High quality of teaching

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Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession Lessons fro m around THe o w r Ld Background Report for the International Summit on the Teaching ProfessionBuilding a High-Quality Teaching Profession Lessons from ound ar the orw LdTable of contents IntroductIon   .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 pter 1 hac RecRuitment and initial pRR aep tion of a cheR tea s   .............................................................................. 7   • making teaching an attractivecareer    choice   ............................................................................................................................... 8   • ensuringhigh-quality   initial   teac   hereducation    ....................................................................................................................... 14 pter 2 cha t ehcae R, tnempole vedoppus R,t ac Ree R s tdnneasmnyoitiodlnpomce   ........................... 17   • meetingthe    needfor   professional   dev   elopment   .................................................................................................................... 18 • f osteringan    environmentfor    effective teachercollabor   ation   ....................................................................................... 23 • establishing effective employment conditions   ......................................................................................................................... 26   •  Providingfor   attr   activecareers     ........................................................................................................................................................... 30 pter 3 hac R chetea evtion aaluand compensation   ..................................................................................................... 33    • insear   chof   an    effective teacher appraisalsystem    ................................................................................................................. 34 • maximizing the impact ofteac   herappr   aisal   ............................................................................................................................. 36   • designingeffecti   vecompensation    systems   ................................................................................................................................ 40 pter 4 hac R chetea engagement in eduction a RR efo m  ............................................................................................ 51    • achievingeducational   reform   that    works  .................................................................................................................................... 52 • securing a strategic relationshipbetween   go   vernment andteac   hers’unions     .................................................... 56 I usonclc on   ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 61 © OECD 2011  Building  aHig   H-Qualityt  eacHing Profession: lessons froma   round  tHe  World 3Introduction t eachers  and  school  leaders  are  being  challenged  to  transform  educational  outcomes,  often  under  difficult  conditions. t hey  are  being  asked  to  equip  students  with  the  competencies  they  need  to  become  active  st citizens  and  workers  in  the  21   century.t  hey  need  to  personalize  learning  experiences  to  ensure  that  every  student  has  a  chance  to  succeed  and  to  deal  with  increasing  cultural  diversity  in  their  classrooms  and  differences  in  learning  styles.t  hey  also  need  to  keep  up  with  innovations  in  curricula,  pedagogy  and  the  developmentof   digital   resour   ces.  t he  challenge  is  to  equip  all  teachers,  and  not  just  some,  for  effective  learning  in  the  21st  century. t his  will  require  rethinking  of  many  aspects,  including:  how  to  optimize  the  pool  of  individuals  from  which  teacher  candidates  are  drawn;  recruiting  systems  and  the  ways  in  which  staff  are  selected;  the  kind  of  initial  education  recruits  obtain  before  they  start  their  job  and  how  they  are  monitored  and  inducted  into  their  service  and  the  continuing  education  and  support  they  get;  how  their  compensation  is  structured;  and  how  the  performance  of  struggling  teachers  is  improved  and  the  best  performing  teachers  are  given  opportunitiesto   acquire   more   status   and    responsibility. in  many  high-performing  education  systems  teachers  do  not  only  have  a  central  role  to  play  in  improving  educational  outcomes,  they  are  also  at  the  centre  of  the  improvement  efforts  themselves. in  these  systems  it  is  not  that  top-down  reforms  are  ordering  teachers  to  change,  but  that  teachers  embrace  and  lead  reform,  taking  responsibility  as  professionals. also,  in  almost  every  country  surveyed  by oecd’s t eaching  and  1 learningi  nternationals   urvey  (talis) ,  the  large  majority  of  teachers  report  that  they  are  satisfied  with  their  jobs  and  consider  that  they  make  a  real  difference  in  education.t  hey  also  make  significant  investments  in  their  professional  development,  both  in  terms  of  their  time  and  often  also  in  terms  of  money,  an  investment  that  goes  hand-in-hand  with  teachers’  reporting  that  they  use  a  wider  repertoire  of  pedagogic  strategies  in  theclassroom.     t he  International Summit on the Teaching Profession  brings  together  education  ministers,  union  leaders  2 and  other  teacher  leaders  from  high-performing  and  rapidly  improving  education  systems   to  review  how  best  to  improve  teacher  quality  and  the  quality  of  teaching  and  learning.t  his  background  report,  taking  up  the  four  themes  of  the  summit  in  turn,  presents  available  evidence  about  what  can  make  teacher-oriented  reforms  effective,  and  highlights  selected  examples  of  reforms  that  have  produced  specific  results,  show  promise  or  illustrate  imaginative  ways  of  implementing  change. of  the  four  themes  of  the  summit,  the  first  three  look  at  system  features  that  shape  particular  aspects  of  teachers’  professional  careers.t  he  fourth  theme looks at process, andconsiders   w   hat can make reformeffecti   ve. specifically,the   report   considers:   • How teachers are recruited into the profession and trained initially. in  face  of  widespread  shortages  that,  in  many  countries,  will  soon  grow  as  large  cohorts  retire,  intelligent  incentive  structures  are  needed  to  attract  qualified  graduates  into  the  teaching  force.  Pay  levels  can  be  part  of  this  equation.  However,  countries  that  have  succeeded  in  making  teaching  an  attractive  profession  have  often  done  so  not  just  through  pay,  but  by  raising  the  status  of  teaching, offering  real  career  prospects,  and giving  teachers  responsibility  as  professionals  and  leaders  of  reform.t  his  requires  teacher  education  that  helps  teachers  to become innovatorsand   resear   chers ineducation,   not   just   deli   verers of the curriculum. © OECD 2011  Building  aHig   H-Qualityt  eacHing Profession: lessons froma   round  tHe  World 5Introduction • How teachers are developed in service and supported.s   urveys  show  large  variations  across  and  within  countries  in  the  extent  of  professional  development. not  only  the  quantity  but  also  the  nature  of  this  activity  is  critical.o   ften,  the  professional  development  of  teachers  is  disjointed  in  one-off  courses,  while  teachers  int alis  reported  that  the  most  effective  development  is  through  longer  programs  that  upgrade  their  qualifications  or  involve  collaborative  research  into  improving  teaching  effectiveness.t  alis  also  shows  that  in  expanding  opportunities,  teachers  have  often  played  a  significant  role  in  sharing  the  cost  of  development:  those  who  did  have  tended  to  get  more  out  of  it,  as  did  those  who  make  development  a  collaborative  activity,  working  together  with  colleagues  to  improve  practices. a  further  issue  related  to  supporting  teachers  in  service  is  the  extent  to  which  their  conditions  of  employment  and  their  career  prospectscan   be   adapted   to   meet   their   needs   and   aspir   ations. • How teachers are evaluated and compensated.  results  fromt  alis  show  that,  at  its  best,  appraisal  and  feedback  is  supportive  in  a  way  that  is  welcomed  by  teachers.i  t  can  also  help  lead  to  self-improvement  and  be  part  of  efforts  to  involve  teachers  in  improving  schools. at  present,  most  teachers  do  not  feel  that  school  leaders  use  appraisal  to  recognize  good  performance,  which  suggests  that  a  key  component  of  appraisal  is  appropriate  training  for  those  conducting  the  appraisals. a  connected  issue,  which  also  requires  sensitive  handling,  is  the  criteria  used  to  link  rewards  with  performance.  Whatever  system  is  used  must  be  fair,  based  on  multiple  measures,  and  transparently  applied  in  ways  that  involve  the  teaching profession. • How teachers are engaged in reform.  f undamental  changes  to  the  status  quo  can  cause  uncertainties  that  trigger  resistance  from  stakeholders;  and  without  the  active  and  willing  engagement  of  teachers,  most  educational  reforms  fail.t  he  chances  for  success  in  reform  can  improve  through  effective  consultation,  a  willingness  to  compromise  and,  above  all,  through  the  involvement  of  teachers  in  the  planning  and  implementation  of  reform. i n  moving  beyond  consultation  to  involvement,  the  reform  process  becomes  oriented  towards  transforming  schools  into  learning  organizations,  with  teaching  professionals  in  the  lead. While  it  is  meaningful  for  the summit  to  structure  the  discussion  into  the  above  four  themes,  the  chapters  in  this  background  report  should  not  be  considered  in  isolation.  in  fact,  their  interdependence  is  key  to  understanding  the  nature  of  the  policy  and  implementation  challenges. f or  example,  simply  raising  entrance  standards  for  teachers  will  choke  off  the  supply  of  teachers  unless  compensation  and  working  conditions  are  aligned.  raising  pay  and  changing  working  conditions  alone  will  not  automatically  translate  into  improvements  in  teacher  quality  unless  standards  are  raised. t eacher  evaluation  systems  will  have  limited  impact  if  they  only  relate  to  compensation  but  not  professional  development  and  career  advancement. giving  teachers  more  autonomy  can  be  counterproductive  if  the  quality  and  education  of  the teachers are inadequate.  t he  background  report  was  drafted  by andreas schleicher,  in  consultation  with  the summit  co-sponsors,  3 based  on  reports  of  the  OECD Program for International Student Assessment  (Pisa)   and  the  OECD Teaching 4 5 and Learning International Survey  (talis); oecd   ’s  comparative  policy  review  Teachers Matter;   the  reports  of  theilo   /unesco committee  ofe   xperts  on  thea   pplication  of  ther  ecommendations  concerningt  eaching  Personnel; oecd’s  annual  data  collection  Education at a Glance; oecd’s  report  Strong Performers and 6 Successful Reformers;  oecd’s  review  of  Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School 7 8 Outcomes;  oecd’s  study  Evaluating and Rewarding the Quality of Teachers - International Practices;   9 oecd’s  report  Making Reform Happen   and  the  outcomes  from  the  recent  meeting  of oecd education  ministers in november 2010. © OECD 2011  Building  a HigH-Qualityt  eacHingProfession:    lessonsfrom   a   round  tHe  World 6Chapter 1 RecRuitment and initial pRR aep tion a of teaR che s Education systems face a demanding challenge in recruiting high-quality graduates as teachers, particularly in shortage areas. Various countries have employed a range of strategies to help them do so. Competitive compensation, career prospects, career diversity, and giving teachers responsibility as professionals are important aspects of this. Active recruitment campaigns can emphasize the fulfilling nature of teaching as a profession, and seek to draw in groups who might not otherwise have considered teaching. Where teaching is seen as an attractive profession, its status can further be enhanced through selective recruitment that makes teachers feel that they will be going into a career sought after by high-fliers. All this also requires initial education to prepare new teachers to play an active role in the design and running of education, rather than just following standardized practices. © OECD 2011  Building  aHig   H-Qualityt  eacHing Profession: lessons froma   round  tHe  World 7Chapter 1 r e c r u i t m e n t   a n d   i n i t i a l   P r e p a ra t i o n   o f  t e a ch e r s Making teaChing an attraCtive Career ChoiCe Education systems can recruit high-quality teachers not just through adequate pay but also by providing an environment in which teachers work as professionals… Pisa  shows  that  the  best-performing  education  systems  provide  most  of  their  students  with  the  kind  and  quality  of  education  that  average  performers  provide  only  for  a  small  elite.t  hat  requires  them  to  provide  excellent  teaching  for  all  students. in  order  to  achieve  this,  national  policy  reviews  show  that  they  often  aim  to  recruit  their  teachers  from  the  same  pool  from  which  all  their  top  professionals  are  recruited.  But  people  who  see  themselves  as  candidates  for  the  professions,  and  the  working  conditions  enjoyed  by  professionals,  may  not  be  attracted  to  schools  organized  in  prescriptive  work  environments  that  use  bureaucratic management to direct their work.  many  education  systems  have  therefore  transformed  the  work  organization  in  their  schools  by  replacing  administrative  forms  of  management  with  professional  norms  that  provide  the  status,  pay,  professional  autonomy,  and  the  high-quality  professional  education  and  responsibility  that  go  with  professional  work.  t hey  also  tend  to  provide  effective  systems  of  social  dialogue. f inally,  they  provide  attractive  forms  of  employment  that  balance  flexibility  with  job  security  and  grant  sufficient  authority  for  schools  to  manage  and  deploy  their  human  resources.  in  many  education  systems,  these  aspects  tend  to  be  the  focus  of  explicit nationalor   regional   policies.     …and in doing so, must look carefully at the state of labor supply and demand, and consider strategies both to bring people into teaching generally and to address specic fi shortages. even  where  the  recruitment  of  the  most  highly  qualified  graduates  remains  a  challenge,  policy  makers  tend  to  acknowledge  that  teaching  quality  is  strongly  affected  by  the  pool  of  talent  from  which  teachers  are  recruited.t  he  pool  from  which  an  industry  selects  its  professionals  is  influenced  by  some  combination  of  the  occupational  status,  work  environment,  sense  of  personal  contribution  and  the  financial  rewards  associated  with  a  given  profession. t eacher  policy  needs  to  examine  these  aspects  closely,  particularly  in  light  of  teacher  shortages  that  many  advanced  economies  already  face  and  that  will  grow  in  the  near  10 future  as  large  numbers  of  teachers  reach  retirement  age. e   ven  where  general  teacher  supply  and  demand  are  in  balance,  many  countries  face  shortages  of  specialist  teachers  and  shortages  in  schools  serving  disadvantagedor   isolated   communities.     Policy  responses  are  needed  at  two  levels. t he  first  concerns  the  nature  of  the  teaching  profession  itself  and  teachers’  work  environment.  t hese  policies  seek  to  improve  the  profession’s  general  status  and  competitive  position  in  the  job  market.t  he  second  involves  more  targeted  responses  to  particular  types  of  teacher  shortage. it  recognizes  that  that  there  is  not  a  single  labor  market  for  teachers,  but  a  set  of  them,  11 distinguished  by  school  type  and  characteristics  such  as  subject  specialization.  surveys  of  what  teachers  themselves  value  about  their  work  also  provide  important  insights  into  what  needs  to  be  emphasized  in  recruitment:  the  social  relevance  of  teaching;  working  with  young  people;  creativity;  autonomy;  and  workingwith   colleagues.   Various countries have shown that policy can have a signic fi ant impact on the attractiveness of teaching. it  is  important  to  note  that  the  status  of  the  teaching  profession  is  not  just  a  static  attribute  of  culture  but  has,  in  some  countries,  changed  signic fi antly.  a s  shown  in  the  boxes  on s ingapore  (Box  1.1), e ngland  (Box  1.2)  and f inland  (Box  1.3),  vigorous  intervention  that  directly  addresses  the  attractiveness  of  teaching  compared  © OECD 2011  Building  a HigH-Qualityt  eacHingProfession:    lessonsfrom   a   round  tHe  World 8Chapter 1 r e c r u i t m e n t   a n d   i n i t i a l   P r e p a ra t i o n   o f  t e a ch e r s to  other  graduate  professions  can  make  a  big  difference.i  nteresting  approaches  towards  recruitment  pursued  by  some  countries  include: •  Promotional programstargeted    at groupsw   ho are “non-traditional” entrants to teaching.  •  Broadening  selection  criteria  for  new  teachers,  with  the  aim  of  identifying  applicants  with  the  greatest  potential,including   interviews,   preparing   lesson   plans,   and   demonstr   atingteac   hing skills. •  changing  the  role  of  seniority  in  determining  teacher  assignments,  to  avoid  situations  where  new  teachers  are  assigned  to  the  more  difficult  and  unpopular  schools,  further  disadvantaging  students  there  as wellas   potentially   damaging    teachers’ careerdev   elopment.  •  f or  desirable  teaching  jobs,  sometimes  qualities  that  are  harder  to  measure,  such  as  enthusiasm,  commitment  and  sensitivity  to  students’  needs,  are  given  greater  weight  in  applications,  where  these  are  seen  to  be  more  directly  related  to  the  quality  of  teaching  and  learning  than  the  traditional  emphases  on  qualifications and years of experience.  Box 1.1. Throughout Singapore, teaching talent is identified and nurtured rather than being left to chance Singapore is notable for its comprehensive approach to identifying and nurturing teaching talent. s ingapore  carefully  selects  young  people  from  the  top  one-third  of  the  secondary  school  graduating  class  whom  the  government  is  especially  interested  in  attracting  to  teaching  and  offers  them  a  monthly  stipend,  while  still  in  school,  that  is  competitive  with  the  monthly  salary  for  fresh  graduates  in  other  fields.  i n  exchange,  these  teachers  must  commit  to  teaching  for  at  least  three  years. s trong  academic  ability  is  viewed  as  essential,  as  is  commitment  to  the  profession  and  to  serving  diverse  student  bodies. i nterest  in  teaching  is  seeded  early  through  teaching  internships  for  high  school  students;  there  is  also  a  system  for  mid-career  entry,  which  is  seen  as  a  way  of  bringing  real-world  experience  to  students. s ingapore  keeps  a  close  watch  on  occupational  starting  salaries  and  adjusts  the  salaries  for  new  teachers  accordingly.i  n  effect,  the  country  wants  its  most  qualified   candidates  to  regard  teaching  as  just  as  attractively  compensated  as  other  professions.  a fter  three  years  of  teaching,  teachers  are  assessed  annually  to  see  which  of  three  career  paths  would  best  suit  them  –  master  teacher,  specialist  in  curriculum  or  research  or  school  leader.  each  path  has  salary  increments.t  eachers  with  potential  as  school  leaders  are  moved  to  middle  management  teams  and  receive  training  to  prepare  them  for  their  new  roles. m iddle  managers’  performance  is  assessed  for  their  potential  to  become  vice  principals,  and  later,  principals. e ach  stage  involves  a  range  of  experience  and  training  to  prepare  candidates  for  school  leadership  and  innovation. i n s ingapore,  young  teachers  are  continuously  assessed  for  their  leadership  potential  and  given  opportunities  to  demonstrate  and  learn,  for  example,  by  serving  on  committees,  then  being  promoted  to  head  of  department  at  a  relatively  young  age. s ome  are  transferred  to  the  ministry  for  a  period.  Potential  principals  are  selected  for  interviews  and  go  through  leadership  situational  exercises. © OECD 2011  Building  a HigH-Qualityt  eacHingProfession:    lessonsfrom   a   round  tHe  World 9Chapter 1 r e c r u i t m e n t   a n d   i n i t i a l   P r e p a ra t i o n   o f  t e a ch e r s last  but  not  least,  research  shows  that  people  who  have  close  contact  with  schools  –  such  as  parents  who  assist  in  classrooms,  or  employers  who  have  students  in  workplace  learning  programs  –  often  have  much  more  positive  attitudes  towards  teachers  than  people  with  little  direct  contact.t  his  suggests  that  building  stronger  links  between  the  schools  and  the  community  can  help  to  enhance  the  status  of  teaching.t  eachers  and  school  leaders  can  play  a  key  role  in  strengthening  connections  with  families  and  communities  as  part  of  effective  learning. t his  can  involve  eliciting  greater  support  from  stakeholders  with  traditional  expectations  about  teaching  by  communicating  current  knowledge  about  what  makes  learning  effective.  Personalized  relationships  with  learners  and  their  families  can  be  part  of  this  process,  as  can  after-school  and  extra-curricular  programs,  support  for  families  as  learning  environments,  and  making  more  explicit  the  linksbetween   formal    learningand   life    aftersc   hooling. Box 1.2. Reversing teacher shortages in the United Kingdom The education authorities tackled a severe teacher shortage in England by addressing pay and work environment and launching a powerful recruitment campaign. When  it  took  office,  the  Blair  administration  faced  one  of  the  worst  shortages  of  teachers  in  history. f ive  years  later,  there  were  eight  applicants  for  every  opening.t  o  some  extent  this  had  to  do  with  raising  compensation  significantly,  as  well  as  with  important  changes  in  teachers’  work  environment;  but  a  sophisticated  and  powerful  recruiting  program  played  a  very  important  part  inthe    turnaround. t he  recruitment  campaign  was  launched  with  strong  political  and  financial   backing  by  the  t raining  and d evelopment a gency  (tda )  in  2000. a n  extra g BP  150  million  was  allocated  to  employ  leading  international  advertising  and  recruitment  agencies  to  undertake  extensive  market  research  on  the  motivations  and  barriers  to  becoming  a  teacher  and  to  develop  award- winning  marketing  strategies. i n  addition,  a  new g BP  6  000  education  bursary  was  offered  to  all  trainees  as  a  one-off,  tax-free  payment  to  support  them  through  their  education. a  “golden  hello”  of  up  to g BP  4  000  was  also  introduced,  with  the  full  amount  paid  in  shortage  subjects  such  as  math  and  physics. By  focusing  on  the  idea  of  teaching  “making  a  difference”,  the  new  campaign  aimed  to  improve  the  status  of  teaching  as  a  profession. it  also  emphasized  the  flexibility  and  diversity  of  the  skills  teachers  acquire,  the  variety  of  routes  into  teaching,  and  the  possibility  of  doing  it  as  a  “first  career”  before  moving  on  to  other  things. t he  advertising  approach  was  direct,  encouraging  people  to  call  a  national  information  line,  which  also  allowed  thetd   a  to  collect  data  on  people  who  were  considering  teaching  and  to  target  those  with  skills  in  shortage  subjects,  such  as  maths  and physicsstudents.     Within  three  months  of  the  launch  of  the  advertising  campaign,  the  number  of  people  calling  the  national  teaching  recruitment  helpline  tripled.  By  2003/2004  the  vacancy-to-employment  rate  halved  to  less  than  1%  for  all  subjects,  with  major  gains  in  shortage  subjects,  such  as  mathematics,  where thenumber    ofnew   recruits   had    almostdoubled   b   y 2005. © OECD 2011  Building  a HigH-Qualityt  eacHingProfession:    lessonsfrom   a   round  tHe  World 10Chapter 1 r e c r u i t m e n t   a n d   i n i t i a l   P r e p a ra t i o n   o f  t e a ch e r s Attractive conditions can improve morale, lower turnover and widen the teacher pool. employers  increasingly  recognize  the  need  to  provide  workers  with  a  good  work-life  balance  and  opportunities  to  combine  work  with  family  responsibilities  and  other  activities.  some  countries  allow  part-time  teaching  or  opportunities  throughout  the  career  to  gain  experience  outside  schools  through  sabbatical  leave,  extended  leave  without  pay,  and  job  exchanges  with  industry.a   lthough  all  such  initiatives  involve  costs,  those  costs  need  to  be  set  against  the  benefits  of  lower  staff  turnover,  improved  morale,  and  introducing new knowledgeand    skillsinto    schools.  Teachers’ jobs can be more rewarding when teachers are genuinely engaged in improvement. t he  essence  of  professional  work  can  be  seen  as  the  acknowledgement  that  it  is  the  professional,  and  not  the  supervisor,  who  has  the  knowledge  needed  to  make  the  important  decisions  as  to  what  services  are  needed  and  how  they  are  to  be  provided. organizations  dominated  by  professionals  are  those  in  which  there  are  fewer  layers  of  management,  workers  are  consulted  on  all  matters  of  consequence,  and  workers  have  considerable  discretion  with  respect  to  diagnosing  client  needs  and  deciding  which  services  are  appropriate  to  address  those  needs.i  ndeed,  in  many  professions,  and  for  many  professionals,  the  worker  is  alsothe    managerand,    in manycases,   the    owneras   well.     Box 1.3. Teachers and schools take on responsibility for reform in Finland Finland has made teaching a sought-after occupation by raising entry standards and giving teachers a high degree of responsibility, including as “action researchers” to n fi d effective educational solutions. f inland  has  raised  the  social  status  of  its  teachers  to  a  level  where  there  are  few  occupations  with  higher  status.  u niversity  professors  are  among  the  most  highly  regarded  of  all  professionals,  and  even  the  word  for  teacher  is  the  same  for  school  teachers  as  for  university  professors. i n  2010,  over  6  600  applicants  competed  for  660  available  slots  in  primary  school  preparation  programs  in  the  14 eight  universities  that  educate  teachers,  making  teaching  one  of  the  most  sought-after  professions.   a s  a  result  of  this  competitive  climate,  teaching  is  now  a  highly  selective  occupation  inf  inland,  with  highly  skilled,  well-trained  teachers  spread  throughout  the  country. While  teachers  in f inland  have  always  enjoyed  respect  in  society,  a  combination  of  raising  the  bar  for  entry  and  granting  teachers  greater  autonomy  over  their  classrooms  and  working  conditions  than  their  peers  enjoy  elsewhere  has  helped  to  raise  the  status  of  the  profession. f innish  teachers  have  earned  the  trust  of  parents  and  the  wider  society  by  their  demonstrated  capacity  to  use  professional  discretion  and  judgment  in  the  way  they  manage  their  classrooms  and  respond  to  the  challenge  of  helping virtually allstudents   become   successful    learners.  since  the  1980s,  the f innish  system  of  accountability  was  redeveloped  entirely  from  the  bottom  up. t eacher  candidates  are  selected,  in  part,  according  to  their  capacity  to  convey  their  belief  in  the  core  mission  of  public  education  in f inland,  which  is  deeply  humanistic  as  well  as  civic  and  economic. t he  preparation  they  receive  is  designed  to  build  a  powerful  sense  of  individual  responsibility  for  the  learning  and  well-being  of  all  the  students  in  their  care. during  their  careers,  they  must  combine  the  roles  of  researcher  and  practitioner. f innish  teachers  are  not  only  expected  to  become  familiar  with  the  knowledge  base  in  education  and  human  development,  but  are  also  required to writea   resear   ch-based thesisas   the   final   requirement    for the masters degree. © OECD 2011  Building  a HigH-Qualityt  eacHingProfession:    lessonsfrom   a   round  tHe  World 11Chapter 1 R e c r u i t m e n t a n d I n i t i a l P r e p a ra t i o n o f Te a ch e r s In education too, policy makers have often concluded that top-down initiatives alone were insufficient to achieve deep and lasting changes in practice because reforms focused on aspects that were too distant from the instructional core of teaching and learning; because reforms assumed that teachers would know how to do things they actually didn’t know how to do; because too many conflicting reforms asked teachers to do too many things simultaneously; or because teachers and schools did not buy in to the reform strategy. o ver the past decade, many education systems have granted significantly 12 more discretion to school heads and school faculties, something that teachers often refer to as a factor contributing to the attractiveness of the teaching profession, and something that PIsa shows to be closely 13 related to school performance, when combined with appropriate accountability arrangements. f inland (see Box 1.3) and o ntario (see Box 4.4) provide examples of how formerly centralized systems have shifted emphasis towards: • improving the act of teaching; • giving careful and detailed attention to implementation, along with opportunities for teachers to practice new ideas and learn from their colleagues; • developing an integrated strategy and set of expectations for both teachers and students; and • securing support from teachers and unions for the reforms. In some countries, great discretion is given to the faculty, as a whole, and its individual members. In others, more discretion is given to schools that are doing well and less to those that might be struggling. In some countries, the school head is little more than the lead teacher; in others, the authorities continue to look to the school head to set the direction and manage the faculty. Results from PIsa suggest that an emphasis on professional responsibility at the frontline does not conflict 15 with the establishment of centralized standards and assessments; rather, these go hand-in-hand . Recruitment measures can be adapted to bring in teachers from a wider range of backgrounds. c ountries are also trying to attract different types of people into teaching, not just to overcome shortages, but also to broaden the range of teachers’ backgrounds and experiences. This includes promoting the benefits of a teaching career to groups who are often under-represented among teacher ranks, such as males and those from minority backgrounds. The following are some examples of interesting techniques various countries use to do so: • o pening the teaching profession to individuals with relevant experience outside education, not just in vocational programs (whose teachers are required to have industrial experience in some countries). • Recognizing the skills and experience gained outside education and reflecting those in starting salaries. • enabling appropriately qualified entrants, including mature student teacher trainees, to start working and earning a salary before acquiring teacher education qualifications. • o ffering more flexible approaches to teacher education that provide opportunities for part-time study and distance learning, and that give credits for relevant qualifications and experience. such alternative pathways into teaching can be particularly appealing to under-represented groups, such as males and those from minority backgrounds. © OECD 2011 Bu Ild Ing a H Ig H-Qual ITy Teac HIng P Rofess Ion: l essons f Rom aR ound THe Wo Rld 12Chapter 1 r e c r u i t m e n t   a n d   i n i t i a l   P r e p a ra t i o n   o f  t e a ch e r s Teachers are paid less than most college graduates, but selective incentives, flexibly applied, can use scarce resources to help attract teachers where needed. t eachers’  salaries  increased  in  real  terms  between  1996  and  2008  in  virtually  all oecd  countries,  but  tend  to  remain  below  those  of  other  graduates  (see f igure  1.0). s tatutory  salaries  for  teachers  with  15  years  of  experience  are,  on  average,  below  80%  of  full-time  earnings  for  25-64-year-olds  with  tertiary  education,  and  16 60%  or  below  in  the c zech r epublic,  Hungary, i celand, i srael, i taly, s lovenia  and  the u nited s tates. a   t  the  same  time,  other  aspects  of  teachers’  employment  conditions,  such  as  vacations,  relative  job  security  and  pensions,  are  often  more  generous  than  in  other  occupations. oecd  research  suggests  that  where  teachers’  salaries  are  low  relative  to  professions  requiring  similar  qualic fi ations,   teacher  supply  appears  to  be  quite  price- elastic:  for  a  given  percentage  increase  in  teachers’  relative  salaries,  the  supply  of  potential  teachers  increases  by  a  greater  percentage.i  n  countries  where  teachers’  salaries  are  already  relatively  high,  teacher  supply  tends  17 to  be  less  elastic:  a  given  percentage  rise  in  salary  produces  a  lower  percentage  increase  in  supply.   Figure 1.1 Teacher salaries relative to workers with college degrees Ratio 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Countries are ranked in descending order of the ratio of salary after 15 years of experience/minimum training to earnings for full-time full-year workers with tertiary education aged 25 to 64 (latest available year). Source: OECD, Education at a Glance 2010, Table 3.1 (continued). nevertheless,  the  large  size  of  the  teaching  workforce  means  that  to  raise  salaries  across-the-board  by  even  a  few  percentage  points  is  very  costly. furthermore,  the  teacher  labor  market  is  diverse,  and  teacher  recruitment  difficulties  vary  by  type  of  school,  subject  specialization,  and  region.a   lso,  in  many  countries  the  problems  of  teacher  shortages  and  high  turnover  of  staff  are  felt  most  acutely  in  schools  that  are  already  disadvantaged. some  countries  are  therefore  targeting  larger  salary  increases  to  schools  with  particular  needs  or  teacher  groups  in  short  supply  (seec   hapter  3  below).f  or  example,  some  targeted  policy  initiatives  aimto   attr   act teachersin    subjects suchas   mathematics,   science,   tec   hnology,and    vocational subjects.  f ee  waivers,  scholarships  and  forgivable  loans  are  some  of  the  n fi ancial   incentives  being  provided  to  attract  such  people  into  teacher  education;  and  salary  bonuses  and  recognition  of  work  experience  are  provided  for  those  who  already  have  the  types  of  qualic fi ations   that  are  in  short  supply.s   ome  countries  provide  substantial  salary  allowances  for  teaching  in  difc fi ult   areas,  transportation  assistance  for  teachers  in  remote  areas,  or  bonuses  for  teachers  with  skills  in  short  supply  to  help  ensure  that  all  schools  are  staffed  with  teachers  of  similar  quality.  also  worthy  of  attention  are  non-salary  strategies,  such  as  lower  class  contact  times  or  smaller  classes,  for  schools indifficult   areas   or    thatha   veparticular   educational   needs.     © OECD 2011  Building  aHig   H-Qualityt  eacHingProfession:    lessonsfrom   a   round  tHe  World 13 Spain New Zealand Germany Australia Finland Sweden Belgium (Fl.) Scotland Belgium (Fr.) Denmark France England Korea Netherlands Austria Greece Portugal Norway Estonia Poland Norway United States Italy Slovenia Hungary Iceland Czech RepublicChapter 1 R e c r u i t m e n t a n d I n i t i a l P r e p a ra t i o n o f Te a ch e r s The best potential candidates need access to good teaching jobs. a ll this said, policies to encourage more people to enter teaching are unlikely to pay off if high-quality candidates find it hard to gain teaching posts. The best candidates, who are likely to have good job prospects outside teaching, may not be willing to wait in a lengthy queue or endure a succession of short-term teaching assignments in difficult schools. Well-structured and -resourced selection processes and programs of induction that ensure that the best candidates get the available jobs are therefore critical. Reducing the weight given to seniority in ranking applicants for teaching vacancies can also help reduce the risk that new teachers will be disproportionately assigned to difficult schools. Ensuring high-quality initial t Ea ChEr Edu Cation High-performing countries have found ways of educating teachers to become more effective and play an active role in reform. Initial teacher education varies significantly across countries, and it is beyond the scope of this report to assess related policies and practices. However, oecd research has identified some principles that are 18 worth noting : • Education systems benefit from clear and concise profiles of what teachers are expected to know and be able to do in specific subject areas. such profiles can guide initial teacher education, teacher certification, teachers’ on-going evaluation, professional development and career advancement, and also help assess the extent to which these different elements are effective. The profiles can reflect the school’s learning objectives and profession-wide understanding of what counts as accomplished teaching (see also Box 3.2). • many countries have moved their initial teacher education programs towards a model based less on academic preparation and more on preparing professionals in school settings, with an appropriate balance between theory and practice. In these programs, teachers get into classrooms earlier, spend more time there and get more and better support in the process. This can include both extensive course work on how to teach – with a strong emphasis on using research based on state-of-the-art practice – and more than a year teaching in a designated school, associated with the university, during which time the teacher is expected to develop and pilot innovative practices and undertake research on learning and teaching. • More fl exible structures of initial teacher education can be effective in opening up new routes into the teaching career, without compromising the rigor of traditional routes. The stages of initial teacher education, induction and professional development need to be interconnected to create a lifelong learning framework for teachers. In many countries, teacher education is not just providing sound basic training in subject-matter knowledge, pedagogy related to subjects, and general pedagogical knowledge; it also seeks to develop the skills for ree fl ctive practice and on-the-job research. Increasingly, initial teacher education tends to place more emphasis on developing the capacity of teachers in training to diagnose student problems swiftly and accurately and to draw from a wide repertoire of possible solutions those that are appropriate to the diagnosis. some countries provide teachers with the research skills needed to enable them to improve their practice in systematic ways. f or example, both in f inland (Box 1.3) and the shanghai province of c hina (Box 1.4), teachers are trained to be action researchers in practice, with the ability to work out ways of ensuring that any student starting to fall behind is helped effectively. In addition, some countries have moved from a system in which teachers are recruited into a larger number of specialized colleges of teacher education, with relatively low entrance standards, to a relatively smaller number of university-based teacher-education colleges with relatively high entrance standards and relatively high status in the university. © OECD 2011 Bu Ild Ing a H Ig H-Qual ITy Teac HIng P Rofess Ion: l essons f Rom aR ound THe Wo Rld 14Chapter 1 r e c r u i t m e n t   a n d   i n i t i a l   P r e p a ra t i o n   o f  t e a ch e r s Box 1.4. Preparing teachers to lead improvement in China Teachers are trained to be action researchers in effective practice, with the best teachers going on to support new teachers and helping to improve lesson quality. t he  authorities  in  the s hanghai  province  of c hina  emphasize  giving  prospective  teachers  the  skills  they  will  need  for  action  research,  and  their  method  for  improving  their  education  system  over  time  relies  on  research  performed  by  teachers.a   s  in f inland  (Box  1.3  above),  all  students  in s hanghai  are  expected  to  perform  at  high  levels  and  teachers  are  expected  to  make  sure  that  no  student,  literally,  will  be  allowed  to  fall  behind.t  his  makes  it  essential  that  teachers  identify  students  who  are  just  beginning  to  o fl under,   diagnose  the  problem,  and  have  the  skills  and  knowledge  needed  to  create  a  large  and  constantly  updated  reservoir  of  solutions  to  the  student  performance  problems  they  have  diagnosed. during  the  course  of  their  careers,  teachers  in shanghai  are  involved  in  subject-based  “teaching- study  groups”  to  improve  teaching  at  the  grassroots  level  on  a  day-to-day  basis.t  here  are  timetabled  sessions  when  the  study  group  will  meet,  often  with  related  personnel,  such  as  laboratory  assistants,  to  draw  up  very  detailed  lesson  schemes  for  a  particular  topic  the  following  week. t he  lesson  plan  serves  not  only  as  a  guide  for  the  teacher  during  the  lesson,  but  also  as  documentation  of  the  teacher’s  professional  performance.d   uring  actual  teaching,  teachers  may  observe  each  other  or  may  be  observed  by  peers.f  or  example,  when  a  change  in  curriculum  introduces  a  new  teaching  topic,  teachers  may  be  observed  by  new  teachers,  so  these  can  learn  from  more  experienced  colleagues;  by  senior  teachers,  for  mentoring  purposes;  or  by  the  school  principal,  for  monitoring  or  to  provide  constructive  development  assistance.  sometimes,  teachers  are  expected  to  teach  demonstration  lessons, calledpublic   lessons,   for    a largenumber   of   other   teac   hers toobserv   e andcomment    upon.  t his  structured  organization  of  teaching  in shanghai  is  not  only  a  means  for  administration;  it  is  also  a  major  platform  for  professional  enhancement.t  eachers  in shanghai  are  classified  into  four  grades  that  indicate  their  professional  status.  Promotion  from  one  grade  to  the  next  often  requires  the  capacity  to  give  demonstration  lessons,  contribute  to  the  induction  of  new  teachers,  publish  in  journals  or  magazines  about  education  or  teaching,  and  so  forth. t he  provincial  office  often  identifies  the  best  of  the  teachers  who  emerge  from  evaluation  processes  and  relieves  them  of  some  or  all  of  their  teaching  duties  so  that  they  can  give  lectures  to  their  peers,  provide  demonstrations,  and  coach  other  teachers  on  a  district,  provincial  and  even  national  level.c   arefully  picked  schools  are  often  asked  to  pilot  new  programs  or  policies  before  they  are  scaled-up,  and  the  best  teachers  in thosesc   hoolsare   enlisted   as   co-resear   chers to evaluate the effectiveness of thenew    practices.  t he  practices  described  here  for shanghai  are  similar  in  other easta   sian  countries.t  he easta   sian  countries  taking  part  in  Pisa  all  provide  interesting  models  for  building  on  professional  teacher  collaboration  to  make  the  most  of  their  top-performing  teachers. t he  tradition  of  lesson  study  in  these  countries  also  means  that asian  teachers  are  not  alone.t  hey  work  together  in  a  disciplined  way  to  improve  the  quality  of  the  lessons  they  teach. t hat  means  that  teachers  whose  practice  lags  behind  that  of  the  leaders  can  see  what  good  practice  is.  Because  their  colleagues  know  who  the  poor  performers  are  and  discuss  them,  the  poor  performers  have  both  the  incentive  and  the  means  to  improve  their  performance.  since  the  structure  of  the  east asian  teaching  workforce  includes  opportunities  to  become  a  master  teacher  and  move  up  a  ladder  of  increasing  prestige  and  responsibility, it also pays thegood   teac   herto    becomeev   enbetter   . © OECD 2011  Building  a HigH-Qualityt  eacHingProfession:    lessonsfrom   a   round  tHe  World 15Chapter 2 Teacher developmenT , suppor T, careers nd emploa ymenT condiTions Education is still far from being a knowledge industry, in the sense that its own practices are being continuously transformed by greater understanding of their efc fi acy. While in many other e fi lds, people enter their professional lives expecting that what they do and how they do it will be transformed by evidence and research, this is still not generally the case in education. Transforming teaching does not just involve high- quality recruiting and initial education; it also requires that those who are now teaching adapt to constantly changing demands. Effective development of teachers in service demands both more and different forms of professional development and appropriate career structure and career diversity. Too often, courses are isolated events that are not joined up with changes in schools. More effective forms of development tend to be welcomed by teachers themselves, who are often willing to contribute to the cost of such education in money and time. Effective individual professional development sits alongside collective learning, with teachers exchanging ideas and collaborating to improve classroom practice; but this remains all too rare. The existing teaching force can be supported through e fl xible approaches to career development and employment conditions. While jobs for life are becoming increasingly rare, having opportunities to work part-time and to develop careers in new ways can help to improve the attractiveness of the profession. © OECD 2011  Building  aHig   H-Qualityt  eacHing Profession: lessons froma   round  tHe  World 17Chapter 2 t e a ch e r   d e ve l o p m e n t ,   s u p p o r t ,   c a r e e r s   a n d   e m p l oy m e n t   c o n d i t i o n s Improvements must come partly through the transformation of the present teaching force, with teachers expected to be able to adapt to new knowledge and demands during their careers. as  important  as  the  recruitment  and  selection  of  promising  graduates  is,  it  can  only  be  one  of  several  components  of  human  resource  management  in  education. t he  frequently  cited  claim  that  the  best- performing  education  systems  all  recruit  their  teachers  from  the  top-third  of  graduates  -  however  that  is  defined  -  is  not  supported  by  evidence. successful  reform  cannot  wait  for  a  new  generation  of  teachers;  it  requires  investment  in  the  present  teacher  workforce,  providing  quality  professional  development,  adequate  career  structures  and  diversification,  and  enlisting  the  commitment  of  teachers  to  reform  (see  also  Boxes  4.1,  4.3,  4.4  and  4.5). t he ilo/unesco committee  of experts  on  the application  of  the recommendations  concerningt  eaching  Personnel  notes  in  its  2009  report  that  “t eaching  career  structures…are  evolving  to  encourage  better  teaching  practices  and  incentives  for  teachers  to  remain  in  teaching,  but  much  more  needs  to  be  done  to  link  teacher  education  and  professional  development,  evaluation  and  career  progression.  evidence  from  international  surveys…point  to  a  general  lack  of  professional  development  support  adapted  19 to theneeds   of   teac   hersand    learners.”   t he  following  analysis  looks  at  how  the  individual  development  of  teachers  can  be  improved  and  how  greater collaborationamong   teac   herscan    improve teachingquality   .  Meeting the need for professional developMent The requirements of teachers change continuously, so pre-service education is not enough, and… in  many  countries,  the  role  and  functioning  of  schools  are  changing–and  so  is  what  is  expected  of  teachers. t hey  are  asked  to  teach  in  increasingly  multicultural  classrooms. t hey  must  place  greater  emphasis  on  integrating  students  with  special  learning  needs,  both  special  difficulties   and  special  talents,  in  their  classes.t  hey  need  to  make  more  effective  use  of  information  and  communication  technologies  for  teaching.  t hey  are  required  to  engage  more  in  planning  within  evaluative  and  accountability  frameworks.a   nd  they  are  asked  to  do  more  to  involve  parents  in  schools. n o  matter  how  good  the  pre- service  education  for  teachers  is,  it  cannot  be  expected  to  prepare  teachers  for  all  the  challenges  they  will  face  throughout  their  careers.  … continuous professional development is needed to update skills and knowledge in a range of ways. t he developmentof   teac   hersbey   ondtheir    initialeducation   can   serv   e ar   angeof    purposes,including    to: •  update individuals’ knowledgeof    a subject in light of recent advancesin   the    area;  •  update  individuals’  skills  and  approaches  in  light  of  the  development  of  new  teaching  techniques  and  objectives,new    circumstances,and    neweducational    research; •  enableindi   vidualsto   apply    changesmade    to curricula or other aspects ofteac   hing practice;  •  enable  schools  to  develop  and  apply  new  strategies  concerning  the  curriculum  and  other  aspects  of  teachingpr   actice;  •  exchange informationand    expertise among teachers and others, e.g. academics and industrialists;or     •  helpweaker   teac   hers becomemore    effective. © OECD 2011  Building  a HigH-Qualityt  eacHingProfession:    lessonsfrom   a   round  tHe  World 18

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