Basic chess strategy

benefits of chess for students and chess basics for beginners and chess for kids online game and how to play chess easy
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Teaching Chess the Easy and Fun Way with Mini-Games Teach Clear Thinking Promote Math Skills Enhance Memory & Reasoning Supporting the Common Core State Math Standards Kathy Price Andre E. Zupans Teaching Chess the Easy and Fun Way with Mini-Games Copyright © 2011 Innovative Educators, LLC All rights reserved. Unless noted on the page footer, no part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except for the reproducible student pages. The pdf version may be printed once for single classroom use. Thank you for observing this copyright. Authors: Kathy Price, M.A., Andre Zupans Innovative Educators, LLC 41 Rd 5290 Farmington, NM 87401 email: admininnovativeducators.com ISBN-10 0983734917 ISBN-13 9780983734918 Printed in the United States of America 1 About the Authors Kathy Price has over 30 years experience as a gifted program and special education teacher and math/science curriculum specialist. She developed this system of teaching chess to entire classrooms st th by trial and error with students in 1 through 6 grade classrooms. When one adult is facing 24 eager second graders with a variety of skills and interests, it became necessary to have an effective format that allows effective teaching and learning within constrained time limits to take place. Teaching chess with Mini-Games is the system that resulted. Mrs. Price ranks her chess playing skills one notch above her students (most of the time) giving credence to the fact that you don’t need to be an accomplished player to be a great chess teacher to young children. Andre Zupans is a writer, publisher, paralegal, professional trader/investor, educator and chess player. As an educator, Andre has found that chess enhances all intellectual activities. He is a highly rated chess player and has even defeated players at the Masters level. Andre discovered that un-packing the game of chess in small Mini-Games was an effective way to teach chess. This educational guide has been designed on this principle. Happy playing for all 2 Table of Contents Introduction......................................................................................4 Basic Chess Information................................................................5 Rules to Remember.........................................................................10 How to Win........................................................................................11 Class/Club Management.................................................................14 Mini Game Lesson Plans 1-14.........................................................16 Intermediate Chess Information................................................33 Strategic Tips…………………………………………………………………….………..35 Mini Power Games 1-3.....................................................................36 Powerful Pins…………………………………………………………………………..…….46 Three Piece Problems………………………………………………………………….48 Assessment Puzzles........................................................................50 Resources..........................................................................................53 Did You Know? Game Variations Curriculum Connections & Activity Sheets Sample Letter to Parents Correlations to the Common Core State Math Standards Increase Your Knowledge Glossary..............................................................................................73 Reproducible Student Pages.........................................................75 3 Introduction The value of teaching chess to elementary age children is well researched. Occasionally we see schools that offer optional chess clubs or after school programs but rarely we see it instituted in a whole classroom. Why? It is because most teachers do not know how to play or more importantly don’t have an effective system to teach chess to 24 or more active elementary students at once. This book is for that teacher You do not need to know how to play, you will learn along with your students while at the same time providing an effective multidisciplinary lesson that tie into your educational standards and objectives. The methods and lessons describe in this book deviate from other prescribed chess teaching methods for one major reason. They can be taught by a non-player, and they work Liberties are taken that may make chess “purists” cringe. When working with a class of students you must realize virtually none of them will pursue a career in chess, therefore what is of most importance is that by teaching them a recreational game they can play for life you are instilling other skills that will positively influence their other educational endeavors. Chess provides students an approach to learn and use reasoning skills. These skills then carry over to other educational and life endeavors. The mini-games and activities in this book are designed to correlate with many of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, thus making wise choices with precious classroom time. The National Scholastic Chess Foundation states that Chess education is extremely effective with children because: • Chess involves all levels of critical thinking (knowledge, comprehension, analysis, evaluation) • Chess requires forethought and cultivates visualization skills • Chess improves problem solving skills • Chess encourages children to overcome the fear of risk-taking • Chess teaches concentration and self-discipline • Chess enables children to assume responsibility for their decisions • Chess rewards determination and perseverance • Chess raises self-esteem and promotes good sportsmanship • Chess encourages socialization skills that extend across cultures and generations • Chess is fun 4 Basic Chess Information The game of chess is over 1300 years old and is one of oldest and the most popular games in the world. Chess is a two-player strategy game between two armies with 16 pieces for each player. The objective of the game is to place the opponent's King into checkmate, which means the King is trapped. Chess is easy to learn, but can take a lifetime to master. The Pieces and their Basic Moves In most chess books and on computers you will see the pieces represented by icons. However, it is easier when drawing on a classroom chalk or white boards to use letters when discussing pieces. Therefore all the diagrams we use in the mini-game method use those letters. The game of chess is played on a board of 64 squares, each square has a designated name or coordinate. The horizontal squares, or ranks are numbered 1 to 8. The vertical squares, or files, are lettered from A to H. For example, h1 is the right hand corner square marked with an “X”. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 X a b c d e f g h 5 King (K - black, k - white) The king is the most important piece in the game of chess. This is because the objective of the game is to capture your opponent's king. The king has the ability to move one space in any direction. However, the king can not put himself in danger, which means two kings can never be side by side. If the King can be captured he is said to be “in check”. If he can not move to a square where he is not threatened, and if the checking piece can not be captured or blocked, the King is checkmated and the game is over. His value is “priceless” Queen (Q – black, q – white) The queen may not be the most important piece on the board, but she is the most powerful piece. The queen can move any number of spaces in any direction. For our mini-games her value is .90. 6 Rook (R-black, r – white) The rook has the ability to move horizontally or vertically any number of squares in any direction. Some people call this piece the "castle". The rook, also a powerful piece, is worth .50. Knight (Kn – black, kn – white) The Knight is a minor, yet vital, piece in the game of chess. The knight, unlike any other piece on the chessboard, can 'jump over' pieces. The knight moves in an 'L' shape moving either two spaces horizontally and one space vertically, or two spaces vertically and one space horizontally. We teach the students “1, 2, over”. The Knight has a value of .30 7 Bishop (B – black, b – white) The Bishop is the second minor, yet vital, piece in the game of chess. The Bishop can move diagonally any number of squares in any direction. The Bishop also has a value of .30. Pawn (P – black, p – white) The pawn can be the difference between winning and losing a game of chess. Pawns can only move forward one space however; from its starting position a pawn can advance two spaces. Pawns don't capture pieces by advancing straight into them horizontally or vertically; instead they capture pieces by advancing diagonally into the piece. The Pawn's special ability is that it can be exchanged for a queen, rook, knight, or bishop when it reaches the last square on the other side of the board. But remember, they can never move backwards The Pawn is worth .10. 8 Position of all the pieces on the board at the beginning of a “Full” game. R Kn B Q K B Kn R P P P P P P P P p p p p p p p p r kn b q k b kn r 9 Rules to Remember The white Queen goes on a light square (sometimes red), the Black Queen on a dark square ("Queen on her own color"). The square in the lower right hand corner is a red one, i.e. "red on right" or the white one: “light on right”. The opposing Kings and Queens go directly opposite of each other. White moves first, and then each player takes a turn moving. If you take your hand off a piece your move is over, UNLESS you made an illegal move. During each player’s turn, only one piece may be moved. The Knight is the only piece that can jump over other pieces. All other pieces can only move along unblocked lines. You may not move a piece to a square already occupied by one of your own pieces, but you can capture an enemy piece that stands on a square where one of your pieces can move. Simply remove the enemy piece from the board and put your own piece in its place. You may not detract or annoy your opponent in any manner whatsoever. Many beginning games end in a draw or stalemate. This happens when a King is forced to move and cannot do so without putting himself in check. See other examples below. 10 How to Win When the King is attacked the player should say, “Check”. There are then three things that could happen: 1. The King moves to safety. 2. Another piece moves in to block and protect the King. 3. Another piece captures the piece that was attacking the King. If none of these can happen the King is trapped, which is called “Checkmate”, and the game is over The King is the ONLY piece that can never be taken off the chess board during a game. Necessary Conditions for a Checkmate: • Is the King in check? o Answer must be Yes. • Wherever the King moves, is it check? o Answer must be Yes. • Can any other chess piece block the check? o Answer must be No. • Can the King capture the checking piece? o Answer must be No. Necessary Conditions for a Stalemate: • Is the King in check? o Answer must be No. • Can the King move to a square that it’s Not in Check? o Answer must be No. • Does the King’s army have another chess piece it can move? o Answer must be No. • Does it have to be the King’s side move? o Answer must be Yes. 11 What is a draw? Unlike a stalemate, a draw or tie can occur when neither side has sufficient chess material to checkmate. The players can also agree upon a draw. Also, a repetition of moves can end in a draw. In classrooms an easy to remember rule is "Ten to Tie", thus allowing players to agree to count 10 moves before declaring a stalemate. Minimum Chess Pieces to Checkmate King and Queen King and Rook King and two Bishops King, Knight and Bishop King and Pawn (if promoted to Queen or Rook) Stalemates or Draws are both ties. In tournament play, a win is one point, a draw is point and a loss is no point. Stalemates are very rare in high level play, but are frequent occurrences in beginning play. If you are not quite ready for this stage then you can also add up the value of the piece captured and the army with the most value left is said to have the advantage Capturing Each chess piece has a specific movement. When a piece moves into the movement path of an enemy piece it can be captured and removed from the chess board. However, the Knight captures only on its destination square. Protection When a chess piece is captured, other chess pieces may be able to capture it back. This is called protection. In this first example the White Queen captures the Black Rook. The Black King protects the Black Rook. This means the King can capture the Queen. 12 8 7 The White Queen captures the Black 6 K Rook. The Black King protects the Black 5 R q k Rook. This means the Black King can capture 4 the White Queen. 3 2 1 a b c d e f g h An important concept in Protection is that a King cannot capture another chess piece if it’s protected. The two examples exemplify this point. K Q k k q K The White King CAN capture the Black The Black King CANNOT capture the Queen White Queen This is an example of CHECKMATE. 13 Classroom/Club Management One reason many teachers give for not incorporating more hands-on activities in their classroom deals with management issues. Don't even think about trying to store many chess games in individual boxes. Storage and space is always an issue for most classrooms/clubs. You don't need to invest in high dollar materials. The most effective way to store large amounts of chess kits is to put each game set of pieces in a re-closeable sandwich size plastic bag and stack all the board together in a cardboard box the size for reams of copying paper. The bags can also fit in along with printed materials making storage easy. Keep a butter tub to put the missing pieces that are found and when time to play empty into the inverted top of the storage box for easy picking. During mini-games have students return the pieces they are not using back into the plastic bag. If you are working with large groups or several classes, rectangular cafeteria tables are usually good playing areas. Having some helpers put out the boards and bags of pieces allows players to quickly find a seat. Designate others as "Brave Knights" to help gather boards and bags when finished. Using an interactive white board or a document camera to project a large chessboard can help students follow instructions. The Resources section has such a board. Start some routines, rituals, and repetitions during your chess time. These anchor students' learning and are often an emotional hook or reinforcement of a positive classroom or club culture. For example: End a session by gathering students in a circle, quickly review what happened during the lesson, have them place their hands over their 14 head like the cross on the King's crown, count down from ten and slowly lower their bodies and on zero "blast off" by jumping in the air chanting "Chess is the Best" Playing music during transition times is a good strategy. Both calming songs and upbeat music can refocus attention. Appropriate songs that have "chess themes" can be downloaded from iTunes including those from the soundtrack of "Searching for Bobby Fischer". Using effective questioning techniques with students can make the difference in student learning. The questions need to be asked with genuine curiosity and the discussions these questions raise need to be held in an emotionally safe environment. The goal here is to notice and recognize. Model and encourage students to ask one another clarifying questions and avoid judgments and comparisons. Core Questions: " When you first heard the instructions for this activity what did you think? (i.e., “I don’t know how to do that.”, “That sounds fun”, “What did she/he say?”, “I have never done that before”, etc.) " How did you feel? (i.e., “confused”, “curious”, “scared”, “eager”, “happy”, and “mad”, etc.). " What did you do? (“Started doing what I was told to do.”, “looked at the teacher”, “watched and did what my friends were doing”, “sat still”, “waited”, etc.) " What part of the activity surprised you? Confused you? Made you curious? etc 15 Mini-Game Lesson Plans The order of these mini-game lessons can be modified depending upon students age and prior chess knowledge. To differentiate in a large group, more advance students can do more than one mini-game while others can spend more time mastering a single game. When introducing these games to a class where a few students already know the game, explain to them that these games are intriguing warm ups for a full game and you want them to try them along with the rest of the class and then they are free to move into a full game. Analogies to football, soccer, or other sport warms-ups are applicable. Think about using How Many Squares Do You See located in the Resources as part of a math lesson before starting to play games. A good rule of thumb for all lessons is to follow this model: Engage students with anticipation of the upcoming game and materials. Explore - Have students actively move their bodies and pieces as they learn how pieces move Explain - Use models and visuals to support directions Elaborate - Allow students opportunities to adjust games Evaluate student learning through observations and journaling. Tip – Try to keep your talking to less than 5 minutes at a time. All students need to move pieces and practice with their bodies as much as possible. Tip – Each child needs a chess journal to keep notes and drawings (see graphic organizers). Reflecting on the day's game is a great way to tie in writing skills. Tip – On each lesson spend one day teaching the lesson and then have another time when students practice the mini-game(s) before moving on. Tip – Use large tile floor squares to have children practice moving their bodies like the piece moves. You can also use rubber cones and have them move them on the floor or even outside on a blacktop with a chalk drawn chessboard. 16 Frontloading -Introduction to Chess Engage: Begin by having boards and pieces out for students to explore. As a class or in groups brainstorm and record what prior knowledge they have with chess. Some students may want to compare it to checkers, listing similarities and differences. Explore: Let students look closely at the pieces. Some may have seen different versions of chess online or at home. This is a great time to build vocabulary and gather students' prior knowledge Explain: Discuss that chess is one of the oldest strategy games in the world and played everywhere. Use the "Did you now" pieces of information in the resources section and challenge your motivated learners to find out more about the game. Focus on key vocabulary and have students write questions where the word is the answer. . For example you write check and a child might say “What do you say when you attack the King?” Depending on the age ad level of your players decide with which Mini-Game you want to begin. This will start a rewarding journey, which at the end will establish a classroom of chess players. Remember every great player was once a beginner 17 Lesson 1 - Pawn Parade Vocabulary – strategy, opponent, illegal, move, check, checkmate, capture, array Intention - Introduce students to the concept of "mini-games" to gain proficiency in using pawns. Warm up – Write one of the vocabulary words on the board and have the students create a question where the word you wrote is the answer. Set up: Inform students the purpose of this P P P P P P P P game is to move their pawn to the other side of the board. The player who gets the most pawns over “wins”. If you are doing this lesson around Christmas you can also call it an “Elf Parade” Be creative Be sure to have students change colors each time they p p p p p p p p play. The pawns move only one space forward, except to capture when they can move one space diagonally forward. Two pawns that meet "head on" are stuck and cannot move. Have students practice these moves with their bodies. It's especially easy if the flooring is tile The second exception is their first move, when they can move two spaces forward. Wrap up: Hae students talk to one another about what they will tell their family about chess when they go home. 18 Lesson 2 - Bishop's Beware Intention: This game helps beginner player’s become more aware of having a bishop on opposing colors. Set up: Introduce the movements of the bishop B B (any number of moves diagonally) and point out they have one on each color. P P P P P P P P Play Wrap up –Orally summarize what has taken place. Have students write one or two summarizing sentences in their journal. p p p p p p p p b b Lesson Notes 19

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