Dictionary of food compounds

dictionary definition food adulteration and dictionary of food ingredients 5th edition
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FoodScience.fm Page 1 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM A AA AA abbreviation 1. Alcoholics Anonymous 2. arachidonic acid abattoir abattoir noun a place where animals are slaughtered for their meat abdomen abdomen noun a space inside the body that contains the stomach, intestines, liver and other vital organs abdominal cavity abdominal cavity noun the space in the body below the chest ABIM ABIM abbreviation Association of Bakery Ingredients Manufacturers aboyeur aboyeur noun same as kitchen clerk abrosia abrosia noun abstinence from eating (technical) absolute alcohol absolute alcohol noun alcohol that contains no water absorption absorption noun the process of taking into the body substances such as proteins or fats that have been digested from food and enter the bloodstream from the stomach and intestines absorption method absorption method noun a method of cooking rice in which it is removed from the heat after a while and allowed to soak up any remaining water (NOTE: Rice cooked in this way is also known as steamed rice.) abstemious abstemious adjective tending not to eat or drink very much ABV ABV abbreviation alcohol by volume a.c. a.c. abbreviation ante cibos acacia gum acacia gum noun same as gum arabic açaí açaí noun a berry with very high concentrations of essential fatty acids and anthocyanins, considered a superfood acarbose acarbose noun a drug used for treating type 2 diabetes accelase accelase noun a mixture of enzymes used for maturing cheese accelerated freeze-drying accelerated freeze-drying noun a method of preserving food by heating it for a short time, then freezing it rapidly and drying it in a vacuum. Abbreviation AFD Acceptable Daily Intake Acceptable Daily Intake noun the amount of an additive that can be eaten without risk. Abbreviation ADI accompaniment accompaniment noun a small helping of food served with a dish, e.g. croutons served with fish soup or grated Parmesan cheese served with minestrone ACE ACE abbreviation angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitor noun same as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor acesulphame K acesulphame K noun a type of sweetenerFoodScience.fm Page 2 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM acetate 2 acetate acetate noun a salt or ester of acetic acid acetic acid acetic acid noun an acid that turns wine into vinegar (NOTE: Acetic acid is also used as a preservative in food such as pickles.) acetoacetate acetoacetate noun a ketone substance secreted by the liver which indicates a failure of metabolism acetoglyceride acetoglyceride noun a fat with a relatively low melting point, used for compounding shortening acetoin acetoin noun a compound in butter acetone acetone noun a colourless volatile substance formed in the body after vomiting or during diabetes.  ketone acetonuria acetonuria noun excessive excretion of acetone in the urine, an indicator of diabetic acidosis acetylcholine acetylcholine noun a substance that is released from the ends of some nerve fibres to transmit impulses to other nerve cells or to muscles acetylcholinesterase acetylcholinesterase noun an enzyme, present in blood and some nerve endings, that aids the breakdown of acetylcholine and suppresses its stimulatory effect on nerves acetyl CoA acetyl CoA abbreviation acetyl coenzyme A acetyl coenzyme A acetyl coenzyme A noun a coenzyme produced during the metabolism of carbohy- drates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Abbreviation acetyl CoA ACFM ACFM abbreviation Association of Cereal Food Manufacturers achalasia achalasia noun difficulty in swallowing achlorhydria achlorhydria noun an acid deficiency in the digestive system acholia acholia noun a bile deficiency in the digestive system acid acid noun a chemical substance that is able to dissolve metals acidaminuria acidaminuria noun an excessive excretion of amino acids in urine acid brilliant green BS acid brilliant green BS noun  E142 acid calcium phosphate acid calcium phosphate noun the acid ingredient in some types of baking powder acid food acid food noun any food that leaves an acid residue after being metabolised. Compare basic food acidic acidic adjective referring to acids acidic salts corrosion acidic salts corrosion noun the rusting of a can acidification acidification noun the process of adding an acid to a food in order to preserve it (NOTE: The usual acids are acetic, citric and lactic, although benzoic acid is sometimes used.) acidify acidify verb to make a substance more acid, or to become more acid acidimeter acidimeter noun a device for measuring the acidity of a liquid acidity acidity noun the concentration of acid in a substance, of which pH is a measure acidity regulator acidity regulator noun an additive used for controlling the pH of food acidogenic acidogenic adjective producing acids, or promoting the production of acids acidophilus milk acidophilus milk noun a cultured milk made from fresh milk that is allowed to go sour in a controlled way, of which yoghurt is a type acidosis acidosis noun 1. a medical condition in which there are more acid waste products than usual in the blood because of a lack of alkali 2. same as acidity acid protease acid protease noun a protein-digesting enzyme activated in stomach acidFoodScience.fm Page 3 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 3 ADA deficiency acid reflux acid reflux noun the regurgitation of gastric juices into the oesophagus, where the acid causes irritation and the burning sensation commonly referred to as heartburn acid salt acid salt noun a chemical salt in which some of the acidic hydrogen atoms of the original acid have been replaced acid-sensitive acid-sensitive adjective used for describing bacteria that are made inactive by acidic conditions acidulant acidulant noun an additive such as phosphoric acid which is added to food to lower its pH acidulate acidulate verb to make a substance slightly acid, or to become slightly acid ACMSF ACMSF abbreviation Advisory Committee on Microbiological Safety of Food acne acne noun an inflammation of the sebaceous glands during puberty which makes black- heads appear on the skin, which often then become infected and produce red raised spots ACNFP ACNFP abbreviation Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes acrid acrid adjective having a strong bitter smell or taste acrodermatitis enteropathica acrodermatitis enteropathica noun zinc deficiency acrolein acrolein noun the acrid-smelling chemical produced by overheated fat, which causes eye and throat irritation acrylamide acrylamide noun a chemical found in baked and fried foods, thought to increase the risk of cancer in humans activated dough development activated dough development noun a method of speeding up the first rising of dough by adding small quantities of other substances, e.g. ascorbic acid or cysteine (NOTE: These substances modify the properties of the gluten in the dough.) activator activator noun any compound that stimulates enzymes active oxygen method active oxygen method noun a method of measuring the susceptibility of fats to damage by oxidation active packaging active packaging noun food packaging that interacts chemically or biologically with its contents to extend shelf-life or to modify the product during storage active site active site noun the region of an enzyme molecule where a substance (substrate) is bound and acted upon by the enzyme active transport active transport noun a transfer of substances across a cell membrane for which energy is required activity level activity level noun a measurement of the number and function of enzymes in the digestive tract acute acute adjective used for describing pain that is sharp and intense acute benign hydrocephalus acute benign hydrocephalus noun a short-lived reaction to a large overdose of vita- mins A and D in small infants, causing extreme bulging of the fontanelle acute cholecystitis acute cholecystitis noun inflammation of the gallbladder caused by a gallstone blocking the biliary duct acute intermittent porphyria acute intermittent porphyria noun a type of porphyria that causes abdominal pain and nausea, treated with a high-glucose diet. Abbreviation AIP acute toxicity acute toxicity noun a concentration of a toxic substance that is high enough to make people seriously ill ADA ADA abbreviation adenosine deaminase ADA deficiency ADA deficiency noun a genetic disease resulting from the deficiency of the metabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase, causing increased susceptibility to lymphomas and chronic infectionsFoodScience.fm Page 4 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM adaptation 4 adaptation adaptation noun the process by which the senses become less sensitive to particular odours or flavours with repeated contact, which accounts for the tolerance of high levels of spices in some cultures adaptogen adaptogen noun a set of active ingredients in homeopathic remedies ADD ADD abbreviation attention deficit disorder added water added water noun extra moisture added to a food product such as ham to increase its weight and bulk addict addict noun a person who is addicted to a harmful drug addiction addiction noun a state of physiological or psychological dependence on a potentially harmful drug additive additive noun a chemical substance that is added to food to improve its appearance, smell or taste, or to prevent it from going bad adenine adenine noun one of the four basic components of DNA adenosine adenosine noun a compound, consisting of the base adenine and the sugar ribose, found in DNA, RNA and energy-carrying molecules such as ATP adenosine deaminase adenosine deaminase noun an enzyme involved in the breakdown of adenosine in the body. Abbreviation ADA adenosine triphosphatase adenosine triphosphatase noun full form of ATPase adenosine triphosphate adenosine triphosphate noun a chemical that occurs in all cells, but mainly in muscle, where it forms the energy reserve. Abbreviation ATP adenylate cyclase adenylate cyclase noun an enzyme involved in the formation of cAMP from ATP adephagy adephagy noun excessive eating (technical) ADHD ADHD abbreviation attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADI ADI abbreviation Acceptable Daily Intake adipectomy adipectomy noun a surgical operation to remove subcutaneous fat adipolysis adipolysis noun hydrolysis of fats during digestion by the action of enzymes adiponectin adiponectin noun a hormone that affects energy homeostasis adipose adipose noun fatty adipose tissue adipose tissue noun tissue in which the cells contain fat adipsia adipsia noun the absence of thirst (technical) adoucir adoucir verb to make food less strong or salty adrenal glands adrenal glands plural noun two endocrine glands at the top of the kidneys which secrete cortisone, adrenaline and other hormones adrenaline adrenaline noun a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands that has an effect similar to the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Also called epinephrine adrenocortical adrenocortical adjective relating to the cortex of the adrenal glands adulterant adulterant noun a cheaper substance added to food in order to increase its weight without changing its appearance (NOTE: Some are added legally, as is water in chicken.) adulterate adulterate verb to make something less pure by adding inferior or unsuitable substances to it adulterated adulterated adjective made less pure by the addition of inferior or unsuitable substances adulteration adulteration noun the act of making something less pure by adding an inferior or unsuit- able substanceFoodScience.fm Page 5 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 5ageing Advisory Committee on Microbiological Safety of Food Advisory Committee on Microbiological Safety of Food noun a statutory committee that provides advice to the government on matters of food safety. Abbreviation ACMSF Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes noun an independent body that advises the Food Standards Agency on matters relating to new foodstuffs and proc- esses. Abbreviation ACNFP adzuki bean adzuki bean, azuki bean noun a small, slightly sweet, reddish-brown bean from Japan and China, used as a pulse or ground into flour (NOTE: Its botanical name is Phaseolus angularis.) -aemia -aemia suffix blood aerate aerate verb to allow air to enter a substance, especially soil or water aerated bread aerated bread noun bread made from dough that has been mechanically mixed with carbon dioxide without using yeast aerating agent aerating agent noun a substance that allows small bubbles of gas to be dispersed evenly in a liquid or solid foodstuff aeration aeration noun the process of adding air or oxygen to a liquid aerobacter aerobacter noun a genus of bacteria normally found in the intestine aerobe aerobe noun a living thing, particularly a microorganism, that needs oxygen for metabo- lism. Compare anaerobe aerobic aerobic adjective involving or requiring oxygen aerobic exercise aerobic exercise noun exercise such as walking, jogging, cycling and swimming that increase respiration and heart rates aerobic metabolism aerobic metabolism noun the breakdown of carbon and fats into energy using oxygen aerobic respiration aerobic respiration noun the process in which oxygen that is breathed in is used to conserve energy as ATP aerogastria aerogastria noun a medical condition in which the stomach is distended by gas Aeromonas Aeromonas noun a microorganism that causes food poisoning aerophagy aerophagy noun the swallowing of air while eating (technical) aerosol aerosol noun a canister that contains liquid under pressure, usually one that releases the liquid as a fine spray aetiology aetiology noun the causes of a disease AFD AFD abbreviation accelerated freeze-drying affinage affinage noun the process of ripening cheese aflatoxin aflatoxin noun a toxin produced by a species of the fungus Aspergillus, especially Aspergillus flavus, which grows on seeds and nuts and affects stored grain aftertaste aftertaste noun a taste left in the mouth by food or drink after it has been swallowed agar-agar agar-agar noun a natural gelling agent made from seaweed, sometimes used instead of gelatine. Also called seaweed gelatine (NOTE: As it is plant-based, it is suitable for vege- tarians.) agastric agastric adjective used for describing an animal that has no alimentary canal age age verb to store food or a wine for a period of time to enable it to develop a desired flavour or become more tender aged aged adjective allowed to mature to develop flavour ageing ageing noun the process of improving a food by leaving it to age, as when game is hung, or by artificially ageing it using chemicals, as when oxidising agents are added to flourFoodScience.fm Page 6 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM ageusia 6 ageusia ageusia noun loss of the sense of taste (technical) agglomerate agglomerate verb to treat something such as flour so that it forms larger, more dispersible particles agglomerated flour agglomerated flour noun flour in the form of large dispersible particles, easily wetted and dust-free agitate agitate verb to cause something to move vigorously or violently, e.g. by shaking or stirring it Agricultural Industries Confederation Agricultural Industries Confederation noun a trade association for suppliers of feed, fertilisers, seeds and grain to the agricultural sector. Abbreviation AIC agriculture agriculture noun the cultivation of land, including horticulture, fruit growing, crop and seed growing, dairy farming and livestock breeding agri-food agri-food adjective used for describing industries that are involved in the mass-produc- tion, processing and inspection of food made from agricultural products agrochemical agrochemical noun any chemical used in farming, e.g. a fertiliser or pesticide agroecology agroecology noun the study of the relationship between food production and the environ- ment agroindustry agroindustry noun any industry dealing with the supply, processing and distribution of farm products agronomy agronomy noun the scientific study of the cultivation of crops agrophilous agrophilous adjective used for describing pests, mould and bacteria that affect crops AHP AHP abbreviation Alliance for Health Professionals AIC AIC abbreviation Agricultural Industries Confederation aioli aioli noun mayonnaise flavoured with garlic, used especially to garnish fish and vegetables AIP AIP abbreviation acute intermittent porphyria air-chilled air-chilled adjective cooled using a blast chiller air-conditioning air-conditioning noun a system for cooling and controlling the humidity and purity of the air circulating in a space air-dry air-dry verb to remove moisture from something by placing it in a current of air air entrainment air entrainment noun the generation of small air bubbles to make food light, as by the action of yeast in bread airtight airtight adjective not allowing air to get in or out ALA ALA abbreviation alpha-lipoic acid à la carte à la carte adjective used for describing a meal in which dishes are ordered separately from a menu alactasia alactasia noun a deficiency of lactase in the small intestine à la mode à la mode adjective served with ice cream alanine alanine noun an amino acid albinuria albinuria noun a condition in which the urine is pale or white albumen albumen noun the white of an egg, containing albumin albumen index albumen index noun a measure of egg quality which compares the ratio of the height of a mass of egg white to its diameter as it sits on a flat surface, with a higher index indicating higher quality albumin albumin noun a common water-soluble protein coagulated by heat, found in egg white, blood plasma and milk.  ovalbuminFoodScience.fm Page 7 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 7 alible albumin index albumin index noun a measure of the freshness of an egg alcohol alcohol noun 1. a pure colourless liquid that is formed by the action of yeast on sugar solu- tions and forms the intoxicating part of drinks such as wine and whisky. Symbol C H OH 2. 2 5 any drink made from fermented or distilled liquid alcoholaemia alcoholaemia noun the presence of ethanol in the blood alcohol by volume alcohol by volume noun the amount of alcohol in a drink, shown on the label. Abbre- viation ABV alcohol content alcohol content noun the presence or concentration of pure ethanol in an alcoholic liquid alcohol dehydrogenase alcohol dehydrogenase noun an enzyme found in the liver and stomach that promotes the conversion of alcohols to aldehydes alcoholic alcoholic adjective containing alcohol  noun a person who is addicted to drinking alcohol and shows changes in behaviour and personality as a result of this addiction Alcoholics Anonymous Alcoholics Anonymous noun an organisation of former alcoholics that helps people to overcome their dependence on alcohol by encouraging them to talk about their problems in group therapy. Abbreviation AA alcohol intake alcohol intake noun the amount of alcohol consumed by a person during a given period such as a week alcoholise alcoholise verb to infuse something such as fruit with alcohol alcoholism alcoholism noun the excessive drinking of alcohol to an addictive degree alcohol unit alcohol unit noun a measure of alcohol consumption, consisting of 10ml or 8g of absolute alcohol alcoholuria alcoholuria noun the presence of alcohol in the urine alcopop alcopop noun a drink, manufactured and sold commercially, that is a mixture of alcohol and a soft drink such as lemonade aldehyde aldehyde noun one of the main groups of organic compound hydrocarbons al dente al dente adjective used for describing pasta that is still firm when bitten, said to be perfectly cooked aldolase aldolase noun an enzyme that aids the breakdown of fructose aldosterone aldosterone noun a hormone, secreted by the adrenal gland, that regulates the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and the amount of body fluid ale ale noun a bitter beer brewed using barley and usually hops, especially one brewed and stored using traditional methods aleurone layer aleurone layer noun a layer of cells under the bran coat on cereal grains alfacalcidol alfacalcidol noun a substance related to vitamin D, used by the body to maintain the right levels of calcium and phosphate, and also as a drug to help people who do not have enough vitamin D algae algae plural noun tiny plants that live in water or in moist conditions, contain chlorophyll and have no stems, roots or leaves algal bloom algal bloom noun a rapid increase in the population of algae in an area of water algin algin noun a compound extracted from algae, used for bulking out ice cream and puddings alginate alginate noun a salt of alginic acid alginic acid alginic acid noun an insoluble powdery acid obtained from brown seaweed and used as a thickener in foods alible alible adjective nourishing or providing nutrientsFoodScience.fm Page 8 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM alimentary 8 alimentary alimentary adjective providing food, or relating to food or nutrition alimentary canal alimentary canal noun a tube in the body going from the mouth to the anus and including the throat, stomach and intestines, through which food passes and is digested alimentary system alimentary system noun same as digestive system alimentation alimentation noun the act of taking in food (technical) alipogenic alipogenic adjective not forming fat alkali alkali noun a substance that neutralises acids and forms salts alkaline phosphatase alkaline phosphatase noun an enzyme that controls hydrolysis, used in the clinical diagnosis of many illnesses alkaline tide alkaline tide noun an increase in blood pH caused by the secretion of gastric acid alkalinity alkalinity noun the concentration of alkali in a solution, measured in terms of pH alkaloid alkaloid noun a naturally occurring alkali in food, especially one that has an effect on the consumer allantoin allantoin noun the oxidation of uric acid allergen allergen noun a compound that reacts with the proteins of the skin and mucous membranes of some people to cause rashes, irritation, asthma and other unpleasant symptoms (NOTE: Typical food allergies occur with strawberries, eggs, milk, cereal, fish, peas and nuts.) allergenic allergenic adjective producing or triggering an allergy allergenic potential allergenic potential noun an assessment of the potential of a GM food to produce an allergic reaction allergy allergy noun a sensitivity to particular substances that causes an unpleasant physical reac- tion Alliance for Health Professionals Alliance for Health Professionals noun a trade union federation with members that include the British Dietetic Association. Abbreviation AHP allicin allicin noun the chemical compound in garlic that gives it its characteristic smell and taste Allium Allium noun the Latin name for a family of plants including the onion, leek, garlic and chives allogotrophia allogotrophia noun growth in one organ that occurs when nutrients from another organ leach into it allosteric allosteric adjective used for describing a binding site on an enzyme at which interaction induces altered activity at another site allotriogeusia allotriogeusia noun a distorted sense of taste allotriophagy allotriophagy noun a desire for unusual foods allspice allspice noun the ground dried berries of a tropical evergreen tree, used as a spice almond almond noun a sweet nut from the almond tree almond essence almond essence noun an alcoholic extract of fermented bitter almonds, used for giving an almond flavour to cakes and other foods (NOTE: Some almond essences are made from apricot kernels.) almond flavouring almond flavouring noun a synthetic chemical product with an almond flavour and smell, much cheaper than almond essence and commonly used as a substitute almond oil almond oil noun a delicate oil derived from bitter almonds, used in confectionery and for oiling dessert moulds almond paste almond paste noun same as marzipan aloe vera aloe vera, aloe noun a soothing, moisturising extract made from the leaves of a species of aloe plant, used in drugs and cosmeticsFoodScience.fm Page 9 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 9 ammonium alginate alpha amylase alpha amylase noun an enzyme present in wheat seed, which changes some starch to sugar. Excessive amounts can result in loaves of bread with sticky texture. alphafoetoprotein alphafoetoprotein noun a blood protein produced in the liver, yolk sac and gastrointes- tinal tract of a foetus, used as an indicator of cancer and other diseases in adults alpha-linolenic acid alpha-linolenic acid noun a fatty acid found in high proportion in walnut oil, soya oil and the leaf vegetable purslane (NOTE: It is said to be the reason why Cretans and Japa- nese have a low incidence of heart attacks.) alpha-lipoic acid alpha-lipoic acid noun a sports supplement that maintains insulin sensitivity. Abbrevi- ation ALA alphatocopherol alphatocopherol noun same as vitamin E Alpine scurvy Alpine scurvy noun same as pellagra aluminium aluminium noun a metallic element extracted from the ore bauxite. Symbol Al aluminium calcium silicate aluminium calcium silicate noun  E556 aluminium foil aluminium foil noun very thin, flexible aluminium used for wrapping for food and for cooking. Also called cooking foil, tin foil aluminium sodium silicate aluminium sodium silicate noun  E554 alveograph alveograph noun an instrument that uses a jet of air to measure the strength of dough prior to baking (NOTE: It works by injecting air into the dough at a fixed depth and flow rate and recording the pressure at which the resulting bubble bursts.) Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease noun a disease in which a person experiences progressive dementia owing to nerve cell loss in specific brain areas, resulting in loss of mental faculties including memory amaranth amaranth noun 1. a plant grown for ornament and sometimes as a grain crop or leafy vegetable 2.  E123 amaretti amaretti plural noun small crisp Italian biscuits flavoured with almonds ambient temperature ambient temperature noun the temperature of the air in which you live or work ambient yoghurt ambient yoghurt noun yoghurt that may be stored at room temperature, without chilling American Association of Analytical Chemists American Association of Analytical Chemists noun an association for scien- tists who analyse the compositions of foodstuffs, beverages and drugs. Abbreviation AOAC American service American service noun a method of serving food in a restaurant by dividing it among individual plates in the kitchen rather than serving it from a platter at the table American Society for Nutrition American Society for Nutrition noun a professional research body that publishes a monthly journal on nutrition. Abbreviation ASN Ames test Ames test noun a test of the capacity of a food additive to cause genetic mutation amine amine noun any organic derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms is replaced with an alkyl group amino acid amino acid noun a chemical compound that is broken down from proteins in the digestive system and then used by the body to form its own protein.  essential amino acids aminoaciduria aminoaciduria noun the presence of abnormal levels of an amino acid in the urine aminogram aminogram noun a diagram of the composition of an amino acid amino group amino group noun a group of substances that consists of amino acids and amines aminopeptidase aminopeptidase noun an enzyme that removes amino acids from a peptide or protein ammonia ammonia noun a strong-smelling gas that is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is used to make artificial fertilisers, or in liquid form as a refrigerant. Symbol NH 3 ammonium alginate ammonium alginate noun a food additive used as an emulsifier, thickener and stabiliserFoodScience.fm Page 10 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM ammonium bicarbonate 10 ammonium bicarbonate ammonium bicarbonate noun a raising agent ammonium chloride ammonium chloride noun a white crystalline material used in cough medicines ammonium ferric citrate ammonium ferric citrate noun  E381 ammonium hydroxide ammonium hydroxide noun a solution of ammonia in water ammonium phosphatide ammonium phosphatide noun a food additive used as an emulsifier and stabiliser for cocoa and chocolate products ammonium polyphosphate ammonium polyphosphate noun  E545 amoeba amoeba noun an organism that consists of a single cell (NOTE: The plural form is amoebae.) amoebiasis amoebiasis noun an infection caused by an amoeba, which, in the large intestine, can cause dysentery amphetamine amphetamine noun a drug that stimulates the central nervous system, formerly used to treat depression and as an appetite suppressant amuse-bouche amuse-bouche, amuse-gueule noun a small appetiser served before a meal or while the customer is looking at the menu amydated pectin amydated pectin noun a synthetic derivative of pectin that is more stable than the parent product. Also called E440 amylaemia amylaemia noun an excess of starch in the blood amylase amylase noun an enzyme that converts starch into maltose amylodyspepsia amylodyspepsia noun the inability to digest starch amyloid amyloid noun a non-nitrogenous food consisting mostly of starch amyloidosis amyloidosis noun any disease in which amyloid plaque is deposited in an organ or in tissue amyloid plaque amyloid plaque noun a build-up of amyloids in bodily tissues, causing organ failure amylolysis amylolysis noun the conversion of starch into sugars by the action of enzymes amylopectin amylopectin noun a polysaccharide substance that is an insoluble component of starch amylopeptic amylopeptic adjective used for describing enzymes that are capable of making starch soluble amylophagia amylophagia noun a morbid desire to eat starch amylopsin amylopsin noun an enzyme that converts starch into maltose amylose amylose noun a carbohydrate of starch amyxorrhoea amyxorrhoea noun the presence of undigested starch in stools, indicating amylase defi- ciency anabolic anabolic adjective building up muscle or tissue anabolism anabolism noun the part of metabolism that builds up muscle or tissue anacidity anacidity noun the abnormal lack of hydrochloric acid in gastric juices anaemia anaemia noun a medical condition in which an unusually low level of red blood cells or haemoglobin makes it more difficult for the blood to carry oxygen, producing symptoms of tiredness and paleness of lips, nails and the inside of the eyelids anaemic anaemic adjective having anaemia anaemotrophy anaemotrophy noun insufficient nourishment of the blood anaerobe anaerobe noun a microorganism that lives without oxygen, e.g. the tetanus bacillus anaerobic anaerobic adjective able to function without oxygenFoodScience.fm Page 11 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 11 anisakiasis anaerobic exercise anaerobic exercise noun exercise that involves the exchange of energy in the muscles without the use of oxygen anaerobic metabolism anaerobic metabolism noun the breakdown of carbon and fats into energy without the presence of oxygen anaphylactic anaphylactic adjective relating to or caused by extreme sensitivity to a substance anaphylactic shock anaphylactic shock noun a sudden severe, sometimes fatal reaction to something such as an ingested substance or a bee sting anaphylaxis anaphylaxis noun 1. extreme sensitivity to a substance introduced into the body 2. same as anaphylactic shock anchovy anchovy noun a small fish with a strong, salty taste, used, e.g., on pizzas and in salade niçoise anchovy essence anchovy essence noun a liquid extract of cured and salted anchovies used as a flavouring ancylostomiasis ancylostomiasis noun a disease caused by a hookworm, with symptoms of weakness and anaemia. Also called hookworm disease andrographis andrographis noun a herbal remedy said to boost the body’s immune system androstenedione androstenedione noun a dietary supplement that increases testosterone production, energy, strength and muscle development (NOTE: Unwanted side effects include disruption of hormonal balance, leading to aggressive behaviour, mood swings and hair loss.) anencephaly anencephaly noun a severe birth defect that can be prevented by the mother taking folic acid before and during pregnancy angel hair angel hair noun pasta in the form of long, very fine strands angelica angelica noun a plant with dark green stems that are crystallised with sugar and used in confectionery angina angina noun a medical condition in which lack of blood to the heart causes severe chest pains angiotensin angiotensin noun a hormone that causes blood pressure to rise, formed in the blood by a series of processes that can be influenced by drugs angiotensin-converting enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme noun same as ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor noun a drug that counters the effect of an enzyme that causes high blood pressure Angostura bitters Angostura bitters a trade name for a bitter-tasting flavouring for alcoholic drinks, made from herbs and spices angular stomatitis angular stomatitis noun inflammation at the corners of the mouth caused by vitamin B2 deficiency animal fat animal fat noun fat rendered from animal sources, e.g. lard and ghee animal heat animal heat noun same as diet-induced thermogenesis animal nutrition animal nutrition noun the study of how to feed animals for maximum productivity animal product animal product noun any foodstuff or non-food product that comes from an animal, e.g. meat, eggs, leather and wool animal testing animal testing noun the development of a drug or cosmetic product using animals as early testers, to determine the possible effects on humans animal welfare animal welfare noun the idea that animals raised on farms should be treated humanely and protected from unnecessary pain or distress anisakiasis anisakiasis noun same as herringworm diseaseFoodScience.fm Page 12 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM anise 12 anise anise noun a herb that produces a small aromatic fruit called aniseed that is used for flavouring aniseed aniseed noun the seed of the anise plant ankylostomiasis ankylostomiasis noun infection of the intestines by hookworms annatto annatto noun a yellowish-red dye made from the pulp around the seeds of a tropical tree, used as a food colouring anorectic anorectic adjective suppressing the appetite anorexia athletica anorexia athletica noun compulsive overexercising, often a feature of eating disorders other than anorexia nervosa anorexia nervosa anorexia nervosa noun a psychological condition, usually found in girls and young women, in which a person refuses to eat because of a fear of becoming fat anorexigenic anorexigenic adjective same as anorectic anosmia anosmia noun loss of the sense of smell anoxia anoxia noun a complete absence of oxygen from the blood and bodily tissues antacid antacid adjective controlling the amount of acid that forms in the stomach and therefore preventing or easing heartburn  noun an antacid substance ante cibos ante cibos adverb marked on a prescription medicine to show that it should be taken before food. Abbreviation a.c. antemetic antemetic adjective used for describing a medicine that relieves nausea anthelmintic anthelmintic noun a substance that removes worms from the intestine  adjective removing worms from the intestine anthocyanin anthocyanin noun a water-soluble plant pigment responsible for blue, violet and red colours anthropometry anthropometry noun the gathering of physical data from people for the purposes of statistical analysis anti-adhesion anti-adhesion adjective preventing bacteria from adhering to the walls of the digestive tract and developing further antibacterial antibacterial adjective destroying bacteria antibiotic antibiotic adjective stopping the spread of bacteria  noun a drug such as penicillin that is developed from living substances and stops the spread of microorganisms antibiotic resistance antibiotic resistance noun the ability of a strain of bacteria over time to develop a resistance to the usual treatments antibody antibody noun a protein that is stimulated by the body to produce foreign substances such as bacteria, as part of an immune reaction anticaking additive anticaking additive noun an additive that prevents food from becoming solid anticholinesterase anticholinesterase noun a substance that blocks nerve impulses by reducing the activity of the enzyme cholinesterase anticoagulant anticoagulant noun a natural or synthetic agent that prevents the formation of blood clots antidiarrhoeal antidiarrhoeal noun a drug that treats diarrhoea antidiuretic antidiuretic noun a drug that stops urine being formed antiemetic antiemetic noun a medicine that relieves feelings of nausea antifoaming agent antifoaming agent noun a substance that prevents excessive foaming in a food product antigen antigen noun a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies, e.g. a protein on the surface of a cell or microorganismFoodScience.fm Page 13 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 13 appetiser antihistamine antihistamine noun a drug used to control the effects of an allergy that releases histamine antimetabolite antimetabolite noun a compound that affects normal metabolism antimicrobial antimicrobial adjective preventing the growth of microbes for hygienic purposes antimotility agent antimotility agent noun a drug that relieves diarrhoea antimycotic antimycotic noun a substance that inhibits the growth of mould antiobesic antiobesic noun a drug that reduces or prevents obesity antioxidant antioxidant noun a substance that makes oxygen less damaging, e.g. in the body or in foods or plastics antipasto antipasto noun a food served at the beginning of an Italian meal or as a snack antiperistalsis antiperistalsis noun a movement in the oesophagus or intestine that leads to vomiting antisialagogue antisialagogue noun a drug that reduces the flow of saliva antispattering agent antispattering agent noun an additive that stops oils from spattering when heated antistaling agent antistaling agent noun a substance that makes bread and cakes stay fresh for longer antivitamin antivitamin noun a substance that interferes with the normal action of a vitamin anuria anuria noun a failure to produce urine anus anus noun a short passage after the rectum at the end of the alimentary canal, leading outside the body between the buttocks and through which faeces are passed AOAC AOAC abbreviation American Association of Analytical Chemists AOC AOC abbreviation Appellation d’Origine Controlée aorta aorta noun the main artery in the body, which sends blood containing oxygen from the heart to other blood vessels around the body apastia apastia noun a refusal to take food aperient aperient noun a laxative (technical) aperitif aperitif noun an alcoholic beverage drunk before a meal aphagia aphagia noun the refusal to eat or swallow aphagosis aphagosis noun an inability to eat APM APM abbreviation aspartame apoenzyme apoenzyme noun the protein part of an enzyme that only becomes catalytically active after it combines with a non-protein-supporting molecule (coenzyme) apoprotein apoprotein noun the protein part of a protein molecule that also contains a non-protein component aposia aposia noun same as adipsia apositia apositia noun aversion to food Appellation d’Origine Controlée Appellation d’Origine Controlée noun a certification for French wine that guaran- tees its origin and verifies that it meets production regulations in that region. Abbreviation AOC appendix appendix noun a small tube attached to the caecum that serves no function but can become infected, causing the dangerous condition appendicitis appertisation appertisation noun the process of making food sterile appertise appertise verb to heat a substance to a high temperature, either by retorting or using the high temperature short time method of processing appetiser appetiser, appetizer noun a snack taken with drinks before a mealFoodScience.fm Page 14 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM appetising 14 appetising appetising adjective looking, smelling or tasting good appetite suppressant appetite suppressant noun a drug such as amphetamine that makes the user feel less hungry apple apple noun the common hard, edible fruit of the apple tree Malus domestica apple corer apple corer noun a tube-shaped implement used for removing the core from apples apricot apricot noun the small yellow fruit from the deciduous tree Prunus armeniaca, similar to a small peach, but not as juicy apyrase apyrase noun an enzyme that aids the breakdown of ATP, producing energy aquaculture aquaculture noun the farming of sea and freshwater plants and animals for human consumption arachidonic acid arachidonic acid noun an essential fatty acid. Abbreviation AA arborio arborio noun a short-grained rice used for making risotto and other Italian dishes arginase arginase noun a liver enzyme involved in the production of urea argininaemia argininaemia noun a genetic disease that affects the body’s metabolisation of arginine arginine arginine noun an amino acid that helps the liver form urea argininosuccinic aciduria argininosuccinic aciduria noun a genetic disease that affects the formation of urea ariboflavinosis ariboflavinosis noun a deficiency of vitamin B2 Armagnac Armagnac noun a brandy made in southwestern France aroma aroma noun the pleasant smell of something you can eat or drink aroma chemical aroma chemical noun a chemical that can be either naturally or artificially manufac- tured, detected by the nose as an odour aromatic aromatic adjective having a strong pleasant smell  noun a substance, plant or chemical that has a pleasant smell aromatic hydrocarbon aromatic hydrocarbon noun a compound such as benzene, with a ring of carbon atoms held by single and double bonds aromatise aromatise verb to use herbs and spices to add flavours and aromas to a liquid (NOTE: For water-based liquids, the herbs or spices are boiled in it, whereas for oil-based liquids they are fried.) arrhythmia arrhythmia noun a variation in the rhythm of the heartbeat arrowroot arrowroot noun a thickening agent in the form of a white powder made from the root of a West Indian plant arteriosclerosis arteriosclerosis noun a medical condition in which calcium deposits in the arteries cause them to harden artery artery noun a blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to the tissues of the body arthritis arthritis noun a painful inflammation of a joint.  osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis artichoke artichoke noun any of three types of vegetable, the globe artichoke with a thistle-like head and edible fleshy leaves, the Jerusalem artichoke with edible tubers and the Chinese artichoke with edible tubers artichoke heart artichoke heart noun a young globe artichoke eaten as a vegetable artificial additive artificial additive noun a substance added to food to improve its appearance, flavour, texture or shelf-life artificial colour artificial colour noun a colorant substance added to food to improve its appearance artificial flavour artificial flavour noun a substance added to food to improve its flavourFoodScience.fm Page 15 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 15 assimilation artificial sweetener artificial sweetener noun a synthetic substance used in place of sugar to sweeten food artisanal food artisanal food noun any food that has been made individually by hand asafoetida asafoetida noun a powdered resin from an Asian plant, used sparingly in Indian cookery to give a truffle-like flavour and improve digestion. Also called hing (NOTE: The resin is obtained from the root or stem latex of the plants Ferula asafoetida and Ferula narthex, found in Afghanistan and Iran.) ascariasis ascariasis noun a disease of the intestine and sometimes the lungs, caused by infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides ascorbate ascorbate noun a salt or ester of L-ascorbic acid used as an antioxidant ascorbic acid ascorbic acid noun vitamin C, found in fresh fruit ascorbin stearite ascorbin stearite noun a form of vitamin C used as an antioxidant -ase -ase suffix enzyme asepsis asepsis noun the process or methods of bringing about a condition in which no disease- causing microorganisms are present aseptic aseptic adjective sterilised, or involving sterilisation, and therefore without infection aseptic canning aseptic canning noun the canning of food in a sterile environment in which all containers have been separately sterilised as well as the food aseptic packaging aseptic packaging noun methods of food packaging designed to kill off germs (NOTE: The two methods are packaging in unsterilised containers at 124°C, closing and leaving at temperature until all contaminants are inactivated, or packaging in sterilised containers inside an apparatus that is itself sterilised.) ashwagandha ashwagandha noun a plant used in ayurvedic medicine and as a rennet substitute for cheese-making asitia asitia noun an extreme dislike of food ASN ASN abbreviation American Society for Nutrition asparaginase asparaginase noun an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of asparagine asparagine asparagine noun an amino acid asparagus asparagus noun a cultivated plant the new shoots of which are eaten as a vegetable aspartame aspartame noun a protein produced from aspartic acid, used for making substances sweeter. Abbreviation APM aspartic acid noun an amino acid Aspergillus noun a genus of moulds, one of which produces aflatoxins aspic aspic noun 1. jelly made from the cooked juices of meat, poultry or fish 2. a form of salad, with small pieces of cold meat, poultry, eggs or vegetables set in firm aspic jelly in a mould aspiration aspiration noun the action of breathing food particles into the lungs when eating assiette assiette noun a plate of cold meats assimilate assimilate verb to take into the body’s tissues substances that have been absorbed into the blood from digested food assimilation assimilation noun the action of assimilating food substances Association of Bakery Ingredients Manufacturers Association of Bakery Ingredients Manufacturers noun a trade organisation representing manufacturers and suppliers of goods to the bakery industry. Abbreviation ABIM assimilation Association of Cereal Food Manufacturers noun a trade organisation repre- senting manufacturers and suppliers of breakfast cereals. Abbreviation ACFMFoodScience.fm Page 16 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM astaxanthin 16 astaxanthin astaxanthin noun the pink colouring in a small shrimp-like creature that gives the pink colour to the flesh of salmon (NOTE: Now fed to farmed salmon, which are generally pinker than wild salmon.) astragalus astragalus noun a plant extract said to boost the body’s immune system astringency astringency noun the ability of some foods to make the mouth feel dry and tight -ate -ate suffix a chemical compound derived from a particular element or compound atheroma atheroma noun a fatty deposit that causes atherosclerosis atherosclerosis atherosclerosis noun a condition in which deposits of fats and minerals form on the walls of an artery, especially the aorta or one of the coronary or cerebral arteries, and prevent blood from flowing easily athrepsy athrepsy noun malnourishment Atkins diet Atkins diet noun a plan to help people lose weight that suggests that they should eat a lot of protein and fat but little carbohydrate atmit atmit noun an enriched porridge that is highly nutritious, distributed by humanitarian agen- cies during times of famine atmospheric steamer atmospheric steamer noun a device used for cooking foods in steam at atmospheric pressure, making use of the fact that condensation of steam on the surface of the food or its container gives a very high rate of heat transfer atom atom noun a fundamental unit of a chemical element and the smallest part of an element that can exist independently atonic non-functioning colon atonic non-functioning colon noun a lack of muscle tone in the bowel leading to constipation and intestinal obstruction ATP ATP abbreviation adenosine triphosphate ATPase ATPase noun an enzyme that aids the breakdown of ATP into ADP with a release of energy. Also called adenosine triphosphatase atrophy atrophy noun the process of wasting away because of a lack of nutrients attention deficit disorder attention deficit disorder noun a condition in which a person is unable to concentrate, does things without considering their actions properly and has little confidence. It occurs mainly in children. Abbreviation ADD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder noun a condition in which a child has an inability to concentrate and shows disruptive behaviour. Abbreviation ADHD aubergine aubergine noun a shiny purple-black vegetable that is the fruit of plant Solanum melongena. Also called eggplant audit audit noun an official investigation into whether procedures are being followed audition audition noun in sensory analysis, the sense of sound au gratin au gratin adjective  gratin AutismMedical AutismMedical noun a charitable body that researches links between diet and autism autoclave autoclave noun a strong steel vessel in which pressure can be raised artificially, used for steam sterilisation and for creating chemical reactions at high temperature autoimmune autoimmune adjective used to describe an immune reaction in a person against antigens in his or her own cells autolysate autolysate noun a product of the process autolysis, by which cells are broken down by enzymes produced in the cells themselves autolysin autolysin noun an enzyme that causes autolysis autolysis autolysis noun the partial digestion of food by enzymes already present in it, as occurs e.g. when meat is hungFoodScience.fm Page 17 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 17 azyme automated automated adjective worked automatically by machines automation automation noun the use of machinery to save manual labour auxology auxology noun the study of human physical growth and development available nutrients available nutrients plural noun nutrients in food that can be digested and absorbed in the body (NOTE: Some nutrients are unavailable when bound to another compound, but cooking often frees them.) avena sativa avena sativa noun a stimulant and nutritive supplement avidin avidin noun a protein found in egg white that makes the vitamin biotin inactive avitaminosis avitaminosis noun vitamin deficiency avocado avocado noun a pear-shaped green fruit with a rather savoury flavour and pulpy yellowish- green flesh, often used in salads axial load axial load noun the amount of pressure that food packaging can withstand when stacked before it is crushed azodicarbonamide azodicarbonamide noun  E927 azo dye azo dye noun a substance extracted from coal tar and added to food to give it colour azorubine azorubine noun  E122 azyme azyme noun bread that has not undergone fermentationFoodScience.fm Page 18 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM B baby food baby food noun food that has been prepared or manufactured in such a way that it can be fed to a baby baby milk baby milk noun a preparation that imitates the composition of human breast milk and that may be used for feeding babies bacalao bacalao noun dried cod, salt cod, cod or ling Baccillus cereus noun a pathogen found in cress sprouts Bacillus cereus noun a bacterium that grows on rice and can cause food poisoning (NOTE: It is usually found in temperate countries in the form of spores. Symptoms are nausea and vomiting and occasionally diarrhoea.) Bacillus thuringiensis noun the bacteria used in thuricide back bacon back bacon noun a cut of bacon that provides very lean rashers, from the back of the pig in front of the rear haunches back fat back fat noun hard fat from the back of the pig, usually used in high-quality sausages bacon bacon noun salt meat from a pig, sliced into thin strips and cooked before serving (NOTE: There is no plural form: some bacon; a pound of bacon; for a single piece say a rasher.) baconer baconer noun a pig reared to produce bacon bacon rasher bacon rasher noun a thin slice of bacon cut at right angles to the backbone. Also called rasher bacteria bacteria plural noun submicroscopic organisms that help in the decomposition of organic matter, some of which are permanently present in the intestines of animals and can break down food tissue, and some of which cause disease (NOTE: The singular form is bacte- rium.) bacterial contamination bacterial contamination noun the state of something such as water or food that has been contaminated by bacteria bacterial count bacterial count noun the number of bacteria per unit weight or volume of a foodstuff, sometimes used as an indicator of food quality bacterial flora bacterial flora plural noun  intestinal flora bactericide bactericide noun a substance or agent that destroys bacteria bacteriocin bacteriocin noun a substance produced by bacteria that is toxic to other bacteria, preventing them from growing bacteriophage bacteriophage noun a virus that affects bacteria bacteriostatic bacteriostatic adjective causing bacteria to become inactive bacteroid bacteroid noun a rod-shaped or branched bacteriumFoodScience.fm Page 19 Wednesday, August 16, 2006 3:56 PM 19 balantidiasis bactometer bactometer noun a device for measuring bacteria levels in food bad bad adjective deteriorated in quality to the point of being unfit to eat or drink bad cholesterol bad cholesterol noun cholesterol that is transported towards cells and tissue by low density lipoprotein (informal) BADS BADS abbreviation biologically active dietary supplement bagel bagel noun a ring-shaped bread roll with a slightly chewy texture bagged salad bagged salad noun pre-packaged salad in modified-atmosphere packaging bagged snacks bagged snacks plural noun crisps and crisp-like products in foil packets bagna cauda bagna cauda noun a warm sauce of olive oil, garlic and anchovies, served as a dip for raw vegetables baguette baguette noun a long loaf of French bread bain-marie bain-marie noun a pan holding hot water into which another vessel containing food to be cooked or heated is placed (NOTE: The plural form is bains-marie.) bake bake verb to cook food, especially bread and cakes, in an oven bake blind bake blind verb to bake pastry without the filling for a short time baked beans baked beans plural noun haricot beans, cooked in a tomato sauce, traditionally baked in the oven with pieces of pork and molasses but now more generally available in tins baked potato baked potato noun a potato baked in an oven without being peeled, then served cut open, with butter or various fillings, commonly cheese, chopped ham, baked beans and chilli. Also called jacket potato baker baker noun a person whose job is to make bread and cakes baker’s yeast baker’s yeast noun a strain of yeast used fresh in breadmaking (NOTE: It is a strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.) bakery bakery noun a shop or part of a shop where items of baked food, especially bread and cakes, are sold bakeware bakeware noun trays and dishes used for baking food in the oven baking baking noun a method of cooking by placing something such as a bread or cake mixture in an oven baking apple baking apple noun same as cooking apple baking chocolate baking chocolate noun same as bitter chocolate baking parchment baking parchment noun same as silicone paper baking powder baking powder noun a mixture containing sodium bicarbonate, starch and acids that is used for making cakes rise when they are cooked baking sheet baking sheet noun a heavy steel sheet on which biscuits, rolls and similar foods can be baked in an oven.  baking tray baking soda baking soda noun sodium bicarbonate, especially when used as a raising agent in cookery baking tray baking tray noun a flat metal tray used for baking food in an oven balanced diet balanced diet noun a diet that contains the right quantities of basic nutrients Balance of Good Health Balance of Good Health noun a piechart representation of the proportions in which food groups should be consumed for health balantidiasis balantidiasis noun a bacterial infection of the large intestine, causing diarrhoea and ulceration