Large or swollen lymph glands. l sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Lymph Nodes M Adenovirus n A group of viruses that use DNA as their genetic material and commonly cause respiratory and eye infections. People with weakened immune o systems, including people with HIV, have a greater risk for serious P complications from an adenovirus infection than people with healthy immune systems. Q sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Virus r Adherence (Fig. 2) s Taking medications (or other treatment) exactly as instructed by a health T care provider. The benefits of strict adherence to an HIV regimen include sustained viral suppression, reduced risk of drug resistance, improved U overall health and quality of life, and decreased risk of HIV transmission. V sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Drug Resistance, Viral Suppression, Virologic Failure W X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 3a B C d E F G Figure 2 h Adjuvant i A substance added to a drug or vaccine to enhance its effectiveness. J Also, an additional drug or other intervention that is used to bolster an initial treatment. K l Adverse drug reaction (Adr) Any unintended, undesirable response to a drug taken at a normal dose M for normal use. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are classified by onset, n severity, and type. o Adverse Event (AE) P Any undesirable experience associated with the use of a drug or other medical product. Q sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Adverse Drug Reaction r Agammaglobulinemia s Total or near-total absence of gamma globulins in the blood. Gamma T globulins are a class of blood proteins that include most antibodies. Agammaglobulinemia may be due to certain genetic diseases or to U acquired diseases such as HIV/AIDS. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Gamma Globulin V W X y 4 HIV/AIDS GlossaryAgency for healthcare research and Quality (AhrQ) a A federally funded agency that produces evidence to make health care B safer, higher quality, more accessible, equitable, and affordable and that works with partners to ensure that the evidence is understood and used. C Agranulocytopenia d synonyM(s): Granulocytopenia E Aids Case definition (Fig. 3) F Diagnostic criteria for AIDS established by the Centers for Disease G Control and Prevention (CDC). To be diagnosed with AIDS, a person with HIV must have an AIDS-defining condition or have a CD4 count h less than 200 cells/mm³ (regardless of whether the person has an AIDS- i defining condition). sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS-Defining J Condition, CD4 Count, Human Immunodeficiency Virus K l M n o P Q r Figure 3 s Aids Clinical trials group (ACtg) T Formerly called Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG). Federally funded program that supports the largest network of HIV/AIDS researchers and U clinical trial units in the world. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) develops V and conducts research related to HIV infection and its complications. W X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 5Aids dementia Complex (AdC) a synonyM(s): AIDS Encephalopathy, HIV-Associated Dementia, HIV Encephalopathy B A progressive neurological condition associated with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. Symptoms include memory loss, slowed movements, C and behavioral changes. d Aids drug Assistance Programs (AdAPs) E Federally funded programs that provide medications and other HIV- related services to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured people F with HIV/AIDS. Services of AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) are G available in all 50 states and U.S. territories. h Aids Education and training Centers (AEtCs) i Regional centers that conduct education and training programs for health care providers who treat people living with HIV/AIDS. Training J is targeted to providers who serve minority populations, the homeless, K rural communities, prisoners, community and migrant health centers, and Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program-funded sites. AIDS Education and l Training Centers (AETCs) serve all 50 states and many U.S. territories. M Aids Encephalopathy n synonyM(s): AIDS Dementia Complex o Aids service organization (Aso) P A non-governmental organization that provides services related to the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. Q r Aids-defining Condition (Fig. 4) Any HIV-related illness included in the Centers for Disease Control and s Prevention’s (CDC) list of diagnostic criteria for AIDS. AIDS-defining T conditions include opportunistic infections and cancers that are life- threatening in a person with HIV. U sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Centers for Disease V Control and Prevention, Opportunistic Infection W X y 6 HIV/AIDS Glossarya B C d E F G Figure 4 h Aidsinfo i The federal website offering HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines and J information on HIV-related clinical trials and drugs for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and the general K public. Information is also available by phone, e-mail, and postal mail. l sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): infoSIDA M Aids-related Cancer n A type of cancer that is more likely to occur in people with HIV/AIDS than in people with healthy immune systems. AIDS-related cancers include o lung cancer, anal cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Some but not all P AIDS-related cancers are AIDS-defining conditions. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS-Defining Condition Q Alanine Aminotransferase (Alt) r synonyM(s): Alanine Transaminase, Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase, SGPT s An enzyme found primarily in the liver. Alanine aminotransferase may be measured as part of a liver function test. T sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Liver Function Test U Alanine transaminase V synonyM(s): Alanine Aminotransferase W X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 7Albumin a A protein made by the liver and found in high concentrations in blood. B This protein may be measured as part of a liver function test. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Liver Function Test C Albuminuria d synonyM(s): Proteinuria E Alkaline Phosphatase (AlP) F An enzyme found throughout the body, especially in the liver and G bone. Alkaline phosphatase may be measured as part of a liver function test. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Liver Function Test h i Alopecia Loss of hair. Alopecia may be an adverse effect of some antiretroviral J (ARV) drugs. K American trypanosomiasis l synonyM(s): Chagas Disease M Amino Acids n The chemical building blocks of proteins. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Peptide, Protein o P Anemia A blood disorder caused by reduced number or function of red blood Q cells. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and rapid r heartbeat. HIV-associated causes of anemia include progression of HIV disease, opportunistic infections, and certain antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. s sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Red Blood Cell T Antenatal U synonyM(s): Prenatal V Antepartum (Fig. 5) W The time period before childbirth. Antepartum refers to the mother. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Intrapartum, Postpartum X y 8 HIV/AIDS Glossarya B C d Figure 5 E Antibiotic F A drug used to kill or suppress the growth of bacteria. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Microorganism G h Antibody synonyM(s): Immunoglobulin i A protein produced by B lymphocytes (B cells) in response to an antigen. J Antibodies bind to and help destroy antigens. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): B Lymphocyte, Humoral Immunity K l Antibody differentiation test A type of antibody test that can distinguish HIV-1 antibodies from M HIV-2 antibodies. When an initial HIV antibody test result is positive, an n antibody differentiation test is done to determine whether a person is infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2. The test is done using a sample of blood. o sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Antibody, HIV-1, HIV-2 P Anticoagulant Q synonyM(s): Blood Thinner A drug used to prevent the blood from clotting. r s Antifungal A drug used to kill or suppress the growth of fungi. T sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Fungus U Antigen V Any substance that is foreign to the body and triggers an immune W response. Antigens include bacteria, viruses, and allergens, such as pollen. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Immune Response X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 9Antigen/Antibody Combination test a A type of HIV test that can detect HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 B p24 antigen (a protein that forms the HIV core). Antigen/antibody combination tests can detect HIV earlier than tests that only detect HIV C antibodies. The test is done using a sample of blood. d sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Antibody, Antigen, HIV-1, HIV-2 E Antigen-Antibody Complex synonyM(s): Immune Complex F G Antigen-Presenting Cell (APC) A type of immune cell that enables a T lymphocyte (T cell) to recognize h an antigen and mount an immune response against the antigen. i Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) include macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes (B cells). J sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Antigen, Immune Response, T Lymphocyte K Antineoplastic l A drug used to inhibit the growth or spread of precancerous cells, cancer M cells, or tumors. n Antiprotozoal A drug used to kill or suppress the growth of protozoans. o sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Protozoan P Antiretroviral (ArV) Q A drug used to prevent a retrovirus, such as HIV, from replicating. The r term primarily refers to antiretroviral (ARV) HIV drugs. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Drug Class, Retrovirus s T Antiretroviral Pregnancy registry A project established to monitor prenatal exposures to antiretroviral U (ARV) drugs and to detect any potential increase in the risk of related V birth defects. Pregnant women exposed to ARV drugs voluntarily enroll in the Registry through their health care providers. Information provided W to the Registry includes no identifying patient information. X y 10 HIV/AIDS GlossaryAntiretroviral therapy (Art) a synonyM(s): Combination Therapy, Combined Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy B The daily use of a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) C to treat HIV infection. A person’s initial HIV regimen generally includes three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs from at least two different HIV drug d classes. E sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Drug Class F Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy G Nerve damage that is due to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Neuropathy h i Antisense Antiviral A drug made of short segments of DNA or RNA that can bind to and alter J or suppress the function of viral DNA or RNA. Antisense antivirals prevent K viruses from replicating. l Antiviral A drug used to prevent the growth or replication of viruses. M sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Virus n Aphthous ulcer o synonyM(s): Canker Sore P An open sore that develops on parts of the mouth (inner surface of the cheeks and lips, tongue, soft palate, or base of the gums). Although Q aphthous ulcers are non-contagious and non-life-threatening, they can r be very painful. Aphthous ulcers are more common and more likely to reoccur in people with HIV than in people without HIV. s T U V W X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 11Apoptosis a synonyM(s): Programmed Cell Death B The deliberate, programmed death of a cell. Apoptosis is a normal biological process that helps the body stay healthy by eliminating old C or damaged cells. One of the ways that HIV infection gradually destroys d the immune system is by causing apoptosis of CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 cells). E sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): CD4 T Lymphocyte F Approved drug (Fig. 6) G A drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for sale in the United States. The extensive FDA drug approval process includes h many steps, including preclinical laboratory and animal studies, safety i and efficacy clinical trials in humans, filing of a New Drug Application by the drug manufacturer, FDA review of the application, and FDA approval J or rejection of the application. K sEE r El At Ed tE rM (s): Clinical Trial, Food and Drug Administration, New Drug Application l M n o P Q r s Figure 6 T Area under the Curve (AuC) U A measure of how much drug reaches a person’s bloodstream in a given period of time after a dose is given. The information is useful for V determining dosing and for identifying potential drug interactions. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Drug Interaction W X y 12 HIV/AIDS Glossaryrm a a A g r ou p o r s u bg r o u p o f p a rt i c i p a nt s i n a c l i n ic a l t r i al t h at r e c ei v e s s p ec i c fi B interventions, or no intervention, according to the study protocol. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Clinical Trial, Intervention C Arrhythmia d Any irregularity in rhythm or rate of the heartbeat. E Arthralgia F Joint pain with additional symptoms such as redness, tenderness to G touch, loss of motion, or swelling. Arthralgia is a common symptom of HIV infection and may be caused by drugs used to treat HIV and h opportunistic infections. i Artificial insemination J synonyM(s): Intrauterine Insemination K Aspartate Aminotransferase (Ast) l synonyM(s): Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase An enzyme found especially in heart, muscle, and liver cells. Aspartate M aminotransferase may be measured as part of a liver function test. n sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Liver Function Test o Aspergillosis P An infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus. Invasive aspergillosis is a serious lung infection that can spread to other parts of the body. It Q occurs almost exclusively in people with low blood levels of neutrophils, r a type of white blood cell, and weakened immune systems. Invasive aspergillosis in a person with HIV is rare. s sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Opportunistic Infection T Assembly (Fig. 7) U The sixth of seven steps in the HIV life cycle. During assembly, new HIV V RNA and HIV proteins made by the host CD4 cell move to the surface of the cell and assemble into immature (noninfectious) HIV. W sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Life Cycle X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 13Asthenia a Weakness; lack or loss of energy B or strength. C Asymptomatic hiV infection d synonyM(s): Chronic HIV Infection E Ataxia F Impaired coordination of G voluntary muscle movements. Ataxia may be an adverse effect h of drugs used to treat either HIV i or opportunistic infections or may be caused by neurological J conditions associated with HIV. K Atherosclerosis l The gradual build-up of plaque Figure 7 M inside of artery walls. (Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found n in blood.) Over time, the plaque hardens and narrows the arteries, decreasing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to organs and other parts of o the body. P Attachment Q synonyM(s): Binding r Attenuated s synonyM(s): Live Attenuated T Autoimmune disorder U A condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. Autoimmune disorders may be caused V by drugs used to treat opportunistic infections. W sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Immune System X y 14 HIV/AIDS GlossaryAvascular necrosis (AVn) a Death of bone tissue (osteonecrosis) due to a lack of blood supply. B Avascular necrosis (AVN) most commonly affects the hip. Symptoms include pain in the affected area of the body, limited range of motion, C joint stiffness, muscle spasms, and limping. AVN is associated with several medical conditions, including cancer and HIV infection. d sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Osteonecrosis E F G h i J K l M n o P Q r s T U V W X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 15B Cell a synonyM(s): B Lymphocyte B B lymphocyte C synonyM(s): B Cell A type of lymphocyte. B lymphocytes (B cells) produce antibodies to help d the body fight infection. E sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Antibody, Lymphocyte F b.i.d. G synonyM(s): BID h Backbone (Fig. 8) i The two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) J upon which an initial HIV regimen is built. To complete K the HIV regimen, the two NRTIs l are combined with a third antiretroviral HIV drug from M either the non-nucleoside reverse n transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), protease inhibitor (PI), or integrase o strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) P drug class. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Integrase Q Strand Transfer Inhibitor (INSTI), Non- nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase r Inhibitor (NNRTI), Nucleoside Reverse s Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI), Protease Inhibitor (PI), Treatment Regimen T Figure 8 Bactericide U A drug used to kill bacteria. V sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Bacterium W X y 16 HIV/AIDS GlossaryBacteriostat a A drug used to prevent the growth of bacteria. Bacteriostats do not kill B bacteria. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Bactericide, Bacterium C Bacterium d A single-celled microorganism. Bacteria occur naturally almost E everywhere on earth, including in humans. Some bacteria can cause disease in humans. People with weakened immune systems, including F people with HIV, are at a higher risk for bacterial infections than people G with healthy immune systems. h Bartonellosis i A group of infections caused by the bacteria Bartonella. Examples of the various infections include cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary J angiomatosis (BA), and bacillary peliosis hepatis. BA and bacillary peliosis K hepatis occur only in people with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV. l sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Opportunistic Infection M Baseline n An initial measurement used as the basis for future comparison. For o people infected with HIV, baseline testing includes CD4 count, viral load (HIV RNA), and resistance testing. Baseline test results are used to P guide HIV treatment choices and monitor effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Q r Basic Chemistry Profile synonyM(s): Comprehensive Metabolic Panel s T Basophil A t y p e o f w h i t e b l o o d c e l l t h a t h e l p s t h e b o d y g fi h t i n f e c t i o n b y t r i g g e r i n g U an inflammatory response to an antigen. V sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Antigen, White Blood Cell W X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 17B-Cell lymphoma a A type of lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system) that starts in the B B lymphocytes (B cells). People with weakened immune systems, including people with HIV, are at a higher risk for B-cell lymphomas than people C with healthy immune systems. In people infected with HIV, certain B-cell dlymphomas are considered AIDS-defining conditions. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): AIDS-Defining Condition, B Lymphocyte, Lymphoma E Best Practice F synonyM(s): Standard of Care G Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) h A protein found on the surface of many cells, including white blood cells. i Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) levels increase during infection with some viruses, including HIV. J K Bid synonyM(s): bid, b.i.d. l An abbreviation meaning “two times a day.” The abbreviation is commonly M used in drug dosing instructions. n bid synonyM(s): BID o P Bilirubin A reddish-yellow substance produced during the normal breakdown of Q red blood cells. Bilirubin is normally processed through the liver and r eventually excreted from the body. Excess bilirubin in the blood may indicate liver damage or disease. s sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Jaundice, Liver, Liver Function Test T Binding (Fig. 9) U synonyM(s): Attachment V The first of seven steps in the HIV life cycle. When HIV attacks a CD4 cell, the virus binds (attaches itself) to molecules on the surface of the CD4 W cell: first a CD4 receptor and then either a CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): CCR5 Antagonist, Life Cycle X y 18 HIV/AIDS GlossaryBioavailability a A measure of the rate and extent B to which a drug is absorbed and becomes available at the site of C drug action in the body. sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Pharmacology d E Biopsy Removal of tissue, cells, or fluid F from the body for examination G under a microscope. Biopsies are used to diagnose disease. h i Black Box Warning synonyM(s): Boxed Warning J Black label Warning K synonyM(s): Boxed Warning l Figure 9 Blip M A temporary, detectable increase in the amount of HIV in the blood n (viral load) that occurs after antiretroviral therapy (ART) has effectively suppressed the virus to an undetectable level. Isolated blips are not o considered a sign of virologic failure. P sEE rElAtEd tErM(s): Undetectable Viral Load, Viral Load, Virologic Failure Q Blood sugar synonyM(s): Glucose r s Blood thinner synonyM(s): Anticoagulant T U V W X y HIV/AIDS Glossary 19

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