Active Learning and Teaching Methods

Active Learning and Teaching Methods 4
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KirstyPotts,United States,Professional
Published Date:14-07-2017
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Active Learning and Teaching Methods CONTENTS Active Learning and Teaching Methods Rationale 1 Section 1 - How to get the most out of using this resource 2 Section 2 – Toolkit 7 Art Spiral 7 Memory Game 46 Mind Maps Back-to-back 8 48 CAF (Consider All Mind Movies 50 9 Factors) Mysteries 51 Card Ranking 11 No Easy Answers Board 52 Carousel 12 Odd One Out 53 Clustering 13 Opinion Finders 54 Collage 14 OPV (Other People’s 55 Conscience Alley 16 Views) People Bingo 56 Consequence Wheel 17 Constructing Walls 18 PMI (Plus – Minus 57 – Interesting) Creative Matrix 19 Post-It Collection 58 Dartboard Evaluation 21 Priority Pyramid 59 Diamond Ranking 22 Revolving Circle 61 Dot Voting 23 Simulation 62 Drama Techniques 24 Snowballing 63 Each One Teach One 25 Spectrum Debate 64 Fact or Opinion 26 Stick Debate 65 Fishbone Strategy 27 SWOT (Strengths, 66 Fist-to-Five 28 Weaknesses, Five Questions 29 Opportunities, Threats) Freeze Frame 30 Tableau 67 Giant Steps 31 Taboo 68 Graffi ti Board 33 Talking Heads 69 Hassle Lines 34 Think, Pair and Share 70 Hot Air Balloon 35 Thumb Tool 71 Hot Seating 36 Traffi c Lights 72 Ideas Funnel 38 Two Stars and a Wish 73 Jeopardy 40 Using Photographs 74 Jigsaw 41 Walking Debates 75 Just a Minute 43 When the Wind Blows 77 KWL (Know – Want to 44 Word Games 78 Know – Learned) Zone of Relevance 79 Lifelines 45Acknowledgements The Partnership Management Board would like to thank the many people who contributed to the development and production of the contents of this pack. They include colleagues from: Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment (CCEA) Council for Catholic Maintained Schools (CCMS) The Education and Library Boards Regional Training Unit (RTU) Classroom 2000 (C2K) The Partnership Management Board would also like to thank all the schools who so generously allowed us to take photographs. Their participation celebrates pupils enjoying learning. Their involvement makes the materials real.Active Learning and Teaching Methods Active Learning and Teaching Methods The Revised Curriculum aims to empower our young people to develop their potential as individuals and to make informed and responsible decisions for living and working in the 21st century. Our society today needs young people who are fl exible, creative, and proactive – young people who can solve problems, make decisions, think critically, communicate ideas effectively and work effi ciently within teams and groups. The ‘knowing of knowledge’ is no longer enough to succeed in the increasingly complex, fl uid, and rapidly evolving world in which we live. In order to optimise life-long learning and potential success it is now widely accepted that young people need to have opportunities to develop personal capabilities and effective thinking skills as part of their well-rounded education. These skills are an integral part of the Revised Curriculum for Northern Ireland. Increased fl exibility in the curriculum in terms of content and time will offer teachers the opportunity to develop their pupils’ skills and capabilities concurrently with knowledge and understanding. It is hoped that this approach will actively engage students in their learning, making the learning a more relevant, enjoyable and motivational experience. Additionally, teachers will have opportunities to further develop their own skills as creative curriculum developers. The following collection is not intended to be a defi nitive resource, but one which provides practical advice to teachers on a varied range of methods which they may wish to integrate into their daily learning and teaching activities. It is hoped that teachers will fi nd it a helpful tool in planning and creating a stimulating, enriching, challenging and focused environment for both their pupils and themselves. 1Key Stages 1&2 Section 1 How to get the most out of using the resource It is hoped that Active Learning and Teaching Methods will be dipped into and referred to regularly rather than simply read and shelved, so as to provide you with innovative ideas and strategies to integrate into your teaching. Getting started – a checklist of things to think about Below are some key issues and questions that you may fi nd helpful to consider whilst planning future learning activities. Teacher Motivation For many teachers there is always more to do and they are always striving to fi nd ways of doing it better – the area of effective learning and teaching is certainly no exception. It is important that you take the time to ask yourself: • Where are you now in terms of your learning and teaching practice? • What is your motivation behind integrating active learning and teaching methods into your existing classroom practice? • How can you build on your existing practice? • What do you hope to achieve? Pupil Motivation By using active learning methodologies it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation and enthusiasm will be heightened. You may wish to think about the following points in order to increase pupils’ motivation: • Is the activity age-appropriate? • Are pupils completely aware of the aims and objectives? • Are there opportunities for pupils themselves to facilitate the activity? • Will everybody have an equal chance to participate in the activity? • Is there enough variety? 2Active Learning and Teaching Methods Classroom Dynamics Every pupil and teacher brings with them into the classroom a diversity of skills, experiences, needs and expectations. It is factors such as these which will play a large part in shaping the dynamics within the classroom. It is important that you refl ect on the dynamics of your class. Some questions to think about: • How well does the class know one another or is it a new class coming together? • Have you ever taught the class before? • Are there any specifi c needs/circumstances of individual pupils that you need to take into consideration? • What is the profi le of the class e.g. size, single sex, mixed ability etc? • Are there any specifi c needs to be taken into account in order to aid inclusivity? Preparedness Many teachers and pupils will be at different stages of experience, confi dence and skill development in relation to active methodologies. This needs to be factored into the planning of lessons. Some questions to think about: • Have the class engaged in this type of learning before? • Have you employed active learning strategies before in your teaching? – if yes how confi dent do you feel? • How do you see your role changing? • How comfortable do you feel/think you will feel in this type of classroom environment? Practicalities Classroom surroundings infl uence how teachers and pupils feel and how they act. The classroom environment must be supportive of active learning and teaching. Questions to think about: • Are your classroom surroundings conducive to active learning, for example, how much space is in your classroom, is there display space, what are the seating arrangements, where is your desk positioned etc? • How much preparation time is available? 3Key Stages 1&2 The Role of the Teacher The active and participatory classroom has implications for the role of the teacher. There is a shift from a teacher-centred model to a learner-centred approach to learning and teaching. There is also a shift from product-driven learning to process-driven. These changes encourage teachers to refl ect not only on the key principles of learning and teaching but also on their role in the process. From – To grid showing shift in the role of the teacher in creating an active classroom environment From: To: Teacher-centred classroom Learner-centred classroom Product-centred learning Process-centred learning Teacher as a ‘transmitter of knowledge’ Teacher as an organiser of knowledge Teachers as an ‘enabler’, facilitating Teacher as a ‘doer’ for children pupils in their learning Subject-specifi c focus Holistic learning focus These changes in the role of the teacher will inevitably result in transforming the role of pupils in the classroom. From – To grid showing shift in the role played by pupils in an active classroom environment From: To: Being passive recipients of knowledge Active and participatory learners Focus on answering questions Asking questions Taking responsibility for their own Being ‘spoon fed’ learning - refl ective learners Competing with one another Collaborating in their learning Wanting to have their own say Actively listening to opinions of others Learners of individual subjects Connecting their learning 4Active Learning and Teaching Methods The Teacher as Facilitator In an active classroom environment the role of a teacher is often that of a facilitator, supporting pupils as they learn and develop skills in, for example, assessing evidence, negotiation, making informed decisions, solving problems, working independently and working with others. Pupil participation and involvement in their learning is essential. Sometimes it is appropriate for the facilitator to take on a particular role/function in an attempt to enhance the learning within the class or to challenge their thinking in a new way. Some of these possible roles include: • Neutral facilitator: The facilitator enables the group to explore a range of different viewpoints without stating their own opinion. • Devil’s advocate: The facilitator deliberately adopts an opposite stance to confront people, irrespective of their own views. This method is slightly ‘tongue-in-cheek’. • Declared interests: The facilitator declares their own position so that the group knows their views. • Ally: The facilitator supports the views of a particular sub-group or individual (usually a minority) within a group. • Offi cial view: The facilitator informs the group of the offi cial position on certain issues e.g. offi cial organisations, the law etc. • Challenger: The facilitator, through questioning, challenges the views being expressed and encourages the pupils to justify their position. • Provocateur: The facilitator brings up an argument, viewpoint and information which they know will provoke the class, and which they do not necessarily believe, but because they are authentic beliefs of other individuals or groups, they present them convincingly. • In-role: The facilitator may “become” a particular person or caricature (for example a church leader or a politician), putting across their arguments and position to the class. The above facilitation roles have their advantages and disadvantages and it is important to weigh these up in planning your lessons. Questions to think about may include: • How will I feel about taking on these roles? • Can I think of areas in my existing practice to which some of these roles may be applied? • Do I sometimes take on some of these roles unconsciously? • Are there any specifi c needs in my class to be taken into account? • What strategies can I use to deal with diffi cult and challenging issues that may be raised? • Am I clear as to what my learning intentions and outcomes are for the lesson etc? 5Key Stages 1&2 ROLE OF FACILITATOR Neutral Ally Facilitator Devil’s Offi cial Advocate View ROLE OF FACILITATOR In-role Provocateur Declared Challenger Interests 6Active Learning and Teaching Methods SECTION 2: TOOLKIT ART SPIRAL Skills • Being Creative • Thinking, Decision-Making What is it? • This activity allows pupils to personally refl ect and communicate their thoughts, ideas and feelings in a creative way on a particular issue. Implications for classroom layout • A large space is needed for ease of movement and interaction. Alternatively, if pupils are seated at desks, they can use an individual piece of paper which can then be made into a group collage/spiral. How does it work? 1. A large spiral of paper is placed in the centre of an open space. The paper should be large enough to allow for easy movement and space for all pupils’ contributions. 2. Everyone in the group selects a free space on the spiral and draws something which represents their thoughts on a particular topic. The pupils might be encouraged to include a few words which spring to mind on the topic beside their drawings. 3. After an allocated time pupils might move onto another free area of the spiral and graphically represent their thoughts on a related issue. For example: Topic: Personal Development (Strand 1) • How might you represent your life experiences so far? • How might you represent your hopes for the future? • How might you represent your fears? 4. After completion of the activity, the facilitator should allow time for pupils to look at the whole spiral and view other people’s contributions. Pupils might be encouraged to develop or add to other people’s contributions. 5. A debrief afterwards might encourage pupils to communicate verbally their initial individual thoughts on the issue and then their emotions after viewing the drawings of the whole class. Were their thoughts and feelings modifi ed as a result? How did they feel if someone developed their own contribution? 7Key Stages 1&2 BACK-to-BACK Skills • Working with Others • Thinking, Problem-Solving What is it? • This activity encourages pupils to work together and to develop clarity in communication and observation. It also promotes active auditory skills. It can be easily transferred into different learning areas. Implications for classroom layout • Facilitators might wish to arrange the room in such a way that pupils are sitting back-to-back. Alternatively, pupils may sit in pairs, although care must be taken that they do not peek at each other’s visual How does it work? 1. Pupils sit back-to-back with chairs touching, so that pupils can hear each other when the activity begins. They must not look over their shoulders at any time. 2. One pupil (pupil A) receives a visual stimulus, the second pupil (pupil B) receives a piece of paper and pen/pencil. 3. Pupil A describes the visual to pupil B who must aim to draw it as accurately as possible, taking into account size, shape detail and annotation. 4. Pupil B may ask as many questions as necessary, although the facilitator may wish to set an overall time limit for the activity. 5. After the allocated time, pupils compare their drawings. 6. Pupils might then swap roles. 7. A debrief afterwards might concentrate on the nature of communication within the pairs and why the end product was close to the original, or not, as the case may be. 8Active Learning and Teaching Methods CAF (Consider All Factors) Skills • Managing Information • Working with Others • Thinking, Problem-Solving, Decision-Making What is it? • This methodology encourages pupils to think about all the relevant factors when making a decision or considering an idea. It is a useful tool before deciding and planning a particular course of action, and can be used in conjunction with a possible carousel activity to gather together a comprehensive list of factors which may determine a decision or idea. Implications for classroom layout • If used in conjunction with a carousel activity, pupils might need to rotate in groups to different desks in a room. Alternatively, pupils could remain seated and pass a fl ip chart sheet to the group beside them after the allocated time. How does it work? 1. The facilitator might want to discuss with pupils the importance of considering all factors in decision-making and planning. For example, if an important factor is forgotten, a route of action which may seem right at the time may ultimately turn out to be wrong. 2. In groups pupils could fi ll out the Consider All Factors template. Example CAF Scenario: The World Around Us A planning application has been made for a new hotel to be built in an open space in the local community. The hotel beds will cope with the growing number of tourists and interests in not only the local area, but also Northern Ireland as a whole. Business and tourism personnel are for the plan, but local residents and environmentalists are opposed. What factors should be involved in the fi nal decision? 3. Once the CAF sheets are completed, pupils might rotate in groups and view the factors which other groups have noted. They may wish to use the Two Stars and a Wish strategy as a means of peer assessment. 4. Pupils could then be given time to modify or add to their original factors based on what other groups have written on their sheets. 5. A debrief afterwards in order to bring together all factors as a whole group might be benefi cial. 9Key Stages 1&2 CAF Template Idea/Issue/scenario to be discussed: Factor 1 Advantages/pros Disadvantages/cons Interesting Factors Factor 2 Advantages/pros Disadvantages/cons Interesting Factors Factor 3 Advantages/pros Disadvantages/cons Interesting Factors After discussion of all factors, I think that… 10Active Learning and Teaching Methods CARD RANKING Skills • Working with Others • Thinking, Decision-Making What is it? • This activity allows pupils to prioritise ideas and information and discuss justifi cations for their choices. See Diamond Ranking for a further prioritising activity. Implications for classroom layout • Pupils can work at a board or wall space. Alternatively, groups can work around a table. How does it work? 1. Pupils in small groups receive a range of cards. 2. Pupils arrange them in order of importance/priority. They might do this in a straight line or build up tiers. 3. Pupils might then compare each other’s ranking as a starting point for class discussion of the issue. 4. A debrief after this activity might be benefi cial. 5. Further tools such as Five Questions might be used to explore ideas further. 11Key Stages 1&2 CAROUSEL Skills • Working with Others • Thinking, Decision-Making What is it? • This is a structured information or thought-gathering activity which generates a reasonably concise list of pupils’ thoughts and responses on a particular topic. Pupils work in small groups to convey ideas or to make suggestions as regards the issue at hand. They also have the opportunity to assess collaboratively the ideas of other groups and to use them as a possible basis for forming their own responses to questions. See Opinion Finders or Post-Its Collection for some more useful small group information-gathering activities. Implications for classroom layout • Pupils might need to rotate in groups to different desks in a room. Alternatively, pupils could remain seated and pass their fl ip chart sheet to the group beside them after the allocated time. How does it work? 1. Pupils are divided into small groups. 2. Each group is given a fl ip chart sheet or an A3 sized piece of paper with a question relevant to a particular topic at the top. Each piece of paper might have a different question. 3. Pupils work in their groups within a time limit to write down their responses, thoughts and ideas which stem from the initial question. 4. Each group might be given a different colour of pen to allow for easy identifi cation of responses afterwards. 5. After the allocated time pupils rotate to another sheet with a different question. 6. They read the responses of the previous group and discuss whether they agree or disagree. If they agree, they tick. If they disagree, they could justify this by writing an explanation. 7. Pupils then write down their own thoughts on the issue. If their ideas have stemmed from the previous groups’ written responses, they could connect the ideas with an arrow. 8. The carousel could be continued, if time permits, until each group has had the opportunity to see and respond to each question. 9. A debrief afterwards is benefi cial. 10. Carousel is also a useful evaluation tool. Questions might include: what have you learned today? What was the most surprising/shocking/interesting/useful thing for you today? What might you have done differently? 12Active Learning and Teaching Methods CLUSTERING Skills • Thinking, Decision-Making • Working with Others What is it? • This activity might be a useful tool for transferring factual information amongst pupils and for encouraging pupils to seek connections and links between statements and/or facts. See Each One Teach One for another activity useful for transferring information. Implications for classroom layout • A large space is needed for ease of movement and interaction. Alternatively, if there is not enough room, small groups of pupils could cluster the cards around a desk. Each group might then present and compare their clusters. How does it work? 1. A piece of card with a particular statement or fact is distributed to every pupil. Ideally there should be a different statement for every pupil. 2. Pupils read their statement to ensure that they understand its meaning. 3. Pupils move around and compare their statement with other pupils’ cards. 4. If two pupils decide that there is a link between their statements they form a cluster. 5. Another pupil might join the cluster if their statement is connected to other statements in the cluster. 6. Pupils might decide to break into sub-clusters if they see patterns within the connections. 7. Pupils might want to give their cluster a name. 8. Pupils might introduce their cluster and explain why they have formed a group and/ or sub-group. 9. Main fi ndings might be written on a board or fl ip chart whilst pupils are presenting their formations. 10. A debrief afterwards is benefi cial. 13Key Stages 1&2 COLLAGE Skills • Working with Others • Being Creative • Thinking, Decision-Making What is it? • This kinaesthetic activity asks pupils to represent their views on an issue or concept in a visual, creative and engaging way. It encourages pupils not only to communicate effectively, but also to develop their interpretation skills of other people’s work. Implications for classroom layout • Pupils might work in groups around a desk or set of desks. Ease of movement may be needed so that pupils can view other groups’ productions at the end of the activity. How does it work? 1. Pupils get into groups of between two to four. 2. Each group is given a relevant word, idea, issue or concept which they must represent using a range of provided materials. Such materials might include magazines, newspapers, sticky shapes, coloured card and paper, marker pens, scissors, glue and felt-tips. Example Collage Representations: Personal Development (Strand 2) • Bullying behaviour • A Right from the Human Rights’ Convention • Similarities and Differences. Example Collage Representations: The World Around Us: Historical Events • First landing on the moon • Great Fire of London • The Famine in Ireland 3. The facilitator may wish to establish a certain criteria for the collages in order to add a challenge aspect to the activity (i.e. the collages must contain a number of colours, images and words and be completed within a certain deadline, etc). 4. Once completed, pupils could move around the room carousel-fashion and view the work of other groups. They could try to guess what word, issue or concept each group in turn is trying to represent. 14Active Learning and Teaching Methods 5. An allocated presenter from each group could then present their work to the rest of the class, explaining why they chose certain magazine clippings and words in their piece of work. 6. If time allows, pupils could then peer assess each group’s work using the Two Stars and a Wish method. 7. A debrief afterwards might concentrate on the nature of the group work. Were roles allocated effectively? Who was the timekeeper, the resource manager, the presenter, the quality checker? Did groups consider and plan the overall design before starting? Did pupils choose all their resources before starting? Or did the collage ‘evolve’ as time progressed? Who presented effectively and why? 15Key Stages 1&2 CONSCIENCE ALLEY Skills • Thinking, Decision-Making • Working with Others What is it? • This role-play strategy allows pupils to gain a quick synopsis of all the issues related to a specifi c topic. It has the advantage over ‘standard’ role play in that it can be carried out reasonably quickly. It might be particularly useful for younger or less able pupils since they do not have to remain in role for very long. They also do not need to know a great deal of information about the issue as their role card will simply state who they are and how they feel about the particular scenario being discussed. See Hassle Lines for a similar activity involving role-play. Implications for classroom layout • An open space is needed for ease of movement and interaction. How does it work? 1. Explain the scenario to the pupils (for example, there has been a bullying incident outside the school gates. A parent threatens a child). 2. Then place each pupil into role by giving him or her each a role card which tells the pupil who they are and briefl y how they feel about the situation (for example, the bully, the victim, victim’s friend, bully’s mates, parent, head teacher, class teacher, etc). 3. Get pupils to stand in two lines facing each other, with a pathway up the middle. 4. Select a pupil randomly and ask them to state their role. 5. Ask remaining pupils to think of one statement they would like to make to this individual. 6. The selected pupil then walks between the lines and the remainder of the class make their statements as they pass by. (You may need to repeat this a number of times, encouraging pupils to “get into role”). 7. Debrief by asking the selected pupil which arguments they found convincing and what their view is on the scenario. 8. The activity can be repeated by selecting other pupils to walk in role through the “Conscience Alley”. 16Active Learning and Teaching Methods CONSEQUENCE WHEEL Skills • Thinking, Decision-Making, Problem-Solving • Managing Information What is it? • This activity encourages pupils to think about the direct and second order consequences of a particular event or action. Pupils map these consequences in a visual manner. See the Fishbone Strategy for another activity which asks pupils to explore causes and effects. How does it work? 1. Pupils write the main event or action in a centre circle in the middle of the page (see example). Example Events or Actions: The World Around Us • River pollution • Homelessness • Destruction of the hedgerow • Human Cloning. 2. Pupils write a direct consequence of the event in a circle which is linked to the main circle with a single line. Pupils try to think of as many direct consequences as possible. 3. Pupils then consider second order consequences. These are drawn once again in circles and linked to the direct consequences with double lines. Third order consequences have a triple line, etc. 4. Pupils could colour circles depending on whether the consequence is positive or negative. 5. Feedback afterwards could compare and contrast pupils’ consequences as well as lead into deeper exploration or arising issues through the use of tools such as Consider All Factors. 6. A debrief after this activity may be benefi cial. 17

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