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CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING SERIES “How Are Innovations in Technology Transforming Policing?”Page intentionally blankCRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING SERIES “How Are Innovations in Technology Transforming Policing?” January 2012This publication was supported by the Motorola Solutions Foundation. The points of view expressed herein are the authors’ and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the Motorola Solutions Foundation or individual Police Executive Research Forum members. Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, D.C. 20036 Copyright 2012 by Police Executive Research Forum All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 978-1-934485-17-0 Cover photo credits. Top row, left to right: Jonathan McIntosh/Flickr and Gary Brown/Flickr. Middle row: Gerry Prevost/Flickr, Chicago Police Department, and Thomas Hawk/Flickr. Bottom row: Minneapolis Police Department and Kansas City, Missouri Police Department. Cover and interior design by Dave Williams.Contents Acknowledgments ................................................................................................. i Introduction .........................................................................................................iii PERF Survey Shows Widespread Use of Many Technologies in Policing .................................................................1 Websites and Social Media ........................................................................4 Cameras ...................................................................................................13 Sidebars Ensuring that Police Can Achieve Wireless Broadband Transmission of Data .........18 William Bratton: Technology in Policing Is a Matter of Embracing Change .............22 Gunshot Detection Systems ....................................................................25 License Plate Readers ..............................................................................28 Special Issues in Use of Technology ........................................................35 Sidebar Albuquerque Police Work with Businesses to Reduce Crime ......................................38 Conclusion ...............................................................................................44 About PERF ......................................................................................................... 45 About Motorola Solutions and the Motorola Solutions Foundat46 ion ........... Appendix: PERF Executive Session Participants ........................................... 47Acknowledgments One of the biggest and most important groundwork and acquire a base of knowledge about challenges facing police chiefs—and a challen the u ge se of technology in policing. that they cannot delegate to subordinates—is th Pe ERF also thanks the Motorola Solutions Foun- need to sort through the variety of new policin datg ion for its constant support of PERF meetings technologies that have come on the scene in recen and r t eports in this Critical Issues series. It is no years. Technology can make policing more effi- exaggeration to say that Motorola’s support over the cient—always a key consideration, but especia ll alsy t 20 years through the Critical Issues series has during times of budget cuts. But technology cos hets lped produce real advances in the field of policing, time and money to acquire and deploy, and ther in a e reas ranging from crime reduction and preven- are many different technologies to choose from. At rio e n of gang- and gun-related violence to hot-button license plate readers effective in preventing or soil ss vues - such as immigration enforcement and man- ing auto thefts and other crimes? Or do surveillana ce gement of special events. We are grateful to Greg cameras give you more bang for the buck? ShouB ld rown, Chairman and CEO of Motorola Solutions; technology dollars be spent beefing up computer Mark Moon, Senior Vice President, Sales and Field systems that support Compstat and predictive an Oa p- erations; Karen Tandy, Senior Vice President of lytics? What about using social media to devePu lobp lic Affairs; Jim Welch, Senior Vice President, collaborations with businesses and communiNty orth American Sales; Rick Neal, Vice President, groups to fight crime? And what are the civil righ G ts overnment Strategy and Business Development; implications of these new policing technologies?Steve Bottor, Dir ff ector, North America Customer It is clear that these types of questions w Soil ll utions; and Matt Blakely, Director of th- e Motor become even more important in coming years, ao s la Solutions Foundation. technology continues to advance and diversify. A number of PERF staff members also deserve u Th s, the role of technology in policing was a p - ercredit for organizing the Executive Session and fect topic for the “Critical Issues in Policing” ser pries oducing this report. Chief of Staff Andrea Luna produced by PERF. managed the entire project with strong assistance This report, the 19th in the Critical Issues from Deputy Chief of Staff Shannon Branly and series, summarizes what we found when we Research Assistant Jacob Berman—defining the brought together more than 100 police chiefs t ao np d ic and subtopics, identifying experts to invite other leaders in the field for an Executive Sessio to t n he Executive Session, and handling the logis- in Washington last April (see Appendix for a li tsics t t o ensure that the meeting would be a success. of participants). As always, these experts provide Senio d r Research Associate Bruce Kubu managed frank assessments of their experiences with vario th ue T s echnology Survey that produced som -e sur technologies to date, as well as their views aboup t t risin he g findings about the extent to which many most important considerations for the future. PERF police departments are already using a wide vari- is very grateful to all who gave their time to tra et vy o el tf t o echnologies. Project Assistant Dan Kanter this meeting and share their expertise. We also a herle ped with several aspects of the meeting (in one thankful to the police agencies that provide - d inf of ohi r s final assignments before leaving PERF to mation to us in a survey we conducted to lay t ah tt e end Harvard Law School). Dan’s successor, James Acknowledgments — iMcGinty, produced the initial draft of this report, We hope this report will help police execu- using a transcript of the Executive Session. Execu- tives understand the key considerations and issues tive Assistant Tam Vieth served as PERF paparazzo involved in bringing technology to policing, as at the meeting, producing the photographs in described by many of their most experienced this report, and Communications Director Cra co ig lleagues. Fischer carefully edited and refined the report. Dave Williams provided his graphic design expertise to produce the printed document. Executive Director Police Executive Research Forum Washington, D.C. ii — AcknowledgmentsIntroduction By Chuck Wexler I don’t think I’m guilty of overstatement technology will have on the effectiveness of polic- in saying that policing in the United States h ina gs . We expect to see a new Age of Technology in undergone a fundamental transformation in j pu oslicin t g over the next 10 to 20 years, as the technol- the last 30 or 40 years. Policing today bears vog eries t y hat we currently are testing really take hold, little resemblance to the policing of the 1970s. F ano d n r ew technologies that we aren’t even aware of those of us who have been watching this happen d y a et b y ecome available. by day, the differences are simply stunning. Furthermore, police chiefs tell us that the eco- Back then, police officers thought they werne omic downturn that began in 2008 is making doing a fine job if they responded quickly to calls fp o o r licing technology more important, to the extent service and investigated crimes thoroughly. Todt ah y’ a s t it can help officers be more effective and effi- police departments have given themselves a muc cien h t. Because of tight budgets in all levels of gov- larger and more important mission: working wier th nment, many police departments are being forced their communities to solve crime problems, an td o lay off officers or let attrition bring down their in so doing, actually preventing crimes from bein stg affing levels over time. Some chiefs are reporting committed, and reducing crime rates. success in using various technologies to mitigate the What’s more, today’s police have proved th effa et cts of a shrinking workforce. At the same time, they can succeed in fulfilling this bold new missiow n. e know from another Critical Issues survey that According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports, police departments are cutting back on technology violent crime rates nationwide have declined 47 spending because of budget cuts. 1 percent since the early 1990s. In many cities, the Consider just one type of technology: license changes have been even more dramatic. New Yor pk late readers (LPRs). PERF’s survey showed that 71 City had 536 homicides in 2010, compared to more percent of responding agencies already have LPRs. than 2,200 in 1990. Washington, D.C.—once called But typically, an agency has only a few vehicles the murder capital of the world—had 132 murder equi s pped with the devices, and they are used for in 2010, compared to 479 in 1991. certain limited purposes, such as finding stolen cars Technology undoubtedly played a big role in or vehicles that have multiple parking violations helping police to bring crime rates down. Comp a -nd can be booted or towed. Stat would not have been possible without accurateB , ut our survey found that almost every police timely information about where and when crimaes gency expects to acquire or increase their use of are being committed, and computers made it pos LP - Rs in coming years, and that five years from now, sible to gather crime data on a weekly or daily bo an a sis.verage they expect to have 25 percent of their e p Th olice chiefs who participated in the PERF cars equipped with LPRs. Think of the implications Executive Session on Technology have made it cleo af t r hat for helping police to quickly locate wanted that we are just beginning to realize the impact that 1. 2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010/tables/10tbl01.xls. Introduction — iiipersons or vehicles that have been linked to serious crisis, technology is a force-multiplier. Camden crimes. police are using Compstat to identify crime hot No doubt there will be challenges in the Asg pe ots, and then directing patrol officers to drive of Technology. For example, 80 percent of our s - ur through the hot-spot areas fairly oen, in o ft rder to vey respondents told us they expect to increase t est ha e blish a police presence and reduce the o - ppor practice of placing GPS devices on crime suspect ts uni ’ ties for crime. In addition, GPS devices on the vehicles. But the U.S. Supreme Court is currentsl qy uad cars automatically provide data on how oen ft considering a case that will decide whether GPS each police car travels through a hot spot area. If tracking of cars violates the Fourth Amendma h ent ot spot is not getting enough attention in the ban on unreasonable searches and seizures. So faot rm of patrol car visits, the computer can be set the moment, we don’t know whether this is onte o automatically send a notification to officers or technology that will be restricted by the courts. supervisors. But I expect that the setbacks will be far out- e c Th hallenges of the coming decade in policing numbered by the advances, especially as police finw d ill include identifying technologies that are most ways to use multiple technologies in concert w effi et ch tive (and cost-effective) in reducing crime, and each other. For example, in Camden, N.J., where tht e raining officers to use those technologies properly. police force was cut nearly in half due to a budget iv — IntroductionPERF Survey Shows Widespread Use of Many Technologies in Policing In order to gather a baseline of infor- their use of predictive policing over the next five mation about use of various technologies in police years. agencies, PERF conducted a survey of law enforce- More specifically, of the 69 agencies that said ment agencies in March 2011. More than 70 agen- they use predictive policing, 24 said they use crime cies responded, providing facts about their current mapping software; 16 agencies said they use predic- technologies, best practices, and lessons learned. e Th tive policing to stop serial oen ff ders; and 15 agen- responding agencies generally were fairly large, with cies said they use sortable historical data to allocate an average of 949 sworn officers serving a popula- resources to try to prevent crimes. tion of 531,000. But departments of various sizes In-Car Video Recording: PERF asked police were represented; the range of sworn officers in the agencies about the extent to which they have video responding agencies was 10 to 13,088. recording capabilities in their vehicles. Twenty-nine Following are some of the survey findings: percent of the responding agencies said they have no cars with recording capability. At the opposite Predictive policing: Seventy percent of the end of the spectrum, 25 percent said they have responding agencies said they already use som vide e o recorders in o alf t l heir vehicles. form of predictive policing, which was defined as In the middle range, 36 percent of respondents “the advanced use of information/technology t said t o hey have video recording in half or fewer of predict and prevent crime.” Furthermore, 90 p - er their vehicles, and 10 percent said they have video cent of the departments said they plan to incrin m ease ore than half (but not all) of their vehicles. Percentage of Surveyed Agencies That Have Technologies 70% Predictive Policing 71% In-Car Video Recording 25% In-Car Video Recording in All Vehicles 46% Wireless Video Streaming 71% License Plate Readers GPS to track suspects 83% 69% GPS to track police vehicles Social Media to disseminate information 83% 70% Social Media to receive information PERF Survey Shows Widespread Use of Many Technologies in Policing — 1Wireless Video Streaming: Transmitting cars and quickly trigger alerts if a vehicle has video—for example, from the scene of a major inci- been reported stolen, has parking violations, or is dent to a command center—has become a critic in ac l luded in some other database, depending on the issue in policing because video requires substapno -lice agency’s purpose for the LPR. tially more wireless broadband capacity than many A large majority of agencies (85 percent) plan other types of data transmissions over the airwa tv o acq es. uire or increase their use of LPRs during the Police and fire departments and other first respondn -ext five years. On average, responding agencies ers nationwide have been urging Congress to alexp lo-ect that 25 percent of their vehicles will have cate a section of the radio spectrum known as t LP h Rs o e n board in five years. “D Block” to public safety agencies, in order to help Global Positioning Systems: Most police agen- ensure that transmission of video feeds and otcies r her esponding to PERF’s survey (83 percent) said information will be possible now and in the futur th ee . y use Global Positioning System technology Currently, public safety agencies rely on co - mm(GPS) t er o track the movements of criminal suspects. cial carriers that oen ft are overburdened, especia (On N lly ovember 8, 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court during major events or emergencies. conducted oral arguments in a case testing the Nearly half of the agencies responding to PERF Co ’s nstitutionality of attaching a police GPS device survey (46 percent) said they use wireless vide to a s o uspect’s vehicle. A decision is expected by June streaming in some capacity. Twenty-six percent sa2012.) id they use it for investigative purposes; 23 percent use In addition, 69 percent of law enforcement it during traffic stops; 21 percent use video to hel ap gencies said they use GPS to track police vehicles. ensure officer safety; 19 percent use it in respondinT g racking police vehicles’ location can have many to calls for service; 16 percent use it to provide o pur ffi- poses, including knowing officers’ exact loca- cer accountability. (A given agency could cite m tu io ln - if they are in an accident or are assaulted or tiple purposes for video transmissions.) otherwise endangered or incapacitated. In Camden, In addition, 11 percent citied other uses o N.J f ., GPS devices on police vehicles are linked with wireless video streaming, such as video camera cos mputer data about crime “hot spots” in order to contained in robotic cameras used in bombin- g, bat rrigger alerts that remind officers of the need to ricade, or hostage situations; monitoring of remost pe en ly d time in the hot spots. In some cities, police located critical infrastructure, such as water unio suppl ny s have expressed concern about officers’ loca- facilities; video streaming to monitor crow -ds d tur ion being monitored constantly. ing major events; and video feeds from helicopters Social Media: A large majority of police agen- during pursuits. cies (83 percent) use social media to share informa- Twenty-three percent of responding agen t- ion with the public. Facebook was the social media cies said they stream video from fixed surveillanp ce latform cited most oen, u ft sed by 74 percent of all cameras to police vehicles—for example, to g aig ven e cies, followed by Twitter (57 percent), Nixle (34 responding officers information about what to percent), YouTube (34 percent), and MySpace (24 expect as they are traveling to a crime scene. M pos ert cent). agencies said they plan to increase this capabilityA s , lightly lower number of agencies (70 p - er and on average, they expect that in five years, 81 cent) use social media to rec cr eive ime tips or other percent of their vehicles will have this capabiliinf ty.ormation from the public. License plate readers: Seventy-one percent of Fully 89 percent of agencies said they moni- responding agencies use automated license pla to te r social media to identify investigative leads—for readers (LPRs) to some extent. These devices con- example, reviewing Facebook or Twitter pages of sist of cameras mounted on vehicles and associak tn ed own or suspected gang members, who some- software that can scan tags of passing or parkt eim d es brag about crimes they have committed or 2 — PERF Survey Shows Widespread Use of Many Technologies in Policingpost otherwise incriminating information, or pro- disciplined at least one employee over such infrac- vide leads that police can follow to investigate a tions. And 58 percent of agencies said they have crime. developed a policy governing employees’ personal More than half of the responding agencies (57 postings on social media sites. Another 12 percent percent) have already had disputes or con -trosv aer id they were working on such a policy at the time sies related to employees’ postings of improper o o f r the survey. (See discussion on pp. 9–12 regarding embarrassing information or photographs on soci wh al ether such policies should be brief and simple, or media sites. About 20 percent said they had alread mo y re detailed and explicit.) PERF Survey Shows Widespread Use of Many Technologies in Policing — 3Websites and Social Media Sacramento Chief Rick Braziel: As social media applications have mush- roomed in popularity, police departments have been Our Blog and Facebook Page Are exploring ways in which they can use social media Very Useful for Getting Info to the Public to communicate with the public. Participants at the We are active on Facebook and Twitter and also PERF summit discussed the benefits and challenges have used YouTube. Our Home Page is one page, of using social media. that’s it. It pops up and everything is there including links to Facebook and Twitter. Approximately 55% Sharing Information and Developing of our followers are in the 25 to 44 age range, and it’s Relationships with the Community pretty evenly split between males and females. We’re using our Web presence to interact with In the PERF survey, 83% of responding agencies said the public. We post “dumb crook” stories, and they use social media to share information with the they’re very popular. Posting something like that public, and 70% said they use social media to receive is a great way to get people to look at your Face- information from the public. book page. Once you get them there, many of them look at the other information. We post all our press releases, we give kudos to our employees, and we post the anniversaries of officer deaths, which gets quite a bit of attention as well. above: Sacramento Chief and PERF Treasurer Rick Braziel. right: Screenshot of Sacramento’s Facebook page. 4 — Websites and Social MediaLos Angeles County Sheriff’s Captain Mike Parker We’ve also put up video clips on our Facebook page, including crime prevention videos. In 2009 and parts of 2010, we saw significant increases in our rape statistics. We analyzed the reports and found that in at least 90 percent of the cases, the suspect and victim knew each other. So we wanted to find a way to educate the public about date rape and other types of rape in which the perpetrator is that information is always available, as opposed not a stranger. We partnered with Women Escap- to merely releasing information to the local news- ing A Violent Environment (WEAVE) and started paper and people might not know about it if they a campaign to post educational messages about never read the paper or they didn’t happen to read the consequences of committing any kind of rape. the paper that day. e m Th essages are designed for different groups of We’ve developed a blog with almost 800 ques- people. One targeted 16- to 25-year-olds, while tions that citizens have asked us. For example, in the another targeted 25- to 40-year-olds. We’ve found “Recruiting” section there was a question submitted that when you use traditional media, a story can die last week by someone getting out of the military and very quickly because there’s always another story to wondering about using military credits to be hired take its place. We wanted to get our information out by a police department. We can quickly respond to and make it available all the time. Facebook makes this question and detail the standards that need to that possible. be met. We’ve found people sometimes feel more We have a police advisory committee that helps comfortable asking questions in a blog format than us with our social media initiatives. It includes busi- they do through other media, including Facebook. ness leaders and community leaders. We also have a youth advisory committee, with two representa- Los Angeles County Sheriff ’s tives from each high school in our city—public, Captain Mike Parker: private, and charter schools. We use these as focus groups. I consult with them about the messages P we e ople Expect Us to Use need to deliver to the community in response to New Communications Technology current developments in the city and in the Police As technology changes, the public expects us to Department. Initially we found that the informa- communicate with them in new ways. We now have tion we were delivering to the public, which mostly the ability to instantly send out notifications when consisted of statistical data, wasn’t of gr-eat inter emergencies or other situations arise that the pub- est to them. Our advisory committees told us that lic should be aware of, so we are expected to do so, the public wanted to know how these facts would using the most effective technology available to us. impact them. In Los Angeles County, we’ve made major upgrades To do this, we’re trying to use short messages to our website and we frequently send department to get this information across. This helps us quickly messages using systems popular with the public give people answers to relevant questions they have, including Nixle text/emails, as well as Twitter, Face- like how long the response time will be at the 911 book, and YouTube. center or why we’re not always sending officers to One aspect of this that we’ve noticed is that burglaries anymore. Once we put it up on Facebook, the general public usually doesn’t have much Websites and Social Media — 5Motorola Solutions Vice President Rick Neal the overall effect is that most of the local media are reporting law enforcement stories in a more bal- anced and factual way. Albuquerque Chief Ray Schultz: Copyright Your Logos to Protect Your Agency Against Fake Websites We’ve had a problem with rogue websites being set opportunity to interact with the police, unlesu s w p be y people claiming to be part of the Albuquerque happen to see them while we are on patrol or th Po ey lice Department. To cope with this we’ve had to do something wrong. But we can use these Nixle co , pyright all our logos, which allows us to have fake Facebook and Twitter messages as a way to engaw ge ebsites shut down almost instantly. citizens who would like to have more interaction with the department. Elaine Driscoll, Public Information Officer, es Th e new forms of communication let us Boston Police Department release news stories ourselves instead of relying Ed Davis Saw Teens at Crime Scenes Texting, solely on traditional media outlets. You might expect And Realized Police Should Harness That that this could lead to an antagonistic relationship with our local news outlets, because we aren’t solely Back in 2007, Commissioner Ed Davis noticed teens dependent on them anymore for communications. standing around the yellow tape at crime scenes and But we actually have a closer relationship with them sending text messages, and he thought that there now. The news media still like to be the first ones to must be a way to harness what they’re doing. He report police-related news stories, so we oen g ft ive went to an advertising agency, which set us up with them the story first, plus we still work closely with the software we needed to develop a “text-to-tip” them to provide accurate information. I believe line. This program was so well received that people above: Boston Public Information Officer Elaine Driscoll. right: Screenshot of Boston Police Department’s blog. 6 — Websites and Social MediaLauri Stevens, Founder, LAwS Communications were texting in tips from across the country, not just from Boston, and we also saw an increase in the vol- ume of calls to our 1-800 tip line. Today, the Boston Police Department has devel- oped a blog to help us communicate with the public, and we’ve seen an incredible response to that. Our blog is and we get about 70,000 visi- tors a month. We’ve reached that number through a variety of publicity techniques, including printing the website address on the side of all our vehicles. Having a very visible website has helped us avoid Lauri Stevens, Principal, LAwS Communication any of the confusion that can occur when people A Police Agency in the UK Allows put up fake sites. Crime Victims to Track Like other departments, we’ve benefitted from e S Th tatus of Their Investigation Online having the blog as a forum to put out news about the department before the local papers. When peo- er Th e’s a department in the UK, the Avon and Som- ple are getting their police news—both good and erset Constabulary, that has an app on their web- bad—straight from us, we can ensure that the pub- site called “TrackMyCrime.” A crime victim can tell lic receives accurate information, and avoid some of the police that they want to use this app when they the sensationalizing that can occur when local news report the crime, and anytime aer t ft hat, the victim agencies are the first to cover a story. can go online and track the progress the police are making on the investigation. Jonathan Lewin, Managing Deputy Director, Chicago Police Department Office of Emergency Management and Communications: Taking Relatively Minor Crime Reports Online Keeps Our Officers Available for Street Assignments In Chicago we recently launched a web-based case reporting program. We started with just two types of crime—lost property and thefts under 500. This program is for crimes in which the victim is safe, Jonathan Lewin, Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications Websites and Social Media — 7above: Takoma Park, MD Chief Ronald Ricucci. right: Screenshot of YouTube video depicting a hostage-taking incident in Takoma Park. there’s no crime scene to protect, and the presen stce ill active when information was being posted of a uniformed officer won’t improve our chances online. We weren’t yet at the point where we could of finding the perpetrator. Taking victims’ repordi ts scuss the situation with the press, which meant online instead of in-person will reduce the num th -e press was speculating based on the unverified ber of sworn officers we take away from their streinf et ormation that was going out through the internet assignments. Taking a report in person can taa kn e d over social media. Families of officers on the about an hour of their time on average. An adva scen n- e were concerned, because all they knew was tage of online reporting for the crime victim ts i has t officers had been involved in a shooting. that they can file the report when it’s convenient for I’ve been in this business for a while, but this them. Many in our community already regularly u wa se s the first time I’ve seen a situation in which the Internet for many services, so they expect t pehoe ple were second-guessing our actions online Police Department to accept crime reports onlin w ehi . le there was still an active threat at the scene. e Th way this story was rapidly transmitted across the country was something I’ve never seen before in Takoma Park, MD Chief Ronald Ricucci: law enforcement. Crime Scene Video Can Now Be Online Within Minutes, While the Scene Issues Regarding Officers’ Personal Postings Is Still Active on Social Media Sites We had a shooting at a bank in January that was broadcast on television. A bank robbery sus- 57% of the police agencies that responded to the pect came out of the bank with a hostage and was PERF survey said they have had issues, disputes, or fatally shot by police. Five minutes aer t ft he shoot- controversies based on employees’ personal postings ing occurred, I was informed that a video of it was on social media sites. And 58% of agencies said they already on the news stations and YouTube. At that have an existing policy regarding employees’ postings point we hadn’t yet eliminated the possibility of on social media sites. there being a bomb in the bank, so the scene was 8 — Websites and Social MediaChief Rick Braziel, One other issue that has come up is officers tak- Sacramento Police Department ing photos while on duty and then posting the pho- tographs online. Today we have a very clear policy We Worked with the Union prohibiting employees from using personal devices To Develop a Clear Policy to capture images while on duty. Our policy now Preventing Improper Postings by Officers classifies these photographs as evidence, so employ- Any action taken by an officer on Facebook or ees need prior permission from the chief to take any other form of social media that embarrasses personal pictures. or discredits the Police Department is subject to discipline. Calgary Deputy Chief Roger Chaffin: We decided to make this a simple, one-sentence Young Officers Don’t Always Realize policy to make our stance perfectly clear. Our policy says: “Employees shall not post comments or audio/ e Pr Th oblems that Social Network Sites visual media related to their position as members of Can Cause the police department on any website or any social Facebook and other social networking sites have networking site if the activity could bring discredit caused issues for us as well. I think it’s important or embarrassment to the department or the city.” for us to educate our officers about the proper use Our union has been fine with this policy. We of this technology. About 70 percent of our officers give them input on a policy before it’s actually on the front lines have been on the job for less than issued, so by the time it’s out there, they’re usually three years. Because they’ve grown up with this okay with it. The union president asked to change a kind of technology, they don’t always understand few words in the social media policy, but they don’t the impact that improper use of it can have on the want their members bringing discredit on the orga- organization. Many younger employees won’t put nization either, so they’re supportive of it as long as their names and addresses in the phone book, but we’re reasonable in imposing discipline. they’ll put just about anything on Facebook. We Before rolling out this policy, we identified offi- spend a lot of time trying to educate them about the cers with potentially objectionable things on their issues that can be caused by their actions online. Facebook pages and informed them that this pol- icy was coming out and they would be expected to comply. They all cleaned up their profile pages and our officers are now much more careful about what they post online. far left: Calgary Deputy Chief Roger Chaffin left: Philadelphia Chief Administrative Officer Nola Joyce Websites and Social Media — 9right: Austin, TX Chief Art Acevedo far right: Arlington, TX Deputy Chief Lauretta Hill Nola Joyce, Chief Administrative Officer, he was fired for DWI and his pattern of poor judge- Philadelphia Police Department: ment, which included posting the photo. In another incident, an Austin firefighter posted Everyone Is Starting to Understand a photo of himself nude on a swingers’ website, e C Th onsequences of Posting Information identifying himself as a member of a Fire Depart- Online ment. He was fired, and an arbitrator upheld the I’d like to speak about social media in a broad sense. firing because the firefighter’s actions brought dis- I suspect that elections in the near future will be credit to the department. won and lost because of things that were posted on So there is support for us holding our people the candidates’ Facebook pages when they were in accountable, despite the argument that it violates college. Private businesses have put out a warning employees’ First Amendment rights. to college graduates, telling them to watch what they put on Facebook because their pages will be Arlington, TX Deputy Chief Lauretta Hill: checked. I think that these problems won’t go away Social Media Tells Us a Lot entirely and we still need to address the issue, but we will see fewer of these incidents as people leA ar bn out Recruit Candidates about the consequences. We had an officer who was on scene at a critical incident. During this incident the officer posted pic- Austin, TX Chief Art Acevedo: tures and messages to his social media page. To deal with this situation, we cited a policy of unbecoming Public Safety Officers conduct which prevents officers from bringing the Have Been Held Responsible city into disrepute, and he was ultimately suspended For Improper Online Comments for his actions. Since then, we’ve developed a social We had an officer who was involved in a contr-over media policy. sial on-duty shooting. His first day back on the job Social media issues also are involved in recruit- aer t ft he incident, he posted a photo of himself with ing and hiring personnel. We consider a lot of an AR-15 and a caption saying he’s “back on the people during the hiring process, some of whom hunt.” Needless to say, that didn’t go over well with present themselves poorly through social media the administration or the public, and shortly aer ft outlets. It speaks to their character, and it can give us a better idea about whether a candidate has 10 — Websites and Social Media

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