Entrepreneurship education and pedagogy

entrepreneurship education project and entrepreneurship education research
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PatrickWood,United Kingdom,Researcher
Published Date:16-07-2017
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ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION: A ROAD TO SUCCESS A compilation of evidence on the impact of entrepreneurship education strategies and measures GrowthEntrepreneurship Education: A road to success Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success Key evidence from 91 national and transnational research projects Entrepreneurship education is given a significant role in supporting the main goals of the Europe 2020 strategy; growths and jobs. Therefore, it is important to gather knowledge and evidence from across Europe and elsewhere that shows whether and how impact is achieved. In 2013 DG Enterprise and Industry commissioned ICF International to conduct a mapping exercise of examples of research on the impact of Entrepreneurial Education. This report presents the outcome of the mapping exercise: 91 studies from 23 countries were identified. Eighty four studies addressed initiatives and actions taken at national level, and seven examples researched the effects of transnational projects operating in several countries. The prevailing impression that emerged from the evidence collected is that entrepreneurship education works. Students participating in entrepreneurship education are more likely to start their own business and their companies tend to be more innovative and more successful than those led by persons without entrepreneurship education backgrounds. Entrepreneurship education alumni are at lower risk of being unemployed, and are more often in steady employment. Compared to their peers, they have better jobs and make more money. Notably, effects tend to cumulate and lead to acceleration: those who participated in a higher number of entrepreneurship education measures benefited more over time. The positive impact is not restricted to students and alumni. Besides impact on the individual, evidence from the examples reviewed for this study also shows impact on educational institutions, the economy and society. A summary of key findings is presented below. Impact on the individual  Entrepreneurship education Entrepreneurship helps to boost career ambitions  Participants in entrepreneurship education programmes in secondary school change their career aspirations, ambitions for jobs and interest in taking up further education. In the study ‘The effects of education and training in entrepreneurship’ in Sweden, a higher percentage of students taking part in an entrepreneurship programme started university level programmes compared to the control group.  Secondary education students interviewed for the Evaluation of Enterprise Education in England (2007-2010), reported that enterprise education strengthened their confidence and acted as a trigger to subsequently build up their capabilities and develop higher aspirations for life.  An analysis of data from on programmes provided by the National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE) in the USA shows that students in secondary education who participated in a NFTE programme are more ambitious regarding occupations and college attendance than students in the control group, and more likely to take initiative and leadership roles. Another study on the NFTE programme found that the drop-out rate for NFTE alumni between the ages of 16– 19 is less than the national average (1% versus 3.4%, respectively).  Evidence for greater confidence and higher ambitions was also found for pupils in primary education. For example, the ‘Creativity and innovation in school’ programme (UPI) in Slovenia led to improved confidence. After the programme, students’ showed higher ambitions regarding their choice of secondary education. 7 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success  A long-term study on the impact of entrepreneurship education carried out in Denmark revealed that students in both primary/lower secondary education that have participated in entrepreneurship education have higher ambitions on their future career choices (job or further education) than those that have not. They became more self-motivating in their efforts in the learning process and they claimed to engage more out of a desire for learning.  Entrepreneurship education leads to higher employability:  A study on the Enterprise Challenge programme in Ireland finds that after the programme, three quarters of secondary students participating could correctly recognise the most appropriate behaviour for interviews; 87% of primary students and 65% of secondary students could correctly recognise the characteristics that employers regard as important and seek in their employees; 87% of primary students and 73% of secondary students understood the purpose of a CV.  The study “Making an impact” from Canada finds that alumni of entrepreneurship education programmes are three times more likely than the control group to hold senior and middle management positions, and 25% less likely to be unemployed than individuals in the control group.  A study from the USA shows that entrepreneurship graduates at the University of Arizona were more often employed full-time in high-tech industries than their peers.  A US study on alumni of the NFTE programme shows that 88% of NFTE alumni between the ages of 25–40 with a high school diploma are employed (compared to 69% national average).  Graduates from entrepreneurship programmes connected to the Action Plan in Norway were less likely to be unemployed than graduates that did not take up entrepreneurship education. The unemployment rate for entrepreneurship graduates within engineering and business management was 2.8% compared to 6.6% for graduates in the control group. Moreover, they were more likely to be in steady employment (73.6% as opposed to 60.8% in the control group).  In Denmark, prior to a long-term measurement launched among Danish students in 2011, a compilation of existing data was undertaken. Based on data from a variety of studies, the report states that people who have been trained and educated in entrepreneurship have a considerably higher income than those who did not receive this type of education. The more training and education, the higher the income - the effects seem to accumulate.  Very often, this positive outcome is related to the methods used: In a study examining the impact of the problem-based learning approach (PBL model) used at Aalborg University in Denmark, 80% of students responded that they learned more while working on the project compared to instruction and lecture-based learning in a classroom. They feel that the project work and the learning associated with it are related to real–life work environments and found the project work useful in acquiring professional and core employability skills.  Entrepreneurship education leads to improved entrepreneurial skills and attitudes  According to the 2012 and 2013 reports of the Danish long-term measurement mentioned in the previous section, entrepreneurship education in Denmark increased the entrepreneurial skills and behaviour of primary and lower secondary students regarding. ‘Self-efficacy’ was taken to be a reliable indicator to predict the likelihood of individuals acting entrepreneurially in the future. Upper secondary students improved their skills on all dimensions on a self-efficacy scale - management skills (planning and financial literacy) and skills that minimise barriers (managing uncertainty and marshalling resources). 8 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success  Students that participated in the ‘E-Vitamin’-programme in Spain had statistically significant higher scores than the control group in self-efficacy, pro-activeness, risk-taking and locus of control.  The study “Impact: 50 Years of Young Enterprise” from England (UK) reported that alumni claimed the course Young Enterprise improved their ability to achieve objectives, cope with problems, deal with change, do business planning, start up a company, build business relationships and networks, innovate, spot opportunities and evaluate ideas.  The study ‘The impact of entrepreneurship education on human capital at upper- secondary level’ from Switzerland showed that entrepreneurship programmes have a positive impact on students’ entrepreneurial competencies such as: the capacity to exploit an opportunity and to develop business ideas; persuasiveness or leadership; team work; persistence; self-organisation; delegation of tasks; meeting deadlines; and, how to deal with problems and find solutions.  40% of students in secondary education (general and vocational) in the Netherlands assessed that they showed more entrepreneurial behaviour after participating in the programmes launched under the National Action Plan.  The study ‘Opportunity Identification and its role in the Entrepreneurial Classroom’ from the USA tested the effect of a specific type of training on a persons’ ability to generate business ideas and provided evidence that the right training can indeed lead to enhanced opportunity identification and the development of innovative business ideas.  Entrepreneurship education leads to behavioural change towards higher entrepreneurial intentions  The Netherlands National Action Plan also increased the proportion of students that are certain that they want to become entrepreneurs after graduation (from 13% in 2007 to 21% in 2012). In Wales (UK), parallel to the National YES Action Plan, under 25-year-olds showed an increased intention to start a business or to be self-employed (53% in 2012 compared to 42% in 2004).The study ‘Entrepreneurship in Israel: Theory and Practice’ shows that the willingness of MBA students' to engage in entrepreneurship rose significantly after taking part in an elective entrepreneurship course. Students in the sample also indicated that experience in entrepreneurship would potentially increase their future engagement in entrepreneurship. The researchers find it particularly notable that participation in just one entrepreneurship course had such a significant impact on students' perception of entrepreneurship and personal intentions.  Enhanced intentions to start a business can already be proven at secondary education level  The 2012 report of the long-term measurement in Denmark shows upper secondary students improve both cognitive and non-cognitive skills related to entrepreneurship. Consequently their level of entrepreneurial intentions increased after the course. Before the course, they perceived the following barriers: ‘it takes too much effort’, ‘the risk of failure is too high’ and ‘the financial risk is too high’. These barriers were connected to the skills of ‘Managing ambiguity’, ‘Marshalling resources’, ‘Creativity’, ‘Planning’, and ‘Financial literacy’. Improvements of those skills consequently led to higher entrepreneurial intentions.  In Flanders (Belgium), participation in the entrepreneurship education programmes connected to the Flemish Action Plan helped secondary students to develop entrepreneurial intentions. After participating in an entrepreneurship education course, half of the students found having their own company a compelling thought; and 33% of students thought they would indeed realise that wish (the corresponding figure in a pre-survey was 20%). 9 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success Impact on the institution  Institutions implementing entrepreneurship education develop a stronger entrepreneurial culture  The project ‘Creativity and innovation in school (UPI)’ in Slovenia helped to establish a creative climate in schools. Principals and mentors agreed strongly that entrepreneurship education had a positive impact on flexibility, innovation process management and creativity of the students as well as the teachers and mentors.  A study from Wallonia (Belgium) on the ‘Entrepreneurship Spirit Programme’ run by the Walloon Agency for Economic Stimulation (ASE) showed that teachers’ and head of schools who received specific training changed their attitudes and raised their interest in entrepreneurship. A higher number of teachers acknowledged that entrepreneurship is useful in subjects related to social sciences (88% versus 70.5% of the non-involved teachers), and at all educational levels. Especially regarding primary education, differences are significant: 84.6% of trained teachers found entrepreneurship important, while only 63.8% of the non- trained teachers did.  Institutions implementing entrepreneurship education notice a higher engagement of teachers  Evidence from cases in Wallonia (Belgium), South East Europe and England 4 (UK) indicates that raising the awareness of teachers of entrepreneurship increases the likelihood that they will engage in entrepreneurship, use relevant tools and actions and be more motivated to set-up entrepreneurial activities. Moreover, sensitised teachers seem to be better able to support their students’ entrepreneurial learning processes. A comprehensive whole-school approach seems to be especially successful in doing so.  An Israeli study provides evidence for the impact of the ‘Entrepreneurial school’ programme at Misgav elementary school in Israel on staff motivation and engagement. As main success factors, trust in the principal and a formal and informal reward system in place were identified. Through this, the ‘Entrepreneurial school’ programme encouraged the school staff to act innovatively, which ultimately led to a shift towards an entrepreneurial school. This was taken to be a precondition for the reported increase of pupils’ entrepreneurial skills.  Institutions implementing entrepreneurship education intensify the engagement of stakeholders  The close ties of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the USA with technology-based industries allowed for the development of several spin-offs led by MIT staff and alumni. These ties ensure that MIT staff are closely connected to the relevant business sectors and are up to date with technological innovation and the state-of-the-art.  When the Misgav elementary school in Israel was transformed into an entrepreneurial school, stakeholders gradually took on a more active role, for instance they helped pupils to implement the business ideas developed in the classroom. Impact on the economy  Entrepreneurship education supports a higher rate of start-ups and helps creating successful ventures: 4 ‘Entrepreneurship Spirit Programme’ in the Walloon Region of Belgium, Enterprise Education in UK-England, SEECEL 10 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success  Graduates from business schools in Norway with a major in entrepreneurship are between two and three times more likely to start a business than other graduates. Between 1997 and 2003, several measurements on possible correlations were undertaken. In 1997, it was found that three times more entrepreneurship education graduates started a business compared with other graduates. In later surveys, (2001 and 2003) the differences were found to be smaller. But entrepreneurship majors still remain more than twice as likely to start and own a business as graduates with other majors.  In Wales (UK), the National YES Action Plan was associated with the start-up rate among 18-24 year olds being higher than the UK average. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Report reported in 2013 that 9.5% of young Welsh people engaged in early-stage entrepreneurial activity in 2012. The equivalent UK rate was 8.3%.  The study ‘Experiences from participation in JA-YE Company Programmes: What experience did participants in Company Programmes have during their time as company founders – and what happened next?’ assessed the results of the JA-YE Company Programme in Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Romania, Norway and Slovak Republic. By the time they are 25 years old, JA-YE Company Programme alumni demonstrate start-up rates which are about three times as high (15%) than among the average population in Europe (5-6%).  According to the study ‘Impact. 50 Years of Young Enterprise’ from England (UK), more Young Enterprise alumni end up running their own business. 42% of alumni surveyed started firms compared to 26% in the control group of non- alumni.  A US study undertaken at the University of Arizona in 2000 shows that graduates of the universities’ entrepreneurship education programme were three times more likely to get involved in creating new business ventures than their non- entrepreneurship course peers.  The long-term measurement undertaken by FFE-YE in Denmark showed that higher education students that participated in entrepreneurship education more often run a business than those in the control group. In 2012 the number of entrepreneurship students who started their own company during their education increased by 50%, whereas the number of students in the control group doing so decreased by 49.4%. The study also shows that entrepreneurship student led businesses are more sustainable.  Entrepreneurship education leads to economic impact Examples for concrete economic impact were provided by studies from Sweden, England (UK) and the USA.  The firms created by alumni of Young Enterprise UK alumni have higher turnovers: 12% of alumni firms turned over £500,000 compared 3% of the control group’s firms. In addition, 3% of Alumni firms turned over more than £1million, compared to none in the control group.  The firms created by alumni of Young Enterprise UK employ more people: 11% had 51-99 employees compared to 9% of the control group. Two per cent of the alumni had 100-249 employees compared to none in the control group.  The annual revenues (estimated 2 trillion) and employment footprint (estimated 3.3 million employees) of the firms founded by alumni of the th Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are equivalent to the 11 largest economy in the world.  The impact of MIT alumni goes beyond the US. The majority of the MIT alumni firms are founded in the US, but not only: for example, 790 MIT alumni firms have been created in Europe, mainly in England, France and Germany often in the software and consulting sectors. 11 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success  MIT alumni company sales constitute 25% of the sales of all companies in Massachusetts.  MIT alumni companies are highly active in innovative sectors such as software, electronics (including instruments, semiconductors, and computers) and biotechnology. About one third of employees in MIT alumni founded firms are in manufacturing, whereas in the USA, manufacturing firms employ less than 11% of total employment.  Equally, Young Enterprise UK alumni firms are innovative and at the forefront of modern technology: 21.2% of alumni firms were digital and ‘cloud’-based firms compared to 3% in the control group. Alumni firms are more diverse: Alumni firms ranged from internet sales to advanced engineering, corrosion control and ‘retro’ tourism. Control group firms were concentrated in fewer sectors.  The firms started by Young Enterprise Sweden Alumni led to more job creation: The mean size of firms started by alumni as sole proprietorships or partnerships is two employees, and the mean size of corporations started by Young Enterprise Sweden Alumni is nine employees. Both figures are significantly larger than the overall mean size of new firms in the Swedish economy in terms of employment. This applies for both corporations and proprietorships/partnerships. According to the results from the first four years of research, alumni-founded corporations are on average 7.5% larger in terms of job creation than the ones in the control group. The respective difference for proprietorships/partnerships is again in favour of JA alumni and reaches 3.5 percentage points.  The firms started by Young Enterprise Sweden Alumni also generated more revenues. The revenues of alumni-funded corporations are on average 20% higher than comparable firms of the control group. The same holds for proprietorships/partnership firms (6% higher for the Young Enterprise Sweden alumni). Impact on the society  Entrepreneurship education can help to protect an individual against social exclusion  Evidence from evaluation of an arts and cultural activities project in England (UK) with children at risk of social exclusion resulted in a marked improvement in the self-efficacy and empowerment of many of the children involved. The researchers hypothesised that by enhancing the children’s self-esteem and self- efficacy, the project on the long-term will contribute to their social inclusion.  The evaluation of the ENTRANCE project implemented in England (UK), Israel, Hungary and Spain comes to similar conclusions regarding the protective effect of entrepreneurship education against social exclusion. The ENTRANCE project had a significant impact upon motivation and self-confidence of the young people involved; and its effect was found to be greatest for those students most at-risk of social exclusion. Here as well, the researchers identified that entrepreneurial attitudes such as commitment, determination, creativity and planning will help young people to move away from being at risk of exclusion.  High annual return on investment for measures and activities in entrepreneurship education:  The study “Making an impact” from Canada estimated that the entrepreneurship education provider Junior Achievement Canada delivers a 45:1 annual return on “societal prosperity” per dollar invested. 12 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success 1 Introduction 1.1 The aims and objectives of entrepreneurship education As a key competence for life, entrepreneurship is prominent on the agenda of the European Commission. DG Education and Culture’s (DG EAC) ‘Rethinking 5 Education’ communication states that all young people should benefit from entrepreneurship education, including ‘at least one practical entrepreneurial 6 7 experience before leaving compulsory education’ . The Europe 2020 strategy provides the supporting framework for this, and the 2013 Country Specific 8 Recommendations highlight the importance of the Entrepreneurship Agenda. 9 The Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan states that it is entrepreneurship that makes the European economy more competitive and innovative - new companies and enterprises are seen as the most important source of new jobs and employment. In turn, entrepreneurship education is expected to support Europe in competing globally, returning to economic growth and creating high levels of employment. Including entrepreneurship education in education and training curricula is based on the assumption that education has a role to play in developing and supporting future entrepreneurs. 10 In its Council Conclusions from December 2014 , the European Council stresses that both entrepreneurship and education are priorities of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Taking into account the definition of entrepreneurship used in the 2006 recommendation on key 11 competences for lifelong learning (‘an individual’s ability to turn ideas into action’), the Council Conclusions underline that developing an entrepreneurial mind-set can have considerable benefits for citizens in both their professional and private lives. Consequently, Member States are invited to encourage the development of a coordinated approach to entrepreneurship education throughout the education and training system. 1.2 The main forms of entrepreneurship education Entrepreneurship education is implemented through different types of input and at varying scales. The main types of input and activities are:  National/regional strategies: Countries and regions draft strategies or Action Plans formulating specific goals and objectives related to entrepreneurship education. These are complemented and implemented through a range of funded programmes and activities.  Institutional changes: Educational institutions prioritise content and methods related to entrepreneurship education in teaching and learning (e.g. the ‘whole-school approach’). In some cases, this goes together with a changed vision and mission of the institution. 5 http://ec.europa.eu/education/news/rethinking_en.htm 6 ibid 7 http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm 8 http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/making-it-happen/country-specific-recommendations/ 9 http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/entrepreneurship-2020/index_en.htm 10 Council conclusions on entrepreneurship in education and training: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/educ/146196.pdf (original version - EN) 11 Key competences for lifelong learning (2006): http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/education_training_youth/lifelong_learning/c11090_en.htm 13 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success  Courses and classes: Schools and universities introduce entrepreneurship education in the form of individual courses and classes. These can take different forms and can be offered either by the institution or by external providers. 1.3 Why is it important to measure impact? Processes for measuring the impact of entrepreneurship education are often set up in parallel to implementing a programme, initiative or a strategy as part of the overall monitoring. The results are then usually used for the evaluation of a 12 public policy . Impact measurement facilitates both the assessment of the progress and quality of participants’ learning, and the programme, initiative or strategy per se. Measuring the impact of an educational programme or strategy aims at demonstrating if, after the intervention, there is an observable shift. For example, this can relate to participants’ knowledge, skills and views; the atmosphere and perceptions that run across the institution; the economy; or, society more generally. Measuring the impact can demonstrate what works and can be used as a basis to explore why it worked (or didn’t). Data on and understanding of the impact can function as a feedback loop, stressing possible areas for improvement or that a programme/initiative does not serve its goals and resources should be allocated elsewhere. In times of stringent state budgets, this is of great importance. Therefore, impact measurement, which encompasses outcomes and results (see section 2.1 on the use of the terms), is a means for evidence-based policy making at governmental and institutional levels. Using pre-set goals as a benchmark, impact measurement can contribute to forecasting expected outcomes of entrepreneurship education. From an institutional/provider’s perspective, evidence of what works facilitates the promotion of a programme/initiative and the engagement of sponsors/funding sources (whether public or private). For example, according to Young Enterprise (UK), the publication of the impact 13 study they ran (“Impact 50 years of Young Enterprise” ) significantly supported developments in the organisation during the economic crisis. The results of the impact study increased the interest of policy makers and employers in entrepreneurship and were used by Young Enterprise to promote their work and the entrepreneurship education agenda overall. Also, where impact is measured systematically and regularly, i.e. the impact of the same programme/initiative is measured on an annual basis, the results can allow for comparison between different years and the assessment of the impact of any changes/corrections made to the content/teaching etc. 1.4 Who benefits from impact measurement? 14 As monitoring can positively affect all stages of the policy cycle , impact measurement offers evidence to be used in policy and practice design, planning, implementing and reviewing. So, measuring the impact of an entrepreneurship education programme or strategy can bring about significant benefits to several stakeholders: 12 See, for example, Evalsed (2012) The Resource for the Evaluation of Socio-Economic Development; http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/evaluation/guide/guide2012_evalsed.pdf 13 http://www.young-enterprise.org.uk/about-us/annual-review/ 14 Evalsed (2012) The Resource for the Evaluation of Socio-Economic Development; available at http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/evaluation/guide/guide2012_evalsed.pdf 14 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success  The institution launching the programme or the public authorities that are responsible for specific programmes and/or the strategy, as they can:  invest resources in programmes/initiatives that prove to have an impact, based on good evidence;  make the necessary corrections early enough to achieve better results from existing programmes;  understand the reasons that drive (or do not) impact and take them into consideration when designing relevant policies;  have realistic expectations from entrepreneurship education: data and insights from impact measurement can highlight that it is not the programme/initiative per se that should be corrected, but the impact expected should be adjusted to what can be realistically expected;  if impact on the economy and society is measured, public authorities in particular can gain a clear view on how the impact of entrepreneurship education can go beyond the individual/institutional level; and can be linked to other policy areas (such as employment, social policies etc.).  Educators/trainers, who can better understand the purpose of their work and what could be achieved through their efforts;  Participants/learners, as they feel their opinions matter. Existing evidence on the positive impact of entrepreneurship education can engage stakeholders such as educators/trainers, training providers, learners, but also parents and labour market actors; this is especially relevant to countries/regions/institutions that have no or little experience of entrepreneurship education. Also, existing evidence on the impact of entrepreneurship education, as provided in this study, can inform stakeholders that entrepreneurship education can have positive impact, regardless of the form of delivery or the level of education (for example, an through an initiative in primary education; a programme in VET or higher education; or a strategy at national or institutional level). 1.5 This study Given the significant role expected of entrepreneurship education in supporting the goals of the Europe 2020 strategy, DG Enterprise and Industry commissioned a mapping exercise with the aim of gathering knowledge from across Europe and more widely on the impact of entrepreneurship education (especially quantified impacts – on the individual, on educational institutions, on the society and on the economy) and the methodologies of impact assessment utilised in generating this evidence. 15 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success Objectives of the study The study had the following three objectives: 1. To identify examples of measuring the impact of entrepreneurship education on micro (individual, institutional) and macro (society and economy) levels through: – Systematic country research in all 28 EU-Member States plus 15 Non- EU-countries (literature research plus interviews); and 15 – Interviews with high-level experts and academics. 2. To prepare case studies that further examine how different types of initiatives have delivered different types of impact, and show how this has 16 been achieved. 3. To present an overview of the key findings. 1.6 This report This report is the final report to this study. It presents the key findings of the research in three main sections; each section presenting evidence for impacts related to a specific type of input:  Impact of national and regional entrepreneurship education strategies (Section 3).  Impact of institutional changes by prioritising entrepreneurship education (Section 4).  Impact of classes; courses and modules of entrepreneurship education (Section 5). Additionally,  Section 2 outlines the means through which it is anticipated that entrepreneurial education can generate impacts.  Section 6 presents key trends and observations regarding the methodologies used for measuring impact of entrepreneurship education.  A final section, based on the evidence of impact collected, presents key lessons learnt for maximising the impact of entrepreneurship education (Section 7).  Annex 1 explains the approach to conducting the research.  Annex 2 provides background information to those cases providing evidence of the impact of individual entrepreneurship education measures and initiatives.  Annex 3 presents a list of literature and sources used. 15 More information about the method is provided in Annex 1. 16 The full set of case studies is available as a separate document. 16 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success 2 How entrepreneurship education is expected to impact 2.1 Introduction This section summarises the main assumptions underlying the approach to this study. It clarifies the understanding of the terms used and presents the underlying ‘theory of change’ on how entrepreneurship education leads to impact at the individual, institutional, economic and societal levels. 2.2 The impacts of entrepreneurship education In the inception stage, the understanding of the term ‘impact’ underlying the design of the research was clarified. This process followed existing definitions of evaluative terms, inspired by the guide ‘Evaluating EU activities – A practical 17 guide for the Commission services . Definition of key terms Inputs/activities: These are the means used to produce outputs. Inputs include educational initiatives and budgetary costs (financial, administrative and human resources), but also costs for the beneficiaries or target population (co-financing, compliance costs stemming from administrative burden) and costs for third parties (Member States, intermediary organisations. Measurements can be related to inputs, i.e. when an initiative is trying to enhance the offer of entrepreneurship education. Immediate results: two types of immediate outcomes can be observed, outputs and results.  Outputs: Output is defined as a product, which is delivered through the input. Outputs are linked to operational objectives of an intervention (strategy, measure, etc.).  Results: Immediate or initial effect/outcome of an intervention (strategy, measure, etc.). These occur at the level of direct beneficiaries/recipients of the intervention. Results are linked to specific objectives of the intervention. Intermediate outcomes: Short to medium-term effects/outcomes on both direct and indirect beneficiaries/recipients of assistance. Indicators at this level are called impact indicators. These are linked to the intermediate objectives of the intervention. General/Global impact: Longer-term and more diffuse effects/outcomes of an intervention (strategy, measure, etc.), linked to the global/general objectives of the intervention. The time dimension (short, medium and long term) of the effects is specified when relevant. Entrepreneurship education is expected to contribute to a broad range of policy objectives and to have an impact on many different levels of society and the economy. Concrete policy strategies, programmes and teaching approaches for entrepreneurship education are expected to impact in terms of:  more educational offers for entrepreneurship education; 17 European Commission 2004, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/secretariat_general/evaluation/docs/eval_activities_en.pdf 17 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success  more educators prepared for entrepreneurship education;  more institutions practising entrepreneurship education;  more engaged and active citizens;  more and new social ventures;  more innovative employees adding value to existing enterprises; and  increased business start-up rate (particularly amongst young people). Hence, expectations are multi-layered and spread across several levels:  the individual and their knowledge, skills and attitudes – resulting in actions taken by the individual, but also by her/his ability to find a job (‘employability’) or to start a business;  educational organisations and their approach to teaching and learning;  societal change and social inclusion;  economic growth – relying on both new entrepreneurs and new ‘intrapreneurs’, who are taken to be innovative employees adding value to existing businesses. 2.3 A ‘theory of change’ for entrepreneurship education Based on the above, an underlying theory of change was developed. This is illustrated in Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1 Simple theory of change triggered by entrepreneurship education .. .has an effect on the individual receiving it Individuals and institutions Entrepreneurship cause societal education and economic change ...changes the institution prioritising it The theory can be summarised as follows:  It is assumed that entrepreneurship education has an effect on the individual receiving it in form of learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and attitudes), and behaviour.  Equally it is assumed to cause a change in the culture of an educational institution.  As a consequence of the behaviour and actions of the individuals and institutions, societal and economic change is stimulated. Through the study, it was aimed to identify reports and examples which illustrate aspects of these chains and relationships. It was anticipated that some measurements may be able to provide evidence of causal links between the different levels, while others would only show impact on one specific level. 18 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success The study team defined that a key requirement for establishing a causal chain is that an impact (measured change) can be clearly linked to a specific intervention. A considerable amount of time might have passed between an action (e.g. founding a company or becoming self-employed) and an entrepreneurial education activity. Other contextual and structural factors (e.g. family history and economic conditions) and other drivers of entrepreneurship outside of the educational system all have the potential to generate impact as well. Yet, robust and credible causal linkages between an intervention and specific changes need to be established. In other words, evidence is needed which proves that initiative A is a cause for the change measured on B. Figure 2.2 shows a hypothetical example of a causal chain of evidence. In reality, such chains are often difficult to establish. Nevertheless, during the study, several examples were identified which collected evidence of change on specific levels and pointed to effects on other levels as well (see sections 3-5). 19 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success Figure 2.2 Impact mapping – establishing causal chains 20 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success 3 The impact of national and regional entrepreneurship education strategies 3.1 Introduction This section presents evidence on the impact of entrepreneurship education strategies identified through the research for this study. It considers the objectives and inputs/activities of entrepreneurial education strategies and presents evidence of their impact on: students; teachers; institutions; the economy; and, society. Entrepreneurship Education Strategies An entrepreneurship education strategy was taken to be the existence an official policy document developed by educational and/or other competent authorities at a national, regional or local level. A strategy usually includes:  a vision of what it aims to accomplish;  specific objectives;  the steps and actions to be taken to meet these objectives;  the identification of competent authorities and stakeholders;  the processes to be followed; and,  the allocated budget. The entrepreneurship education strategies reviewed covered a broad range of programmes and initiatives on all levels and types of education (from primary to adult education and including formal education, non-formal and, informal learning). Five of the impact studies related to strategies examined the effects of several programmes and initiatives within the strategy or showed how institutions utilised the funding. Four other cases focused on measuring the impact of one specific programme. Additionally, evidence was drawn from three cases concerning broad governmental programmes implemented on a large scale. What differentiates them from the other strategies is the absence of a specific policy document that formulates overarching goals for entrepreneurship education. However, since their scope and impact can be compared to that of a strategy, these examples were included. Table 3.1 provides brief characteristics of the twelve cases that provided evidence to inform this section. 21 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success Table 3.1 The cases providing evidence on the impact of entrepreneurship education strategies Type Cases Key characteristics Evidence on impact 1 National Foundation for FFE-YE is a national knowledge centre supporting Impact measurement is annually reported Strategy Entrepreneurship - Young the implementation of entrepreneurial education in by FFE-YE and so far four impact Enterprise (FFE-YE), Denmark, Denmark at all educational levels. Relevant target measurement reports have been published 2010-2013, http://www.ffe- groups include actors from primary and secondary (from 2010 to 2013). Impact is measured ye.dk/ school and higher education. in all levels of education at the end of the school year. 2 National The Entrepreneurship In 2007, the Netherlands launched a Regular surveys (on a two-year cycle) strategy Education National Action Plan comprehensive National Action Plan that targeted measured progress against the two main 2007-2012 (Netherlands), all educational levels and funded a variety of goals of the Action Plan. In addition, http://www.rvo.nl/subsidies- projects in primary, secondary, secondary several independent evaluations measured regelingen/actieprogramma- vocational and Higher Education. the success of the projects funded. onderwijs-en-ondernemen 3 National Action Plan ‘Entrepreneurship in The Action Plan is a broad initiative to further The strategy was accompanied by an strategy Education and Training – from implement entrepreneurship education throughout ongoing evaluation of its implementation, compulsory school to higher the whole education system. It is based on a cross- comprising several impact assessments education 2009–2014’, Norway, ministerial collaboration, between the Ministry of covering all levels of education (2010- 2010-2014, Education and Research, the Ministry of Trade and 2014). http://www.regjeringen.no/en/ Industry and the Ministry of Local Government and dep/kd/documents/reports- Regional Development. and- actionplans/Actionplans/2009/e ntrepreneurship-in-education- and-traini.html?id=575005 4 National Unlocking the UK talent, A 2008 White Paper formulated policy objectives. There was a review and evaluation of the Strategy Enterprise Education in UK- Subsequently several funding opportunities were impact of enterprise education in England, 2008-2011, created, distributed by the Department for secondary schools in England, including http://webarchive.nationalarchi Children, Schools and Families (DCSF), (then the most useful support and tools for ves.gov.uk/20081201222039/h Department for Education (DfE)). ensuring effective teaching and learning. ttp://www.berr.gov.uk/whatwe do/enterprise/enterprisesmes/e nterprise- framework/index.html 22 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success 5 National Youth Entrepreneurship The 2010-2014 strategy builds on a previous Measures of impact on students through a strategy Strategy (YES) Action Plan, UK- funding round and has clear objectives to produce range of surveys, questionnaires and Wales; 2004-2009, 2010-2015, more entrepreneurial young people across the assessments. http://business.wales.gov.uk/bi country. It includes actions in all sectors of gideas/yes-action-plan-2010 education (from primary to higher education, and both formal and non-formal). 6 Programme South East Europe Centre of SEECEL is an independent, non-profit institution Measures of the impact of the SEECEL related to Entrepreneurial Learning founded in 2009 on the initiative of eight countries School Professional Toolkit (SPT) on four strategy (SEECEL); 2009-ongoing, (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, selected schools in each of the eight http://www.seecel.hr/seecel-s- Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey). One SEECEL-countries. publication-school-professional- of its initiatives is the School Professional Toolkit toolkit (SPT) for teaching entrepreneurship at school. 7 Programme Creativity and innovation in UPI courses were implemented in primary schools Measures of the impact of the UPI courses related to a school (UPI), Slovenia; 2010- by the Slovenian Chamber of Craft and Small on creativity and flexibility of pupils in the strategy 2012, Businesses (OZS); and in secondary schools UPI participating primary schools. http://www.mgrt.gov.si/si/zgod courses by the higher and vocational business be_o_uspehu/arhiv/celoviti_pro education centre Gea College. They were part of a gram_spodbujanja_ustvarjalno national programme financed by the Ministry of the sti_inovativnosti_in_podjetnosti Economy of Slovenia and managed by the Public _mladih/ Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investment. 8 Programmes Entrepreneurship Education in As part of the Action Plan Entrepreneurship Compilation of the short-term effects of 21 related to a Secondary School (Belgium-nl) Education in Belgium-Flanders 2006-2009, a range projects for students in secondary school strategy 2008-2009, of projects and initiatives in secondary education with differing aims and outreach in the http://www.vlaanderen.be/nl/p were funded. school year 2008-2009. ublicaties/detail/advies- actieplan- ondernemerschapsonderwijs 9 Programme E-Vitamin-programme, Spain, The regional government of Castilla y León in Spain Measures of the impact of the programme related to a Region of Castilla y León, 2007- launched a regional strategy in 2002 called based on data from 2007/2008 to strategy 2011, ‘Educate for Entrepreneurship’ (Educar para 2010/2011 on students in lower secondary http://www.educa.jcyl.es/Vita emprender). The E-Vitamin programme was part of education. minaE/es the strategy. 23 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success 10 Other ‘Entrepreneurship Spirit The Entrepreneurship Spirit Programme targets all Measures of the impact of training and Programme’, Walloon Agency Walloon schools and teachers (at all levels). awareness-raising activities on teachers for Economic Stimulation and heads of school. (ASE), Walloon Region, 2011- 2014, http://as- e.be/content/le-programme- wallon-esprit-d-entreprendre 11 Other ‘Entrepreneurial spirit into Between 2004 and 2009, the Federal Ministry of Measures of the effects of the training on schools’, Germany, 2004-2009, Economy and Technology funded four programmes secondary students’ attitudes towards http://www.unternehmergeist- related to entrepreneurship education (JUNIOR, entrepreneurship and discusses challenges macht- JUNIOR-Kompakt, German Foundation Contest for related to implementation. schule.de/DE/DieIdee/Initiatore Students (DGPS) and Youth Start-up). The n/initiatoren_node.html programmes were implemented in secondary education in eight German ‘Laender’. 12 Other Impact of three of Between 2006 and 2013, the Swiss government Measures of whether entrepreneurship entrepreneurship programmes funded three entrepreneurship programmes at programmes have an influence on at upper-secondary education upper-secondary education level with different entrepreneurial competencies, level (incl. VET), Switzerland, methodological approaches and for different target entrepreneurial knowledge, attitudes 2006-2013, groups. towards entrepreneurship and students’ intention to create a company. http://www.sbfi.admin.ch/beruf sbildung/01550/01564/01817/i ndex.html?lang=it&download= NHzLpZeg7t,lnp6I0NTU042l2Z6 ln1ah2oZn4Z2qZpnO2Yuq2Z6g pJCDen17gGym162epYbg2c_Jj KbNoKSn6A 24 Entrepreneurship Education: A road to success The main impacts of entrepreneurial education strategies Impacts on students All cases identified provided evidence that the programmes and courses related to the strategies led to enhanced entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and behaviour. Students go through a process of ‘demystification’ of entrepreneurship and get a clearer view on what an entrepreneur is and does. This often leads to greater interest. Courses that use methods which help students to unlock their creativity especially help to develop their entrepreneurial potential. Many entrepreneurship education alumni also show enhanced intentions to start a business after finalising school. For instance, in Wales, during the period of implementation of the YES Action Plan, under 25- year-olds showed an increased intention to start a business or to be self- employed (53% in 2012 compared to 42% in 2004). Impacts on teachers 18 Evidence from several cases indicates that raising the awareness of teachers of entrepreneurship increases the likelihood that they will engage in entrepreneurship, use relevant tools and actions and be more motivated to set- up entrepreneurial activities. Moreover, sensitised teachers seem to be better able to support their students’ entrepreneurial learning processes. A comprehensive whole-school approach seems to be especially successful in doing so. Teachers also learn to understand that entrepreneurship is relevant for all educational levels and not just in economic subjects. However, the impact on teachers that were already familiar with entrepreneurial teaching and learning concepts before the intervention is higher than on others. Impacts on institutions As a consequence of the Entrepreneurship Education National Action Plan in the Netherlands, between 2007 and 2012 entrepreneurship gained momentum in Dutch schools and universities and a broader range of institutions across all educational levels started practising it. Primary schools showed the largest growth rate (from 50% to 69%); whilst vocational schools and universities showed a slightly lower growth rate, but a very high penetration rate (HE: 80% in 2007, 96% in 2012; VET: 78% in 2007, 96% in 2012). After the UPI Creativity and innovation Programme in Slovenia, principals and mentors in participating schools agreed strongly that entrepreneurship education has a positive impact on flexibility, innovation process management and the creativity of students. Pilot projects launched by SEECEL in South East Europe succeeded in promoting innovative approaches to entrepreneurial teaching and learning. Moreover, the projects encouraged schools to intensify their collaboration with the local community, especially with entrepreneurs, and to strengthen their cross-border collaboration with schools in other SEECEL-countries. Impacts on the economy Several countries and initiatives measured impacts on the economy. They can be considered forerunners in developing suitable methodologies to tackle this challenge. For instance, there is evidence that the Welsh YES Action Plan 18 ‘Entrepreneurship Spirit Programme’ in the Walloon Region of Belgium, Enterprise Education in UK-England, SEECEL 25

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