Dictionary diversity management

dictionary management system and dictionary of management terms
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Published Date:11-07-2017
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              CONCISE DICTIONARY   ________of________     MANAGEMENT TERMS                                    Compiled  by:  Musa  Kamawi    B   Baby-­‐boom  generation   People  born  between  1946  and  1964,  currently  55  percent  of  the  workforce,  who  believe   that  the   Bar  chart   A  chart  that  compares  different  groups  of  data  to  each  other  through  the  use  of  bars  that   represent  each  group.  Bar  charts  can  be  simple,  in  which  each  group  of  data  consists  of  a   single  type  of  data,  or  grouped  or  stacked,  in  which  the  groups  of  data  are  broken  down   into  internal  categories   Bargaining  unit   The  group  of  employees  the  union  will  be  authorized  to  represent   BARS   Behaviorally  Anchored  Rating  Scale  (BARS)  An  appraisal  method  that  aims  at  combing  the   benefits  of  narrative  critical  incidents  and  quantified  ratings  by  anchoring  a  quantified  scale   with  specific  narrative  examples  of  good  and  poor  performance   Base  Compensation   The  fixed  amount  of  money  the  employee  expects  to  receive  in  a  pay      Check  weekly  or   monthly  or  as  an  hourly  wage   Behaviour  Modeling     A  training  techniques  in  which  trainees  are  first  shown  good  management  techniques  in  a   film  are  asked  to  play  roles  in  a  simulated  situation,  and  are  then  given  feedback  and  praise   by  their  supervisor   Behavioural  Interview   A  series  of  job-­‐related    questions  that  focus  on  how  they  reacted  to  actual  situations  in  the   past   Benchmarking   A  technique  that  involves  comparing  one's  own  processes  to  excellent      examples  of  Similar   Processes  in  other  organizations  or  departments.  Through  benchmarking,  rapid  learning  can   occur,  and  processes  can  undergo  dramatic  improvements   Benchmarking   A  strategic  management  approach  that  assess  capabilities  by  comparing  the  firms,  activities   or  functions  with  those  of  other  firms   Benchmark  Jobs   Jobs  that  are  characterized  by  stable  tasks  and  stable  job  specifications  also  known  as  key   jobs   A  job  that  is  used    to  anchor  the  employer’s  pay  scale  and  around    which  other  jobs  are   arranged  in  order  of  relatives  worth   Benefits   A   compensation   component   that   accounts   for   almost   40   percent   of   the   typical   total   compensation   package   and   includes   health   insurance,   pension   plans,   unemployment   insurance,  vacations,  sick  leave  and  the  like   Bias   The   tendency   to   allow   individual   differences   such   as   age,   race,   and   sex   to   affect   the   appraisal  ratings  employee  receive   BFOQ   Bond  Fide  Occupational  Qualification  (BFOQ)  Requirement  that  an  employee  be  of  a  certain   religion,  sex,  or  national  origin  where  that  is  reasonably  necessary  to  the  organization’s   normal  operation.  Specified  by  the  1964  Civil  Right  Act   Bottom-­‐Up-­‐Change   organizational  change  that  originates  with  employees   Boycott   The   combined   refusal   by   employees   and   other   interested   parties   to   buy   or   use   the   employer’s  product   Brand   A  name,  term,  design,  symbol,  or  any  other  feature  that  identifies  one  seller's  good  or   service  as  distinct  from  those  of  other  sellers.  The  legal  term  for  brand  is  trademark.  A   brand  may  identify  one  item,  a  family  of  items,  or  all  items  of  that  seller.  If  used  for  the  firm   as  a  whole,  the  preferred  term  is  trade  name.  See  also:  advertised  brand,  brand  extension,   brand   generic,   brand   image,   brand   name,   brand   personality,   branded   merchandise,   branding,  individual,  branding,  line  family,  competitive  brands,  distributor\'s  brand,  family   brand,       Fighting  brand,  flanker   Brand  Manager   A   management   role   that   coordinates   the   on-­‐going   activities   of   marketing   branded   consumer  products   Broad  Banding     Consolidating  salary  grades  and  ranges  into  just  a  few  wide  levels  or  bands  each  of  which   contains  a  relatively  wide  range  of  jobs  and  salary  levels.   Brainstorming   A   technique   to   generate   creative   ideas   for   solving   problems   by   reducing   critical   and   judgement  reactions  to  ideas  from  group  members.  (B)  A  group  method  of  problem  solving,  used  in  product  concept  generation.  It  is  sometimes  thought  to  be  an  open,  free-­‐wheeling   idea  session,  but  more  correctly  is  a  specific  procedure  developed  by  Alex  Osborn,  with   precise  rules  of  session  conduct   Break  Even  Value   The  length  of  time  an  observed  training  effect  would  need  to  be  maintained  in  order  to   recover  the  cost  of  the  training  program   Breakthrough  thinking   A  management  technique  which  emphasizes  the  development  of  new,  radical  Approaches   to  traditional  constraints,  as  opposed  to  incremental  or  minor  changes  in  thought  that  build   on  the  original  approach   Bureaucracy   A   structure   with   highly   routine   operating   tasks   achieved   through   specialization   very   formalized,   rules   and   regulations   task,   that   are   grouped   into   functional   departments   centralized  authority  narrow  span  of  control  and  decision  making  that  flows  to  chain  of   command   Bureaucratic  Management   The  management  approach  that  examines  the  entire  organization  as  a  rational  entity,  using   impersonal  rules  and  procedures  for  decision  making   Bumping/Layoff   Detailed  procedures  that  determine  who  will  be  laid  off  if  no  work  is  available;  generally   Procedures   allow  employees  to  use  their  seniority  to  remain  on  the  job.   Burnout     The  total  depletion  of  physical  and  mental  resources  caused  by  excessive  striving  to  reach   an  unrealistic  work-­‐related  goal   Business   Specifies  the  present  and/or  prospective  scope  of  a  strategic  business  unit's  activities  in   terms   of   the   boundaries   of   the   arena   in   which   the   business   elects   to   compete.   The   definition  also  serves  to  direct  attention  to  the  true  function  of  the  business-­‐that  is,  the  way   that  the  business  meets  the  needs  of  its  target  customers.  A  complete  definition  requires   choices   about   the   business   position   a   long   four   dimensions:   (1)   customer   functions-­‐ addressing  the  benefits  being  provided;  (2)  customer  segments-­‐specifying  the  customer   groups  seeking  similar  benefits  and  sharing  characteristics  that  are  strategically  relevant;  (3)   technology-­‐-­‐specifying   the   alternative   ways   in   which   a   particular   function   can   be   performed;   and   (4)   vertical   business   system-­‐-­‐specifying   where   the   business   chooses   to   participate   in   the   sequence   of   stages   in   the   vertical   business   system   (or   value-­‐added   system).   Business  Game   A   situation   test   in   which   candidates   play   themselves,   not   an   assigned   role,   and   are   evaluated  within  a  group       Business  Plan   The  business’s  proposal  that  maps  out  its  business  strategy  for  entering  markets  and  that   explains  the  business  to  potential  investors   Business  Process  Redesign   A   management   method   which   stresses   the   fundamental   rethinking   of   processes,   or  Reengineering   questioning  all  assumptions,  in  an  effort  to  streamline  organizations  and  to  focus  on  adding   value  in  core  processes                           C   Capacity   The  firm’s  ability  to  produce  the  product  during  a  given  period   Career   A  sequence  of  positions  occupied  by  a  person  during  the  course  of  a  lifetime:  also  known  as     one’s    Objectives  career   The  occupational  positions  a  person  has  had  over  many  years   Career  Anchors     Pivots   around   which   a   person’s   career   swings;   require   self-­‐awareness   of   talents   and   abilities,  motives  and  needs,  and  attitudes  and  values.  A  concern  or  value  that  you  will  not   give  up  if  a  career  choice  has  to  be  made   Career  Cycle   The  various  stages  a  person’s  career  goes  through.   Career  Development   The   lifelong   series   of   activities   that   contribute   to   a   person’s   career   exploration,   establishment,  success,  and  fulfilment   Career  Management     The  process  for  enabling  employees  to  better  understand  and  develop  their  career  skills   and  interests  most  effectively   Career  Paths   Logical  and  possible  sequences  of  positions  that  could  be  held  in  an  organization,  based  on   an  analysis  of  what  people  actually  do  in  the  organization   Career  Planning   A  support  mechanism  to  help  employees  plan  out  their  long-­‐term  goals   The  deliberate  process  through  which  a  person  becomes  aware  of  personal  career  related   attributes  and  the  lifelong  series  of  steps  that  contribute  to  his  or  her  career  fulfillments   Case  study  method   a  development  method  in  which  the  manager  is  presented  with  a  written  description  of  an   organizational  problem  to  diagnose  and  solve   Centralization   in  any  organization  concentration  of  authority  and  power  in  the  hands  of  top-­‐management   is  referred  to  as  centralization.  (b)  The  location  of  decision  authority  at  the  top  of  the   organization  hierarch.  (C)  This  term  describes  the  concentration  of  government  and  political   authority  in  the  capital  city  and  at  the  national  level,  as  opposed  to  the  sharing  of  powers   and  responsibilities  between  national,  local  authorities   Chain  of  Command   The  superior  –subordinate  authority  relationship  that  starts  at  the  top  of  the  organization   hierarchy  and  extends  to  the  lowest  levels.  (b)  The  unbroken  line  of  authority  that  extends   from  the  top  of  the  organization  to  the  lowest  echelon  and  clarifies  who  report  to  whom   Change  agents   People  who  act  as  catalysts  and  assume  responsibility  for  management  change   Charisma   Charisma  was  used  by  Weber  to  describe  one  of  three  principal  types  of  political  authority.   To  Weber  charisma  was  a  personal  quality  of  attraction  and  psychological  power,  capable  of   inspiring  deep  political  loyalty  in  large  numbers  of  people   Charismatic  Leader   a  term  from  Max  Weber  which  is  used  to  describe  a  politician  To  whom  more  than  natural   qualities  of  leadership  are  attributed  by  his  followers.  Weber  identifies  charisma  as  one  of   three  main  justifications  of  political  authority.  The  other  bases  on  which  people  accept  the   legitimacy  of  authority  over  them  has  been  legality  and  tradition   Charismatic  Leader   A  leader  who  can  engender  a  strong  emotional  attachment  from  followers;  charisma  is   associated  with  admiration,  trust  and  a  willingness  to  believe  what  the  leader  say   Charter   Another  name  for  a  local  constitution;  the  organic  law  of  local  government.  It  is  either   drawn  by  the  legislature,  or  under  the  authority  of  home  rule   Civil  Law   The  legal  system  that  relies  on  a  comprehensive  set  of  rules  that  form  part  of  a  highly   structured  code;  enforcement  and  interpretation  of  laws  are  made  in  reference  to  this  code   Civil  Service   It  comprises  all  the  persons  employed  by  government  in  a  civil  as  contrasted  with  a  military   capacity.  It  is  synonymous  with  bureaucracy   Civil  Service,  Recruitment     The  first  country  to  develop  a  science  system  of  recruitment  for  civil  servants  was  china.  In   modern  times  Prussia  was  the  first  introduce  a  system  of  recruitment  for  civil  servants   gradually  replacing  the  patronage  system  prevalent  in  USA.  The  spoil  system  was  replaced   by  the  merit,  principles  by  civil  service  act  of  1853   Communication   A  process  that  involves  the  transmission  of  meaningful  information  forms  one  party  to   another  through  the  use  of  shared  symbols   Communication  Channel   Influences   the   quantity   and   quality   of   information   that   is   conveyed   to   the   receiver.   Channels  of  communication  include  face  to-­‐  face  conversation  group  meetings,  memos,  policy  manuals  email,  voice  mail   Common  Law   The  legal  system  in  which  precedents  based  on  past  court  decisions  play  a  key  role  in   interpreting  the  meaning  and  intent  of  legal  statutes   Conciliator   A  trusted  third  party  who  provides  an  informal  communication  link  between  the  negotiator   and  opponent   Conceptual  Skills   The  mental  ability  to  analyze  and  diagnose  complex  situation   Confrontation  Strategy   One  mean  a  firm  may  use  to  deal  with  a  stakeholder  group  whose  goals  are  perceived  to   threaten  company  performance;  the  firm  may  use  the  courts,  engage  n  public  relations,  or   lobby  against  legislation   Contingency  theory   The   management   theory   that   there   is   no   “best   way”   to   manage   and   organize   an   organization  because  situational  characteristic,  called  contingencies,  differ  also,  the  view   that  no  HR  strategy  is  good  or  bad  in  and  of  itself  but  rather  depends  on  the  situation  or   context  in  which  it  used   Controlling   The   management   function   that   measures   performance,   compares   it   to   objectives,   implements  necessary  changes,  and  monitors  progress.  (b)  Monitoring  activities  to  ensure   they  are  being  accomplished   Control  Chart   graph  of  data  used  to  determine  when  a  result  should  be  explored  as  a  special  cause.   Developed  by  Dr.  Shewart  in  the  1920's  while  he  worked  at  Bell  Labs.  A  control  chart   has  lower  control  limit  and  upper  control  limit  and  a  mean  line.  Dr.  Stewart  developed   the  control  chart  to  aid  in  effective  exploration  and  improvement.  Often  the  regular   variation  (common  cause  variation)  of  a  process  is  taken  as  something  special  to  be   examined   which   wastes   time.   In   addition,   if   action   is   then   taken   based   on   this   exploration,  the  effects  of  tampering  often  exacerbate  problems.  Using  control  charts   the  only  time  special  because  analysis  is  used  is  when  the  result  was  above  the  upper   control  limit  or  below  the  lower  control  limit.  While  this  is  generally  true  there  are   other  practices  to  explore  when  the  data  shows  odd  traits  (such  as  7  points  on  one  side   of   the   mean).   Types  of  Control  Charts:   v X-­‐chart:  used  with  variable  data     v p-­‐chart:  used  with  percentage  data  (binomial)     v u-­‐chart:  used  with  defect  count  data     v c-­‐chart:  used  with  count  data   Cooperative  behavior   Team  behavior  that  is  manifested  in  member’s  willingness  to  share  information  and  help   others   Cooperative  strategies   Establishing  partnership  or  strategic  alliances  with  other  firms   Coordination   Linking  activities  so  that  diverse  departments  or  divisions  work  in  harmony  and  learn  from   each  other   Core  beliefs   A   firm’s   principles   that   are   widely   shared,   that   operate   unconsciously,   and   that   are   considered  non  negotiable   Core  Competency   Those  things  that  define  what  is  special  about  an  organization,  what  sets  it  apart  from  other   organizations,  Competencies  are  those  things  the  company  or  organization  does  well.  Core   competencies  are  those  things  that  are  fundamental  to  the  organization.  Without  those   core   competencies   the   organization   would   not   be   the   same   organization.   Core   competencies   of   organization   provide   the   organization   a   competitive   advantage   in   the   marketplace.  For  example,  Dell's  efficient,  just  in  time  manufacturing  system  is  an  core   competency  that  provides  Dell  a  competitive  advantage  in  the  marketplace.  Some  define   core  competencies  as  "world  class."  That  definition  would  mean  many  organizations  have   no   core   competencies.   That   seems   to   limit   the   usefulness   of   the   concept.   Some   management   consultants   suggest   organizations   focus   exclusively   on   their   core   competencies;  and  outsource  other  functions  to  other  organizations.  I  can't  say  I  agree  with   that  -­‐  as  a  rule.  Often  an  organization  is  better  off  performing  functions  internally  rather   than  outsourcing  them  even  if  the  function  is  not  a  core  competency  Corporate  level  strategy   The  corporation’s  overall  plan  concerning  the  number  of  businesses  the  corporation  holds,   the  variety  of  markets  or  industries  it  serves,  the  distribution  of  resources  among  those   businesses   Creativity   The  ability  to  produce  novel  and  useful  ideas   Cultural  shock   The   reaction   when   exposed   to   other   cultural   (social   structure,   religion,   language,   and   historical  background)  with  different  norms,  customs,  and  expectation   Cultural  Symbols   The  acts,  events  or  objects  that  communicate  organizational  values,  used  by  management   to  convey  and  sustain  shard  meaning  among  employees         D   Damage  control  strategy   A  means  a  firm  uses  to  deal  with  a  stakeholder  group  when  it  decides  that  it  may  have   made  mistakes  and  wants  to  improve  its  relationship  with  the  stakeholders  and  to  elevate   its  public  image   Data   Raw   facts,   such   as   the   number   of   items   sold   or   the   number   of   hours   worked   in   a   department   Data  base   computer  programs  that  assign  multiple  characteristic  to  data  and  allow  users  to  sort  the   data  by  characteristic   Data  mining   the  process  of  determine  the  relevant  factors  in  the  accumulated  data  to  extract  the  data   that  are  important  to  the  user   Decentralization   Delegation  of  authority  and  duties  is  usually  referred  to  as  decentralization  in  which  set  up   the   organization   is   divided   different   sections   and   departments   in   order   to   help   the   organization  grow  scientifically  and  with  a  purpose  of  direction  leading  to  harmony  in   relations   and   healthy   atmosphere   which   generally   is   absent   in   centralized   system   of   organization   Decision  acceptance   The   aspect   of   decision   making   that   is   based   on   people’s   feeling’s   decision   acceptance   happens  when  people  who  are  affected  by  a  decision  like  it   Decision  making   The  process  of  identifying  problems  and  opportunities  and  resolving  them.  (b)  Refers  to   process  of  identifying  problems  for  decision,  devising  alternative  courses  of  action,  and   choosing  one  alternative.  It  is  distinguished  from  problem-­‐solving  by  (a)  requirement  that   problems   be   sought   rather   than   given,   (b)   alternative   formulated   rather   than   given.   Sometimes   distinguished   from   policy-­‐making   by   (a)   presence   of   sanctions   to   compel   compliance  with  the  decision  and  (b)  including  not  only  policy-­‐making  in  governmental  or   political  organizations,  but  all  kinds  of  decisional  affair   Decision  quality   The  aspect  of  decision  making  that  is  based  on  such  facts  as  cost,  revenues,  and  product   design  specifications   Decision  scope   The  effect  and  time  horizon  of  the  decision   Decoding   Translating   the   symbolic   verbal,   written   or   visual   symbols   into   an   undistorted,   clear   message   Decline  stage   Period   where   many   people   face   having   to   accept   reduced   levels   of   power   and   responsibility,  and  must  learn  to  develop  new  roles  as  mentors  or  confidantes  for  younger   people   Deferred   profit-­‐sharing   A  plan  in  which  a  certain  amount  of  profits  is  credited  to  each  employee’s  account,  payable   plan   at  retirement,  termination  or  death.   Dejobbing   Broadening  the  responsibilities  of  the  company’s  jobs,  and  encouraging  employees  not  to     limit  themselves  to  what’s  on  their  job  descriptions   Delegation   The  transfer  of  decision  making  authority  from  a  manger  to  a  subordinate  or  a  team  at  a   lower  level  in  the  organization   Delegation  of  power   transfer  of  powers,  originally  vested  in  one  branch  of  the  government,  to  another   Delphi  technique   A  decision-­‐making  technique  in  which  group  members  are  presented  with  a  problem  and  complete   an   anonymous   questionnaire   soliciting,   solution   the   result   are   tabulated,   summarized  and  returned  to  the  group  members,  and  in  each  is  asked  again  for  solutions,   the  process  continues  until  a  consensus  decision  is  reached   Departmentalization   The  horizontal  basis  for  organizing  jobs  into  units  in  an  organization   Development  phase   A  career  development  steps  in  which  actions  are  designed  to  help  the  employee  grow  and   learn  the  necessary  skills  to  move  along  the  desired  career  path   Differentiation  strategy   Delivering  products  and  services  that  customers  perceive  as  unique   Direction  phase   the  step  in  career  development  that  involves  determining  the  steps  employees  must  take  to   reach  their  career  goals   Discrimination   The  unfair  treatment  of  employees  because  of  personal  characteristics  that  are  not  job   related   Dismissal   Involuntary  termination  of  an  employee’s  employment  with  the  firm.   Disparate  treatment   A   form   of   discrimination   that   occurs   when   an   employer   treats   employees   differently   because  of  his  or  her  protected  class  status   Diversification  strategy   A  firm’s  strategic  plan  to  create  and  mange  a  mix  of  businesses  owned  by  the  firm   Diversity   The  wide  spectrum  of  individual  and  group  differences   Divestiture   The  corporate  process  of  selling  a  business  in  order  to  generate  cash,  which  the  corporation   can  better  deploy  elsewhere,  or  to  refocus  on  its  core  related  businesses,  which  are  better,   understood  by  management   Divisional  approach   a  departmentalization  approach,  sometimes  called  the  product  approach,  which  organizes   employees  into  units  based  on  common  products,  services,  or  markets   Division  of  labor   the  production  process  in  which  each  worker  repeats  one  step  over  and  over,  achieving   greater,   efficiencies   in   the   use   of   time   and   knowledge,   also   the   formal   assignment   of   authority  and  responsibility  to  job  holders   Dominating  style   conflict  resolution  used  when  the  manager  or  team  member  acts  assertively  and  forcefully   and  persuades  the  other  party  to  abandon  his  or  her  objectives   Downsizing   A  management  strategy  used  to  reduce  the  scale  and  scope  of  a  business  to  improve  its   financial  performance   The  process  of  reducing,  usually  dramatically,  the  number  of  people  employed  by  a  firm   Downward   sending  a  message  or  interaction  from  a  high  position  in  the  organization  (ex.  instruction   Communication   from  Management  to  his/her  subordinate)  to  an  individual  or  group  lower  in  the  hierarchy   Dysfunctional  conflict   conflict  that  has  a  negative  effect  on  team  and  organizational  performance   360  Degree  feedback   multilayer  feedback  from  peers,  supplies,  other  levels  of  management,  and  internal  and   external  customers                                  E   E-­‐business   The   process   of   conducting   business   transaction   using   online   resources,   also   called   e-­‐ commerce   E-­‐commerce   Any  business  transaction  executed  electronically  by  companies  or  consumers.  (Electronic   mail)   Emotional  intelligence   the  attributes  of  self-­‐awareness,  impulse  control,  persistence  confidence,  self-­‐motivation   empathy,  social  deftness,  trustworthiness,  adaptability  and  a  talent  for  collaboration   Empirical  validity   Statistical   evidence   that   the   selection   method   distinguishes   between   higher   and   lower   performing  employees   Empowering  Employee   Putting  employees  in  charge  of  what  to  do   Empowerment   the  process  of  transferring  control  of  individual  work  behavior  from  the  supervisor  to  the   employee   Encounter  stage   the  stage  of  socialization  at  which  the  individual  begins  to  compare  expectations  about  the   firm’s  cultural  with  reality   Entrepreneur   an  individual  who  creates  an  enterprise  that  becomes  a  new  entry  to  a  market   Entrepreneurship   the   process   of   creating   a   business   enterprise   capable   of   entering   new   or   established   markets  by  deploying  resources  and  people  in  a  unique  way  to  develop  a  new  organization   Enterprise   resource   a  computer  program  that  combines  all  of  a  firm’s  computerized  functions  into  a  single   planning,  (ERP)  software   integrated  software  program  that  runs  off  a  single  database,  allowing  various  departments   to  easily  share  information  and  communicate  with  each  other   Environment   those  instructions  or  forces  outside  the  organization  that  potentially  affect  the  organization   performance   Equity  Financing   a  means  of  obtaining  financial  resources  that  involves  the  sale  of  part  the  ownership  of  the   business  to  investors   Ethical  Policy  statement   firm  formal  guidelines  that  provides  specific  formula  for  employee’s  ethical  conduct   Ethical  structure   the   procedures   and   the   division   or   department   within   a   company   that   promotes   and   advocates  ethical  behavior   Ethic  training   a  means  of  providing  employees  and  managers  practice  in  handing  ethical  dilemmas  that   they  are  likely  to  experience   Ethnocentrism   A  believe  that  may  become  prevalent  among  majority  –group  employees  meaning  that  they   believe  that  their  way  of  doing,  things  their  values  and  their  norms  are  inherently  superior   to  those  of  other  groups  and  cultures   Evaluation   the  organization  reexamination  of  whether  training  is  providing  the  expected  benefits  and   meeting  the  identified  needs   Executive   Refers  to  one  of  the  three  basic  powers  of  the  state,  assumed  by  parts  of  classis  political   science  to  engage  in  implementing  the  will  of  the  legislature.  it  includes  a  political  apex,   such  as  the  president  in  the  USA  and  the  cabinet  in  Great  Britain  and  India  and  the  civil   service  subordinated  to  it.  Modern  political  science  recognized  the  essential  policy-­‐forming   functions   of   both   parts   of   the   executive   which   are   constantly   increasing   in   most   contemporary  states   Exit  Interview   interviews  conducted  by  the  employer  immediately  prior  to  the  employee  leaving  the  firm   with  the  aim  of  better  understanding  what  the  employee  thinks  about  the  company   Expatriates   non-­‐citizen  of  the  country  in  which  they  are  working   Expert  power   power  delivering  from  the  leader’s  unique  knowledge  or  skills   Expert  system   an  advanced  information  that  uses  human  knowledge  captured  in  a  computer  to  solve   problems  that  normally  require  human  expertise   External  locus  of  control   causing  feelings  of  helplessness  and  decreasing  intensity  of  goal-­‐seeking  efforts  in  the  face   of  failure          F   Face-­‐to-­‐face  group   A  term  used  in  social  psychology,  particularly  in  group  dynamics.  It  describes  a  small  group   of  people  in  close  enough  physical  proximity  for  each  person  in  the  group  to  interact   directly  with  each  of  the  others   Facilities   the  design  and  location  of  an  operation  facility   Facilities  layout   the  grouping  and  organization  of  equipment  and  employees   Facilities  layout  design   the  physical  arrangement  for  the  facility  that  will  allow  for  efficient  production   Facts   bits  of  information    that  can  be  objectively  measured  or  described,  such  as  the  retail  price   of  a  new  product,  the  cost  of  raw  material,  the  defect  rate  of  manufacturing  process,  or  the   number  of  employees  who  quit  during  a  year   Fear  of  failure   A  fear  that  is  aroused  when  someone  feels  pressured  to  achieve  something.  It  is  particularly   prevalent  in  people  with  a  high  need  for  achievement   Fear  of  success   mainly  used  to  describe  a  motive  in  some  women  to  avoid  doing,  well  and  achieving  success   Feedback   information  received  back  from  the  receiver,  which  allows  the  sender  to  clarify  the  message   if  its  true  meaning  in  not  received.(b)  the  degree  to  which  carry    out  the  work  activities   required  by  a  job  results  in  the  individual  obtaining  direct  and  clear  information  about  the   effectiveness  of  his/her  performance   Field  research   an  important  part  of  market  research,  it  involves  the  collection  of  data  about  products  or   advertising   from   actual   or   potential   customers,   usually   by   means   of   interview   or   questionnaire   Financial  year   the  twelve  months  chosen  by  an  organization  as  its  accounting  period   Firewall   a  combination  of  computer  hardware  and  software  that  controls  access  to  and  transmission   of  data  and  information  contained  in  a  network   First-­‐line  supervisor   The  supervisor  responsible  for  the  management  of  production  workers  on  the  shop  floor.   The  term  refers  to  anyone  at  the  level  above  charge  hand  and  it’s  most  often  synonymous   with  the  term  foreman   Flat  organization   an  organization  with  relatively  few  levels  in  its  hierarchy   Flexible  time   under  flexible  working  hours  flexible  time  refers  to  those  periods  during  which  an  employee   may  choose  whether  to  be  at  work  or  not,  in  contrast  to  core  time  where  attendance  is   mandatory   Flexible  working  hours   a  method  of  organizing  working  hours  which  has  no  fixed  starting  or  finishing  times  and   which  allows  people  some  attitude  in  deciding  when  they  will  work   Flow  chart   a   diagram   showing   all   the   parts   of   a   system   or   the   stages   in   a   process   and   the   interrelationships  between  them   Formal  Communication   communication  between  people  through  the  official  channels  of  an  organization,  following   the  official  procedure   Formal  Group   a  group  set  up  by  the  management  of  an  organization  with  a  written  mandate  and  a  well-­‐ defined  purpose   Formalization   the  degree  to  which  written  documentation  is  used  to  direct  and  control  employees   Formal  Organization   The  outward  face  of  an  organization  as  exhibited  in  its  broucher,  annual  report  rule,  book   organization  chart  and  so  forth.  It  represents  the  official  structure  of  the  organization  and   the  way  it  is  supposed  to  function   Formal  planning   a   system   designed   to   deliberately   identify   objectives   and   to   structure   the                                                                                                       major  task  of  the  organization  to  accomplish  them   Forman   a  first-­‐line  supervisor  responsible  for  a  group  of  workers  on  the  shop  floor   Franchising   A  means  of  entering  new  markets  similar  of  licensing,  mainly  used  by  service  companies,  in   which  the  franchise  pays  a  fee  for  using  the  brand  name  and  agrees  to  strictly  follow  the   standards  and  abide  by  the  rules  set  by  the  franchise   Fringe  benefit   a  reward  beyond  the  basic  pay  for  the  job,  examples  can  range  from  subsidized  meals  and   travel  to  pension,  holidays  and  sickness  benefits   Functional  Analysis   A  strategic  management  approach  that  establish  organizational  capabilities  for  each  of  the   major  functional  areas  of  the  business   Functional  Authority   the  authority  that  is  associated  with  a  particular  job     Conflict  that  stimulates  team  and  organizational  performance  Functional  Conflict   Functional  organization   a   form   of   organizational   structure   in   which   specialists   carry   out   their   own   particular   function  in  an  organization  (like  research  and  development  or  quality  control)  but  without   any  authority  over  people  in  line  management   Functional  Structure   A  departmentalization  approach  that  clusters  people  with  similar  skills  in  a  department                                                                                G   Gantt  charts   a   visual   sequence   of   the   process   steps   used   in   planning,   scheduling,   and   monitoring   production   General  Manager   The  manager  responsible  for  the  whole  range  of  administration  in  an  organization  and  not   just  a  specific  function   Global  shift   a  term  used  to  characterize  the  effects  of  changes  in  the  competitive  landscape  prompted   by  worldwide  competition   Golden  Handcuffs   A  financial  inducement  to  an  employee  to  stay,  so  favorable that  he  or  she  would  find  it   difficult  to  leave  the  organization   Golden  Handshake   a  relatively  large  sum  of  money  given  in  the  forms  of  severance  pay  for  a  departure  that  is   usually  ahead  of  normal  retirement  or  the  end  of  a  contract   Go-­‐Slow   A  form  of  industrial  action,  short  of  a  strike,  where  workers  do  not  withdraw  their  labor  but   slow  down  the  rate  at  which  the  work  is  done  instead,  by  meticulously  following  the  rule   book   Grade   refers  to  a  term  which  is  used  in  public  personnel  administration  to  designate  a  group  of   position  classes,  no  matter  how  differently  the  work  they  represent,  that  are  compensated   within  the  same  salary  range   Grievance  procedure   in  industrial  relations  this  is  a  series  of  arrangement  for  settling  grievances  that  employees   have  against  their  employers,  either  directly  or  between  their  management  and  trade  union   representatives   Group   A  number  of  individual  who  are  viewed,  or  who  view  themselves  as  a  collectivity.  (b)  Two  or   more  individual’s  interacting  and  interdependent  who  have  come  to  gather  to  achieve   particular  objectives   Group  dynamics   in  social  psychology  this  term  refers  to  the  study  of  the  way  people  behave  in  a  group,   especially  a  small  face-­‐to  face  group   Grouping   in  statistic  this  is  the  process  of  combining  individual  scores  into  categories  of  putting  them   in  rank  order   Group  Mind   a  hypothetical  entity  (see  hypothesis)  sometimes  given  mystical  qualities  which  has  been   suggested  as  the  agency  for  crowds  acting  in  unison   Group  Norm   Behavior  expected  of  all  the  members  of  a  group,  in  a  work  group  the  Hawthorne  studies   discovered  that  this  can  mean  an  individual  keeping  to  the  same      level  of  productivity  as   the  other  group  members   Group  Process   A  term  used  to  describe  the  interactions  within  a  group  and  the  changes  that  occur  over   time  in  the  relationships  between  its  members   Group  selection  methods   Techniques  of  selection  which  aim  to  assess  the  ability  of  individuals  to  work  with  other   people  in  a  group.  They  usually  involve  the  observation  of  a  group  of  candidates  in  a   discussion  or  a  problem  solving  situation   Group  Structure   The  way  in  which  a  group  is  designed  and  organized.  It  forms  the  framework  for  the  group   process  and  for  the  performance  of  the  group’s  task   Groupthink   George   Orwell’s   term   for   the   totalitarian   imposition   of   authorized   thoughts   on   all   the   members   of   a   society.   The   term   has   been   introduced   into   social   psychology   by   the   American   scientist   Irving   Janis,   where   it   is   sometimes   used   to   describe   the   way   that   members  of  a  very  cohesive  group  can  become  so  describe  the  way  that  members  of  a  very   cohesive  group  can  become  so  preoccupied  with  maintaining  a  group  consensus  of  though   that  their  critical  faculties  become  dulled   Group  training  methods   These   are   training   techniques   which   use   the   properties   of   a   group   to   help   individual   members  learn.  The  point  of  the  training  may  be  to  have  the  members  learn  from  each   other’s  expertise  in  tackling  a  particular  problem  together,  or  the  point  of  the  group  might   be  the  group  process  itself  from  which  the  members  would  be  encouraged  to  learn  about   themselves  and  how  they  are  perceived  by  other,  a  well  as  about  group  behavior  in  general   Group  Working   an  attempt  to  increase  job  satisfaction  (as  well  as  productivity)  especially  among  assembly-­‐ line  worker,  by  forming  individual  into  a  coherent  work  group  and  allowing  them  more   autonomy  over,  and  responsibility  for  their  work  than  they  would  have  as  a  series  of   individual.  This  process  often  involves  job  restructuring  of  individual  jobs  H   Habit   A  learned  response  to  a  given  situation  which  occurs  in  such  a  regular  fashion  that  it   appears  to  be  virtually  automatic.  Thus  it  may  at  times  be  mistaken  for  innate  behavior  and   considered  an  instinct   Hacking   the  unauthorized  breaking-­‐in-­‐to  the  data  base  of  a  computer   Hall  Test   in  market  research  this  is  the  technique  of  asking  people  their  opinions  of  the  adverting,   packaging  and  presentation  of  a  product   Handbook   A  book  of  instructions  on  how  to  operate  some  machine  or  procedure.  In  a  more  academic   sense  it  is  used  of  a  survey  of  a  particular  field  that  is  intended  to  be  authoritative  and   comprehensive   Hard  copy   a  copy  on  paper,  often  in  the  form  of  print-­‐out  of  data  stored  electronically  in  a  computer   or  word  processor   Hard  currency   a  national  currency  used  in  international  trade  because  it  has  a  stable  or  rising  exchange   rate   and   is   generally     accepted   as   being   easily   convertible,   e.g   American   dollar   or   Afghanistan  Afghani   Hard  sell   a  colloquial  term  for  the  aggressive  advertising,  marketing,  promotion  and  selling  of  a   product   Hardware   the   physical   components   of   electronic   and   mechanical   equipment   that   make   up   a   computer,  e.g.  the  disk  drives,  keyboard,  printer,  screen,  etc   Hawthorne  effect   The  finding  that  paying  special  attention  to  employees  motivates  them  to  put  greater  effort   into  their  jobs  (from  the  Hawthorne  management  studies,  performed  from  1924  through   1932  at  western  electric  company’s  plant  near  Chicago).   Health  and  safety  at  work   an   area   of   work   subject   to   a   great   deal   of   detailed   legislation   in   most   industrialized   countries  because  of  the  importance  of  labor  to  productivity   Heavy  Industry   term  applied  to  traditional  industries  like  steelmaking,  coalmining  and  shipbuilding  which   were  the  basis  of  western  industrialization  in  the  nineteenth  century  and  have  always   required  heavy  physical  labor   Hedonism   in  psychology  this  refers  to  the  idea  that  all  of  our  behavior  stems  from  the  motivation  to   pursue  pleasure  and  avoid  pain;  in  philosophy  the  doctrine  that  it  is  our  ethical  duty  to  do   so   Heuristic   an  idea  or  method  of  teaching  that  stimulates  further  thinking  and  discovery   Hidden  Agenda   Thing  which  are  not  listed  on  the  formal  agenda  of  a  meeting  but  which  influence  the   meeting   nonetheless.   There   may   be   unspoken-­‐or   even   unconscious-­‐   attitudes   that   individual   hold   on   the   subjects   under   discussion   or   they   may   form   a   quite   conscious   attempt  at  manipulating  the  meeting  on  behalf  of  the  hidden  agenda  of  an  individual  or   group  interest   Hierarchical  task  analysis   a  form  of  task  analysis  used  in  assessing  training  needs  which  describe  a  task  in  terms  of  a   hierarchy  of  the  operation  necessary  for  its  performance   Hierarchy   Any  organization  structure  containing  different  levels  of  authority  and  often  responsibility.   (2)  Any  arrangement  of  things  in  succeeding  levels  each  one  includes  all  preceding  levels   Hierarchy  of  Needs   a  theory  of  motivation  proposed  by  the  American  psychologist  ABRAHAM  MASLOW  in  the   1940s.  He  suggested  there  were  five  distinct  levels  of  human  need  arranged  in  a  hierarchy,   starting  with  the  basic  physiological  needs  for  food  and  shelter.  As  one  level  of  need  is   satisfied  another  is  reached   Histogram   in  statistics  this  is  a  form  of  Bar  Chart  on  which  a  frequency  distribution  can  be  represented   graphically   Horizontal  communication   Communication  between  people  at  the  same  level  of  the  hierarchy  in  an  organization.   Compare  with  downward  communication  and  upward  communication.  2.  Communication   between  a  sender  and  a  receiver  at  a  similar  level  in  the  organization   Horizontal  dimension   the  organizational  structure  element  that  is  the  basis  for  dividing  work  into  specific  jobs  and   tasks  and  assigning  jobs  into  units  such  as  department  or  teams   Human  asset  accounting   an  attempt  to  measure  the  value  to  an  organization  of  its  human  resources  by  treating   them  as  assets  as  well  as  costs  to  the  organization  and  assessing,  for  example  Recruitment   and  Training  polices  and  funding  in  this  light  Human  Capital   the  part  of  an  organization’s  capital  represented  by  the  ability,  experience  and  skills  of  its   work-­‐force   Human  Communication   The  process  of  communication  between  people.  A  relatively  new  field  of  study  involving   contributions  from  computer  science,  linguistic  logic,  psychology  and  social  science   Human  Relation  approach   A  management  approach  that  views  the  relationships  between  employees  and  supervisors   as  the  most  salient  aspect  of  management   Human  Resources   All  the  people  who  work  for  an  organization  in  a  capacity   Human   Resource   The  responsibility  of  making  the  best  use  of  an  organization’s  employees.  One  of  the  major   Management   functions  of  personnel  management   Human  Resource  tactics   the  implementation  of  human  resources  programs  to  achieve  the  firm’s  vision   Human  skills   The  ability  to  work  with,  understand  and  motivate  other  people,  both  individually  and  in   group                                                  I   Identification   In   general   terms   recognizing   the   identity   or   nature   of   someone   or   something.   In   Psychoanalysis  it  refers  to  the  phenomenon  of  emulating  the  behavior  of  a  person  with   whom  one  has  a  powerful  emotional  bond   Identity   Having  essentially  unchanging  characteristic.  The  basis  unit  of  a  personality,  especially  the   self-­‐image   Implementation  guidelines   The  planning  step  that  show  how  the  intended  actions  will  be  carried  out   Incentive   in   psychology   this   is   the   basis   of   motivation   and   can   refer   to   any   kind   of   reward   or   inducement,  in  an  organization,  especially  a  business  organization  the  term  is  most  often   applied  to  financial  rewards,  although  promotion  and  enhanced  status  may  also  be  used   Increment   In  personnel  management  this  is  a  regular  and  usually  automatic,  increase  in  a  scale  of   pay.2.  In  ergonomics  it  may  refer  to  an  increase  in  a  stimulus  from  the  environment  of  a   standard  amount   Individualism   the  degree  to  which  a  society  values  personal  goal,  autonomy  and  privacy    over  group   loyalty,   commitment   to   group   norms,   involvement   in   collective   activities,   social   cohesiveness    an  intense  socialization,  ethical  decisions  based  on  individualism  promote   individual  self-­‐  interest  as  long  as  it  does  not  harm  others   Induction   The  process  of  introducing  new  members  into  an  organization.  The  aims  of  induction  are  to   provide  them  with  an  overview  of  the  whole  organization  and  their  place  in  it,  and  to  give   them  a  taste  of  the  organizational  cultural  and  the  nature  of  the  psychological  contract  they   will  be  making   Industrial  action   Any  form  of  collective  action  taken  by  the  employees  of  an  organization-­‐usually  organized   by  a  trade  union-­‐most  often  to  do  with  pay  or  conditions  of  employment.  Action  taken  may   include  a  go-­‐slow  strike  or  work  to  rule   Industrial  relations   This  term  is  now  used  to  describe  the  web  of  relationships  that  exists  between  employees   or  their  trade  UNION  representatives,  Management,  and  government.  Its  usage  is  therefore   much  broader  than  its  original  industrial  or  manufacturing  context  and  extends  to  issues   and  procedure  concerning  employment  in  any  work  environment   Industrial  Training   in  personnel  management  this  term  usually  refers  to  the  training  of  new  workers  in  a   particular  industry  or  sector  of  the  economy  at  all  levels  of  ability  and  skills   Inferiority  Complex   according  to  the  Viennese  Psychoanalyst,  Alfred  Adler,  this  is  an  unconscious  condition   where  an  individual  feels  inadequate  and  resentful,  often  because  of  some  physical  feature   regarded  as  a  defect   Informal  Group   unlike  a  formal  group  an  informal  group  is  not  set  up  by  management  of  an  organization  but   arises  spontaneously  in  the  workforce   Information   data  that  have  been  gathered  and  converted  into  a  meaningful  context   Information   communication  between  people  through  the  grapevine  of  an  organization   Communication   Information  management   this  is  concerned  with  applying  information  technology  to  the  flow  of  information  in  an   organization  with  the  intention  of  ordering  it  in  the  best  way  to  achieve  organizational  goals   Information  processing   A  key  term  in  the  study  of  cognition  which  is  used  to  denote  what  happens  mentally   between   stimulates   and   the   response   to,   it   including       Perception.   Memory,   thinking   decision-­‐making  and  problem-­‐solving   Information  richness   the  potential  information  carrying  capacity  of  data   Information  Technology   A   relatively   new   field   that   combines   the   technology   of   the   computer   with   that   of   communication.   it   is   concerned   with   the   gathering,   recording,   storage,   processing   and   dissemination  of  information  and  represents  the  latest  form  of  Man-­‐Machine  interface  etc   Infrastructure   the  network  of  essential  services  supporting  a  modern  society  that  has  undergone  the   process  of  industrialization   Innovation   The  development  of  something  new.  It  is  most  often  applied  to  the  introduction  of  new   goods   and   services   to   the   market,   particularly   those   incorporating   some   advance   in   technology   Input-­‐output  analysis   this  is  a  set  of  statistics  used  in  a  general  sense  in  economics  and  more  specifically  in   marketing  and  market  research,  in  which  patterns  of  buying  and  selling  between  industries  or  sector  of  an  economy  are  analyzed  to  study  changes  in  their  trading  relationship  over  a   given  period  of  time   In-­‐service  training   the  training  of  staff  by  the  organization  they  work  for  in  order  to  enhance  their  value  to  the   organization   Institution   in  social  science  this  term  refers  to  a  social,  cultural    economic  or  political  arrangement     that   may   be   of   greater   or   lesser   important   to   people’s   lives-­‐   like   the   family   or   the   monarchy-­‐  but  which  usually  endures  over  time  and  reflects  some  basic      values  of  the   society   Integration   The  process  of  organization  different  parts  into  a  whole  of  a  higher  order.  It  is  used  widely   in  science,  from  the  organization  of  nervous  impulses  necessary  for  any  kind  of  behavior  up   to  the  organization  of  a  whole  society   Intelligence   Although   this   concept   has   been   discussed   in   psychology   since   the   1870s   there   is   no   universally  accepted  agreement  on  what  intelligence  is.  Most  psychologists  would  probably   agree  that  heredity  sets  limits  of  a  person’s  intelligence  and  most  would  also  agree  that  the   ability  to  think  in  one  form  or  another  (handling  abstract  ideas,  adapting  to  new  situations,   perceiving  complex  relationships)  is  to  sign  of  high  intelligence-­‐which  may  not  get  us  very   far  but  never  prevented  psychologists  from  designing  new  intelligent  tests   Interacting  Group   typical  group  in  which  members  interact  with  each  other  face  to  face   International   refers   to   the   art   and   sciences   of   management   as   applied   to   the   operations   of   an   Administration   international   organization   especially   a   public   international   organization   employing   international  civil  servants   International  Civil  Service   the  term  used  for  employees  of  international  organizations  who  are  appointed  by  the   secretary  general  of  the  UN  and  who,  in  the  words  of  the  UN  charter,  shall  not  seek  or   receive  instructions  from  any  government  and  shall  refrains  from  any  action  which  might   reflect  on  their  position  as  international  officials  responsible  only  to  the  organization   Interpersonal  conflict   the  general  term  for  any  kind  of  conflict  between  individual   Interpersonal  contact   the   general   term   for   any   kind   of   relationships   or   forms   of   communication   between   individuals   Interpersonal   skills   A  group  training  methods  which  emphasizes  the  skills  involved  in  communication  with  other   development   people  in  listening  to  their  replies.  These  skills  are  obviously  important  throughout  the  life   of  an  organization  but  are  perhaps  most  visible  (on  the  both  sides  of  the  table)  in  an   interview,  especially  a  performance  appraisal  interview   Interview   In  essence  an  interview  is  a  form  of  conversation,  between  one  interviewee  and  one  more   interviewers,  which  is  structured  to  a  greater  or  lesser  extent.  It  is  probably  the  most   widely-­‐used  method  for  the  assessment  of  a  person’s  ability.  It  is  also  the  most  subjective   method  and  one  which  is  extremely  difficult  for  the  interviewer  to  do  well   IQ   the  intelligence  Quotient;  a  sore  obtained  from  an  intelligence  test  by  dividing  the  mental   age  (MA)  obtained  on  the  test  by  the  actual  or  chronological  age(CA)  and  multiplying  by   100,  i.e.  IQ=Ma  100    an  IQ  score  by  itself  is  meaningless.  It  doesn’t  intelligence  the  way  a   tape  measure  height,  for  instance.  It  is  only  measure  of  comparison  between  all  the  people   who  have  taken  that  particular  test,  with  the  average  score  being  arbitrarily  at  around  100                      J   Job   A  piece  of  work  or  an  order  for  a  piece  of  work  to  be  done.  The  term  is  also  used  more   widely  to  describe  one’s  livelihood.  A  job  is  therefore  a  unit  of  work  large  enough  to  be  the   basis  of  an  occupation   Job  analysis   The  process  of  obtaining  information  about  jobs,  including  the  task  to  be  done  on  the  jobs   as  well  as  the  personal  characteristics  necessary  to  do  the  task   Job  demand   the  requirement  of  a  job  has  and  therefore  what  will  expected  of  the  person  who  perform  it   Job  Description   a  written  summary  of  task  requirements  for  a  particular  job    Job  Design   the  process  of  relating  all  the  tasks  to  be  performed  within  the  organization   Job  Enlargement   expanding  the  content  of  a  job  to  include  responsibilities  that  will  usually  require  training   and  the  acquisition  new  skills   Job  evaluation   assessment  of  the  relative  worth  of  job  to  a  firm   Job  satisfaction   a  pleasurable  feeling  that  results  from  the  perception  that  a  job  fulfills  or  allows  for  the   fulfillment  of  its  holder’s  important  job  values   Job  Specification   a  written  summary  of  worker  requirements  for  a  particular  job   Job  Title   the  official  name  an  organization  gives  to  the  occupant  of  a  particular  job,  sales  Manager,   HR  Manager   Junior  Management   the  term  applied  to  managers  who  are  relatively  low  in  the  hierarchy  of  an  organization   because  they  are  junior  in  age  and  or/  level  of  responsibility  and  authority   Justification   the  procedure  used  by  a  word  processor  to  line  up  the  right  hand  margin  of  a  page  so  that   all  the  lines  of  script  are  of  equal  length         K   Key  jobs   jobs  that  are  characterized  by  stable  tasks  and  stable  job  specifications;  also  known  as   benchmark  jobs   Knowledge   a  blend  of  information  experience  and  insights  that  provides  a  framework  that  can  be   thoughtfully  applied  when  assessing  new  information  or  evaluating  relevant  situations   Knowledge  capital   the  value  of  the  knowledge  possessed  by  people  at  all  levels  of  an  organization   Knowledge  Engineering   a  term  sometimes  used  of  a  group  of  techniques,  based  on  theories  of  artificial  intelligence,   which  is  concerned  with  the  design  of  intelligent  knowledge  –  based  systems   Knowledge  Management   the   process   of   creating   an   inclusive,   comprehensive,   easily   accessible   organizational   memory,  which  is  often  called  the  organization’s  intellectual  capital                              L   Labor  Market   a  geographical  area  within  which  the  force  of  supply  (people  looking  for  work)  interact  with   the  forces  of  demand  (employers  looking  for  people)  and  thereby  determine  the  price  of   labor   Labor  turnover   the  percentage  of  the  total  labor  force  of  an  organization  leaving  its  employment  and  being   replaced  over  a  given  period  of  time,  usually  a  year   Leadership   a  widely-­‐  applied  term  that  usually  refers  to  the  personality  characteristic  and  the  behavior   of  people  with  authority  and  influence  and  responsibility  for  leading  group   Leadership  style   this  term  usually  refers  to  the  adoption  of  an  authoritarian  management  or  a  depending  on   which  style  is  more  comfortable  to  his  or  her  personality   Lead  time   The  time  taken  to  complete  a  cycle  of  activity.  The  term  is  usually  used  in  reference  to  the   production  process,  from  the  initial  idea  to  the  finished  product,  although  it  can  also  refer   to  the  time-­‐lag  in  supplying  an  order   Learning  theory   in  psychology  this  refers  to  the  systematic  attempt  to  explain  the  process  of  learning   Legitimacy   a   term   sometimes   used   of   the   leadership   of   a   group   or   organization   when   it   is   fully   accepted  by  the  members   Leniency   the  tendency  to  rate  every  employee  high  or  excellent  on  all  criteria   Licensing   a  means  of  entering  new  markets,  primarily  used  by  manufacturing  firms,  by  transferring   the  right  to  produce  and  sell  products  overseas  to  a  foreign  firm.  In  return,  the  licensing   receives  a  negotiated  fee,  normally  in  the  form  of  a  royalty   Line  and  staff  concept   A  term  used  in  organization  theory  to  denote  the  different  functions  performed  in  an   organization  by  managers  who  are  directly  goals  (line)  and  those  who  perform  supportive   functions  like  marketing  or  personnel  (staff).   Line  Authority   the  control  by  a  manager  of  the  work  of  subordinates  by  hiring,  discharging,  evaluating  and   rewarding  them   Line  Management   the  term  used  to  describe  managers  who  are  responsible  for  an  organization      carrying  out   its  basic  function,  e.g.  marketing  production  etc   Locus  of  Control   a  dimension  of  personality  in  which  people  who  have  an  internal  locus  feel  they  have   control  over  what  happens  to  them,  and  people  with  an  external  locus  tend  to  attribute   their  experiences  to  outside  forces  or  other  people   Logistic   A  term  that  was  originally  used  in  the  military  sphere  to  describe  the  organizing  and  moving   of  troops  and  equipment.  It  is  now  often  applied  to  any  detailed  planning  process  in  an   organization  which  entails  the  distribution  or  redistribution  of  resources                                  M   Make-­‐buy-­‐analysis   an  operation  management  tool  used  to  help  make  the  decision  as  to  whether  to  product  n   item  or  to  purchase  it   Management   making  the  most  effective  use  of  available  resources,  whether  in  the  form  of  machine,   money  or  people,  (2)  the  people  responsible  for  the  management  of  an  organization,  i.e.  for   the  directing,  planning  and  running  of  its  operations,  for  the  implementation  of  its  policies   and  the  attainment  of  its  objectives   Management  accounting   the  preparation  of  accounting  information  for  use  by  managers  of  an  organization  in   budgeting,  decision  making,  planning  and  formulating  policy   Management  by  objective   a  performance  appraisal  strategy  in  which  employees  and  supervisors  agree  on  a  set  of   (MBO):   goals  to  be  accomplished  for  a  particular  period;  performance  is  then  assessed  at  the  end  of   the  period  by  comparing  actual  achievement  against  the  agreed  –on-­‐goals   Management  change   the  ongoing  managerial  process  of  enhancing  the  ability  of  an  organization  to  anticipate  and   respond  to  developments  in  its  external  and  internal  levels  to  cope  with  the  changes   Management  consultant   someone  who  offers  a  consultancy,  service  in  any  area  of  Management  or  the  running  of  an   organization   Management   The  process  of  identifying,  training  and  generally  equipping  relatively  junior  Managers  with   Development   the  experience  or  skill  necessary  for  senior  management,  positions  with  an  organization  in   the  future.  it  is  a  process  that  ideally,  should  be  an  integral  part  of  a  coherent  personnel   policy  going  from  initial  recruitment  to  ultimate  retirement   Management   information   an  information  system  that  provides  information  to  managers  to  use  in  making  decisions(b)   system(MIS)   a  centralized  and  usually  computerized,  information  system  for  use  by  the  managers  of  an   organization  in  decision  making   Management  service   the  application  of  scientific  methods,  and  particularly  quantitative  Methodology  to  the   practice  of  science  perspective  to  the  study  of  management   Management  style   The  general  approach  a  manager  has  to  dealing  with  other  people  at  work,  and  in  particular   the  exercising  of  his  or  her  authority  with  subordinates.  This  style  is  often  characterized  as   tending  towards  authoritarian  management  or  democratic  management,  depending  on  the   personality   of   the   individual   manager,   but   people   can   also   have   somewhat   different   approach  when  faced  with  different  situations   Management  training   Any  form  of  training  in  the  practices  and  techniques  of  management.  One  important  form   of   management   training   is   to   have   mangers   study   case   histories   of   real-­‐life   issues   in   organizations   and   work   on   solutions   to   problems;   another   is   to   play   business   games   designed   to   deal   with   particular   aspects   of   management.   The   term   is   often   used   interchangeably   with   management   education,   though   the   emphasis   of   management   training  is  generally  more  focused  and  less  formal  or  academic   Manger   anyone   involved   in   the   administration   of   an   organization   with   the   authority   to   use   organizational   resources,   whether   money,   labor,   or   equipment,   in   furtherance   of   the   organization’s  objectives   Manager  grid   a   techniques   used   in   management   development   that   was   devised   by   two   American   organization   psychologists,   Robert   Blake   and   Jane   Mouton,   building   on   previous   contributions  to  the  study  of  Human  Relations  by  psychologists  like  ARGRIS,  LEWIN,  and   LIKERT.  The  technique  consists  of  scoring  managers  on  two  dimensions  at  right  angles  to   each  other  to  form  a  grid.  The  dimension  is  concern  for  production  (or  the  task  in  hand)  and   concern  for  people.  Each  individual’s  scores  are  then  plotted  on  this  grid  to  see  how  much   of  each  concern  by  express   Managerial  psychology   the  systematic  study  of  the  role  of  the  Manager  in  an  organization  and  in  particular  the   relationships  between  supervisor  and  supervisors,  this  area  of  study  is  a  part  of  industrial   part  of  industrial  psychology   Managing  diversity   establishing  a  heterogeneous  workforce  (including  white  men)  to  perform  to  its  potential  in   an   equitable   work   environment   where   no   members   or   group   of   members   enjoys   an   advantage  or  suffers  a  disadvantage   Manpower  analysis   An  analysis  of  the  employee  in  an  organization  that  attempts  to  identify  pattern  and  trends   in  their  employment.  It  will  examine,  for  instance,  the  distribution  of  employees  by  age,  sex,  skill,  job  title  and  length  of  service.  It  is  the  stage  of  systematic  manpower  planning   Manpower  planning   the   process   of   forecasting   both   the   numbers   and   the   kinds   of   employees   that   an   organization  will  require  over  a  given  period  of  time  and  taking  steps  to  ensure  their  supply,   ideally   this   should   be   an   integral   part   of   an   organization’s   personnel   policy   from   recruitment  to  retirement,  including  selection,  promotion,  and  training   Manual  skill   a  skill  that  requires  physical  rather  than  mental  ability   Manual  worker   someone  employed  on  the  shop  floor  of  an  organization  doing  physical  rather  than  mental   work,  whether  the  work  is  skilled  or  unskilled   Market   A  situation  where  buyers  and  sellers  are  in  communication  with  each  other.  This  may  take   several   forms,   e.g   in   person   (as   in   a   cattle   auction)   or   electronically   (as   in   the   stock   exchange)  or  through  the  mass  media  as  in  newspaper  advertising  columns   Marketing   the   series   of   process   by   which   demand   for   goods   and   services   in   identified,   supplied   anticipated  or  manipulated,  it  relies  heavily  of  such  functions  as  advertising  and  market   research   Marketing  concept   a   philosophy   of   marketing   that   emphasizes   the   supreme     important   of   the   custom,   fundamental  to  this  philosophy  is  an  understanding  of  what  the  customer  wants  in  any   given  market,  and  this  is  usually  ascertained  by  the  extensive  market  research   Marketing  environment   the  set  of  external  factors  that  affect  the  market  in  which  an  organization  operates  i.e   cultural,  economic,  legal,  political,  geographical  etc   Marketing  Mix   The  combination  of  different  aspects  of  an  organization’s  strategy  for  marketing  a  product,   e.g  advertising,  market  research,  production  and  public  relations.  The  guidelines  for  the   most  appropriate  mix  are  sometimes  expressed  as  the  four  Ps-­‐  product,  price   Market  leader   The  organization  with  largest  share  in  a  given  market.  price  (market),  position  and  place.   Market  penetration   the  amount  of  demand  in  a  given  market  that  is  supplied  by  a  particular  organization   Market  Research   Research  carried  out  in  the  course  of  marketing,  either  by  an  organization  itself  or  by   specialists  from  an  external  consultancy,  to  determine  the  likely  Market  for  a  product  or  the   effects   of   past   or   prospective   adverting   on   consumers.   Depending   on   the   kind   of   information  required,  the  research  may  use  either  quantitative  methodology  with  survey   research  on  large  numbers  people  or  qualitative  methodology  with  large  interviews  of   individuals  and  families  and  group  interviews  of  5-­‐10  people  in  a  face-­‐  face  group   Market  segmentation   The  analysis  of  buyers  or  potential  buyers  in  a  given  market  along  various  dimensions.   These  usually  include  demographic  like  age  sex  and  socio-­‐economic  status,  buying  patterns   with  respect  to  price  and  quality,  and  personality  factors  like  conservatism-­‐radicalism,  need   for  achievement  or  need  for  affiliation  the  objective  is  to  divide  market  into  segments   comprising   similar   kinds,   of   people   so   that   marketing   efforts   can   be   targeted   more   precisely,  and  the  most  effective  approach  used  with  each  segment   Market  share   the  amount  of  total  demand  in  a  market  which  a  particular  organization  supplies  over  a   given  period  of  time   Market  value   the  current  price  that  a  particular  item  would  fetch  in  the  market   Maslow’s   hierarch   of   the  theory  that  people  tend  to  satisfy  their  needs  in  a  specified  order,  from  the  most  to  the   needs   least  basic   Mass  Media   forms   of   communication   that   reach   a   large-­‐usually   nation-­‐wide-­‐audience,   i.e.,   radio,   television  and  newspapers   Mass  Production   The   production   of   identical   items   on   a   very   large   scale.   It   requires   the   process   of   automation,  division  of  labor  job  simplification,  specialization  and  standardization.  In  the   twentieth  century  the  prototype  for  mass  production  was  the  assembly  line  developed  in   the  car  manufactured  industry  by  HENRY  FORD   Master   of   Business   The  academic  qualification  in  Management  Education  which  is  generally  accepted  in  the   Administration   United  States  as  a  prerequisite  for  a  professional  career  as  a  manager.  The  qualification  is   also   becoming   increasingly   soughed   after   in   the   United   Kingdom-­‐but   not   in   other   industrialized   countries   like   Germany   and   Japan   which   have   alternative   routes   into   Management   Matrix  organization   A  flexible  form  of  organization  structure  often  used  in  situation  which  requires  a  mix  of  people  with  different  skills  and  experience  to  be  focused  on  a  particular  task,  or  an  unusual   project   that   crosses   existing   departmental   boundaries   in   an   organization.   The   people   involved  in  this  kind  of  task  force  will  continue  to  report  officially  to  line  Management,  but   in  their  day-­‐to-­‐day  work  they  will  be  responsible  to  the  project  leader   MDW   See  Measured  Day  Work   Mean   In  statistic  this  is  the  most  commonly  used  measure  of  central  tendency.  It  is  the  arithmetic   average,  found  by  summing  the  values  of  a  series  of  numbers  and  dividing  this  by  the  total   number  in  the  series   Measured  Day  work   a  management  procedure  where  a  daily  production  target  is  defined  for  all  the  workers  on   the  shop  floor,  whose  pay  is  then  made  up  of  a  fixed  regular  amount  of  each  day  that  the   target  is  met-­‐as  opposed  to  payment-­‐by-­‐result   Measure   of   central   one  of  three  statistical  which  can  each  be  used  as  a  central  value  to  describe  a  series  of   tendency   numbers  the  mean  the  median  and  the  mode   Median   In  statistic  this  is  a  measure  of  central  tendency  which  divides  a  group  of  scores  in  half,  with   half  the  scores  falling  above  the  median  score  and  half  below   Mediation   a  process  by  which  a  neutral  third  party  attempts  to  help  the  parties  in  a  dispute  reaches  a   settlement  of  the  issues  that  divide  them   Merger   an  amalgamation  of  two  or  more  organization  into  a  single  new  organization  by  mutual   agreement-­‐as  opposed  to  a  take-­‐over   Merit  rating   A  form  of  reward  for  members  of  an  organization  based  on  an  assessment  of  their  worth   beyond  the  normally  expected  performance  of  their  job,  on  the  grounds  that  different   people  doing  the  same  job  can  have  a  different  value  to  the  organization.  The  kind  of  factor   usually   taken   into   account   are   absenteeism,   aptitude,   attitude   towards   management,   length  of  service,  punctuality  etc   Merit  pay  system   pay  systems  most  commonly  applied  to  exempt  employees  under  which  employees  receive   permanent  increases,  tied  to  levels  of  job  performance,  in  their  base  pay   Middle  Management   A   manager   whose   position   in   the   hierarchy   of   an   organization   is   higher   than   junior   management  and  lower  than  senior  management  is  part  of  middle  management,  and  this   accounts  for  most  managers  in  most  organizations.  Middle  managers  are  typically  in  charge   of  the  constituent  units  that  make  up  an  organization,  responsible  for  the  work  of  other   people  but  with  little  or  no  say  in  the  making  of  policy  or  the  taking  of  organization-­‐wide   decisions   Middleman   an   individual   or   an   organization   acting   as   a   link   between   others,   especially   between   producers  and  consumers  or  retailer,  e.g  a  furniture  wholesaler  or  literary  agent   Monitoring   observing  environmental  changes  on  a  continuous  basis  to  determine  whether  a  clear  trend   is  emerging   Monoculture   the  homogeneous  organizational  cultural  that  results  from  turnover  of  dissimilar  employees   Motivation   In  psychology  this  is  a  general  term  for  any  part  of  the  hypothetical  psychological  process   which  involves  the  experiencing  of  needs  and  drives  and  the  behavior  that  leads  to  the  goal   which  satisfies  them.  In  more  popular  usage  motivation  refer  than  another   Multimodal  distribution   in  statistics  this  term  refers  to  a  distribution  with  several  modes   Multinational  company   a   commercial   organization   which   operates   in   more   than   one   country   and   moves   its   resources  and  activities  between  them  in  such  a  way  as  to  maximize  its  trading  advantages   in  such  areas  as  labor  costs  or  taxation  benefits                  

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