Effective planning to promote student learning

enhancing student learning through effective formative feedback and improving students learning with effective learning techniques
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Edited by Milena Valeni Zuljan and Janez Vogrinc Facilitating Effective Student Learning through Teacher Research and Innovation Facilitating Effective Student Learning through Teacher Research and Innovation Edited by Milena Valeni Zuljan and Janez Vogrinc Ljubljana 2010 Facilitating Effective Student Learning through Teacher Research and Innovation Edited by Milena Valenčič Zuljan and Janez Vogrinc Reviewed by Prof. Ddr. Barica Marentič Požarnik, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Prof. dr. Grozdanka Gojkov, University of Novi Sad, Serbia Proofreading Urška Sešek, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Publisher Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia For the publisher Janez Krek, Dean Cover designed by Roman Ražman DTP by Igor Cerar Printed by Littera picta d.o.o. Ljubljana 300 copies ©2010 The publication was financed as part of the research project »Encouraging a culture of research and innovation in schools through a process of lifelong teacher learning« (Ministry of Education and Sport). CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana 378.147(082) FACILITATING effective student learning through teacher research and innovation / edited by Milena Valenčič Zuljan and Janez Vogrinc. - Ljubljana : Faculty of Education, 2010 ISBN 978-961-253-051-8 1. Valenčič Zuljan, Milena 251854592 Contents Foreword ............................................................................................................. 8 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 10 Extracts from Reviews .................................................................................... 17 Keith S. Taber Preparing Teachers for a Research-Based Profession ........................ 19 Sara Van Waes, Gert Vanthournout, David Gijbels, Vincent Donche, Peter Van Petegem Fostering Students’ Learning with Study Guides: The Relationship with Students’ Perception and Learning Patterns ............................................................................................. 49 Ingo Eilks, Silvija Markic, Torsten Witteck Collaborative Innovation of the Science Classroom through Participatory Action Research – Theory and Practice in a Project of Implementing Cooperative Learning Methods in Chemistry Education ...................................................................................... 77 Iwona Maciejowska, Marek Frankowicz Academic Teacher at the Crossroads of Innovation Highways ...... 103 Jang Syh-Jong Using a Transformative Model of Integrating Technology and Peer Coaching to Develop TPCK of Pre-Service Science Teachers ........ 121 Frederick Kwaku Sarfo, Jan Elen, Geraldine Clarebout, Flip Louw Innovative Instructional Intervention and the Need for a Better Insight into Instructional Conceptions .................................................... 151 Hanna Gulińska, Małgorzata Bartoszewicz The Effects of Using the Share Point Platform in Teaching Science Students and Teachers ................................................................................... 175 5 6 FACILITATING EFFECTIVE STUDENT LEARNING THROUGH TEACHER RESEARCH AND INNOVATION Richard K. Coll, Ninna Jansoon, Chanyah Dahsah, Sanoe Chairam Fostering Teacher Innovation in Chemistry Teaching in Thailand: Helping Thai Science Teachers Move Towards a Learner-Centred Student Classroom .......................................................................................... 193 Liberato Cardellini Acquiring and Assessing Structural Representations of Students’ Knowledge ......................................................................................................... 225 Juan Luis Castejón Costa, Raquel Gilar Corbi, María Luisa Pertegal Felices Competence Profile Differences among Graduates from Different Academic Subject Fields. Implications for Improving Students’ Education ............................................................................................................ 253 Héctor García Rodicio, Emilio Sánchez Making Instructional Explanations Effective: The Role of Learners' Awareness of their Misunderstandings ................................................... 277 Urška Sešek Are Web-Based Learning Environments Transforming Tertiary Education? The Case of a Large Humanities Institution .................. 297 Maja Umek Learning through Photography in Social Science from the Third to the Fifth Grade ............................................................................................. 317 Hana Svatoňová, Kateřina Mrázková Geoinformation Technologies: New Opportunities in Geography Education? ........................................................................................................... 331 Bogdana Borota The Impact of Learning in the Innovative Computer Environment Musical Image Format, Rhythm on Musical Achievements ............ 349 Mara Cotič, Sanela Mešinović, Milena Valenčič Zuljan, Blaž Simčič Geometrical Problems and the Use of Geoboard ................................. 375 Iztok Devetak, Saša A. Glažar Approach to Developing the Learning to Learn Strategy in Chemistry ....................................................................................................... 399 Contents 7 Mojca Juriševič Creativity in the Zone of Proximal Motivational Development ..................................................................................................... 415 Ruth Zuzovsky, Esther Yogev Going Public: Pedagogical Supervisors Conceptualizing their Pedagogical Practices ..................................................................................... 431 Milena Valenčič Zuljan, Janez Vogrinc The Factors of Encouraging Teacher Innovation from the Perspective of Teachers and Headmasters ............................................. 455 Biographies ........................................................................................................ 471 Index ..................................................................................................................... 485 FOREWORD Innovation of didactic and learning strategies is one of the basic demands in teacher training at all levels of education, as has been clearly recognized by the European Union. In its communication of 13th September 2007 entitled Putting knowledge into practice: A broad-based innovation strategy for the EU, the European Commission stressed the need for 'collective action to safeguard the European way of life that combines economic prosperity with solidarity' and said it was 'convinced that innovation in a broad sense is one of the main answers to citizens’ material concerns about their future'. The Commission defines education as a precondition for creating a true European innovation space. As a core policy it must promote talent and creativity from an early stage. The European Union Council of Education, Youth and Culture has stressed in its 2008 Conclusions on promoting creativity and innovation through education and training that creativity and the capacity to innovate are crucial to a sustainable economic and social development of Europe, and acknowledged that all levels of education and training can contribute to creativity and innovation in a lifelong learning perspective. The Council held that, starting at the level of individual schools, education systems need to combine the development of specific knowledge and skills with generic capacities linked to creativity, such as curiosity, intuition, critical and lateral thinking, problem solving, experimentation, risk taking and the ability to learn from failure, use of the imagination and hypothetical reasoning, and a sense of entrepreneurship. It stressed that teachers have a crucial role to play in nurturing and supporting each child's creative potential, and can contribute to this by exemplifying creativity in their own teaching; and that teacher education institutions also have a key contribution to make in providing teaching staff with the knowledge and competences required for change, such as the skills needed to promote learner- centred approaches, collaborative work methods and the use of modern learning tools, particularly those based on ICT. Fostering creative abilities and attitudes within schools also requires the support of an organisational culture open to creativity and the creation of an 8 Foreword 9 innovation-friendly environment in general, as well as committed and forward-looking leadership at all levels. I’m certain that the monograph Facilitating Effective Student Learning through Teacher Research and Innovation is a timely, necessary and important step in this direction. This has been recognized by the reviewers as well. I would like to recommend this book to readers with the words of one of the reviewers, Prof. Grozdanka Gojkov, who writes that the teacher’s role “implies constant innovations of procedures in the pedagogic-didactic competences of a teacher, which is a guiding principle of all the researches in the present monographic study and its great value, having in mind that it is one in a small number of similar publications in Europe, dealing with innovation of didactic procedures of teachers from the angle of their new role, based on participatory epistemology. Numerous outcomes of empirical researches on the application of new procedures heading in this direction are precious, not only as facts on effects and possibilities of application, but as ideas for designing new relevant research frameworks and ideas for new actions. Truly convinced of the value of the present study, I express my admiration to the authors and congratulations to the publisher.” Janez Krek DeanINTRODUCTION The UNESCO report of The International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (1996) states that »none of the talents which are hidden like buried treasure in every person must be left untapped«. This triggers the question of what education can do towards this aim and how school can provide instruction that will best develop the potential of each individual. This is a key challenge for teachers, school managers, teacher trainers and policy makers at all levels alike. Finding a way to develop the learners' potentials and prepare them for lifelong learning in a constantly changing world hinges on the teachers' ability to be innovative. Only a professionally competent and innovative teacher can namely encourage learners to look for new ways and new knowledge themselves. Innovative problem-solving is a key competence in today's world, as is stressed also by the European Commission in A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning (2000). The aim of this collection of papers is to introduce different aspects of innovation in the teaching/learning process and teachers’ research work in different countries. In particular we wanted to shed light on: − Ways of encouraging teacher and student innovation in different educational systems. − Pedagogical innovations in different subject fields: descriptions of pedagogical innovations, their theoretical background and evaluation. − Research into teacher-innovation factors (teachers' views on innovation, the role of the principal and the school climate etc). − Teachers' competences and qualifications for innovation and research of their practice (training teachers in these areas in pre- and in-service programs etc.) and the scope of teacher engagement in research and innovation. − The propositions of systematic and organizational changes required for quality implementation of innovation in the teaching process and teacher research. 10 Introduction The book is intended for teachers, teacher trainees, school managers, teacher trainers and policy makers in education – all those who shape the educational experience. It contains 20 papers contributed by researchers from 14 countries. Our heartfelt thanks go to all of the contributors for participating in the project. Keith S. Taber from the University of Cambridge, UK, in his paper Preparing teachers for a research-based profession, takes a constructivist perspective on both teacher learning and student learning. He presents a case study from UK experience as an example of how effective research training can be included in teacher education courses, in ways that are integrated with the development of other professional skills. The starting point is the assumption that teaching should be an evidence-led and research-based profession: that is that teachers should be expected to both be aware of relevant research about teaching and learning, and to also be capable of undertaking small-scale classroom research to address professional issues and problems that arise in their work. A group of researchers from Belgium, Van Waes, S., Vanthournout, G., Gijbels, D., Donche, V., and Van Petegem, P., looked into the question of learner training in higher education. Their paper Fostering students’ learning with study guides: The relationship with perception and learning patterns presents research on students’ use and perception of study guides in higher education. In a quantitative exploratory study, students’ perceptions of study guides and the relation between their perceptions and learning patterns were analysed. German researchers Ingo Eilks, Silvija Markic and Torsten Witteck authored the paper Collaborative Innovation of the Science Classroom by Participatory Action Research – Theory and Practice in a Project of Implementing Cooperative Learning Methods in Chemistry Education, in which they discuss how teachers' attitudes towards innovation can change drastically when a participatory approach is used. In their paper Academic teacher at the crossroads of innovation highways, Iwona Maciejowska and Marek Frankowicz from Poland stress that every academic teacher is influenced by two streams of innovations: one related to general processes occurring in the art of pedagogy and organizational changes in higher education (such as the Bologna Process 12 in Europe), and the other connected with changes in his/her subject area. The Bologna “wind of change” favors national and institutional reforms, promotes quality culture, and accelerates a transition from teacher-centered to learner-centered education. The authors present a model of networking as a powerful tool to generate new quality in academic practice. Syh-Jong Jang from Taiwan examined the impact of a transformative model of integrating technology and peer coaching for developing pedagogical content knowledge of pre-service science teachers in his paper Using a transformative model of integrating technology and peer coaching to develop TPCK of pre-service science teachers. A TPCK-COPR model and an online system were designed to restructure science teacher education courses. The study draws on four views (comprehensive, imitative, transformative and integrative) to explore the impact of TPCK. The model could help pre-service teachers develop technological pedagogical methods and strategies of integrating subject- matter knowledge into science lessons, and further enhance their TPCK. The paper Innovative instructional intervention and the need for a better insight into instructional conceptions by a group of African and Belgian researchers, Frederick Kwaku Sarfo, Jan Elen, Flip Louw and Geraldine Clarebout, discusses the development of a survey for assessing students’ general conceptions as well as measuring students’ specific instructional conceptions about particular innovative instructional interventions. The Polish researchers Hanna Gulińska and Małgorzata Bartoszewicz deal with distance learning as an innovative approach to training primary school teachers and chemistry teachers. Their paper The effects of using the Share Point platform in teaching science students and teachers is a detailed presentation of an innovative experiment without a broader theoretical background and an evaluation of the impact of the innovation. A group of Thai and New Zealand researchers, Richard K. Coll, Ninna Jansoon, Chanyah Dahsah, Sanoe Chairam, contributed the paper Fostering Teacher innovation in Chemistry teaching in Thailand: helping Thai Science Teachers Move Towards a Learner-Centred Student Classroom. The Introduction 13 authors stress the importance of training teachers for active, innovative, learner-centered teaching, which is a novelty for teachers in Thailand. Liberato Cardellini from Italy, in his paper Acquiring and assessing structural representations of students’ knowledge, presents two useful tools for improving the quality of teaching. One tool is the concept map, an increasingly popular tool for helping students represent their knowledge by making explicit how they relate key concepts in a knowledge domain. Another is the word association test, a useful and quick tool for assessing the relationships, in the minds of our students, between the concepts taught. The use and the problems connected with these tools are presented and evaluated. The emotional component of the process of innovation is discussed by Spanish researchers Juan-Luis Castejón, Raquel Gilar and María-Luisa Pertegal. The paper Competence profile differences among graduates from different academic subject fields presents the characteristic profile of competences of a sample of teachers in training, and compares it with the competence profile of graduate students from the fields of law, social sciences, humanities, science and technology, and health. Héctor García Rodicio and Emilio Sánchez from Spain, authors of Making instructional explanations effective. The role of learners' awareness of their misunderstandings, present an experiment in which undergraduate students learned geology from a multimedia presentation. The presentation also included instructional explanations aimed at revising learners' misunderstandings, which were presented in combination with prompts (prompted explanation) or in isolation (rough explanation). The Slovenian researcher Urška Sešek looks at the introduction of a web-based learning environment into a large higher education institution. Her paper Are web-based learning environments transforming tertiary education? The case of a large humanities institution, presents a survey carried out at the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana two years after the introduction of a WBLE. As the approach taken was based on optional- innovation decision, the aim of the research was to profile the use of the WBLE as well as to assess its impacts. 14 Slovenian researcher Maja Umek presents her research in Learning through photography in social science from the third to the fifth grade. In the research she concentrated on the use of a digital camera and working with photographs in social science classes in elementary school. She emphasises that learning with images and demonstration as a teaching method are of great importance for the development of concepts and understanding of geographical and historical processes, especially with topics that are distant in time and space. Czech researchers Hana Svatoňová and Kateřina Mrázková, in their paper Geoinformation technologies: New Opportunities in Geography Education?, present some possibilities of using geoinformation technologies, especially geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing in geography education. The study discusses the advantages and limitations of their usage. It also introduces some resources for teachers and students that can help them to become familiar with these technologies. Slovenian researcher Bogdana Borota deals with music education in her paper The impact of learning in the innovative computer environment Musical Image Format, Rhythm on musical achievements. The paper presents a tool called Musical Image Format, Rhythm, an ICT learning environment based on the paradigm of constructivist learning and teaching. In Slovenia this is the first attempt of a transfer of the music image format into a digital environment. The results of the experiment suggest positive implications for the development of rhythmic abilities and skills as well as for the use of the musical rhythm image format. Slovenian researchers Mara Cotič, Milena Valenčič Zuljan, Blaž Simčič and Sanela Mešinović are authors of the paper Geometrical problems and the use of geoboard presents problem-oriented instruction of geometry with the use of the geoboard. Geometry is considered to be very abstract, and is therefore difficult to be taught. Teachers usually deliver their instruction in a very formal way and a number of pupils have difficulties in geometry. For this reasons the researchers conducted an experiment in which they trialled a model of geometry instruction with the use of geoboard, a tool for setting and solving geometry problems. 15 Slovenian researchers Iztok Devetak and Saša Glažar authored the paper Guided Active Learning in Chemistry. When students use GALC approach they learn new concepts and connections between them in groups where the social context of learning takes place. GALC approach can be used by the students in school environment, but not so easy at home, because the method should be used in group learning. Slovenian researcher Mojca Juriševič, in her paper Creativity in the zone of proximal motivational development, discusses the stimulation of creative thinking at school, which hinges on understanding the dynamics of motivation regulating pupils’ learning behaviours. She discusses two levels of teaching, the cognitive and the motivational, which in the optimal proportions ensure the conditions for activating learners’ higher-level thinking processes, which are a basis for creative thinking that leads to innovative achievements. Ruth Zuzovsky and Esther Yogev from Israel authored the paper Going public: pedagogical supervisors conceptualizing their pedagogical practices, in which they summarize a two-year process through which a group of teacher educators, serving as pedagogical supervisors in a leading teacher training college in Israel – The Kibbutzim College of Education Technology and Art – went as they worked at conceptualizing, formulating and publishing their professional knowledge. In the paper The factors of encouraging teacher innovation from the perspective of teachers and headmasters Slovenian researchers Milena Valenčič Zuljan and Janez Vogrinc present the results of a research into the question of which factors, from the perspective of Slovenian teachers and headmasters, could contribute to an increase in innovative teaching. The study revealed the teachers’ and headmasters’ self-assessments of their competence in planning, implementing and evaluating pedagogical innovations, the teachers’ and headmasters’ attitudes towards innovation and changing their teaching practice, and how this is related to their job satisfaction. The papers in this collection are richly diverse both in terms of content and research and methodology. They deal with content fields ranging from art to science and humanities, and with different levels of education from elementary school to university. They differ in terms of 16 theoretical depth and approaches to research methodology; researchers illustrate the use of top-down and bottom-up approaches as well as a variety of research methods. Some papers present a specific innovation, focusing either on a detailed presentation of an experiment or on evaluating the impact of the innovation, while others discuss conditions which call for innovation or the question of what kind of context is most conducive to innovative teaching and learning. From a didactic point of view as well the papers are very diverse: some innovations presented refer ICT and other teaching aids, and some focus on teaching methods and approaches. A thread that runs through all the papers, however, is that, explicitly or implicitly, they testify to the importance of the teachers' didactic and subject-specific competences in the innovation process. Some papers clearly define the cognitive-constructivist approach as an appropriate basis for teacher action both in classroom teaching and in teacher training. Some papers pay special attention to teacher education and the key factors of teachers' professional activity and development. We hope that readers will find in this collection of papers incentives and springboards for professional reflection as well as encouragement for research and innovation of teaching. We are grateful to the Ministry of Education and Sports of Slovenia for the financing of the project ˝Encouraging a culture of research and innovation in schools through a process of lifelong teacher learning˝, which took place at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana, and has enabled the publishing of this book. Milena Valenčič Zuljan and Janez Vogrinc References Commission of the European Communities (2000). A memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Brussels. Delors, J. (1996). Learning: the Treasure Within, report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century. EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS The papers included in this volume, both domestic and international, depart from a very topical and important question: how to reshape our teaching so as to effect a deeper and more effective learning process, not only through implementing innovation top down and attempts to transfer political decisions and theoretical findings into the schools (both of these have repeatedly proven unsuccessful in the past) – but by strengthening the active role of the teacher as a researcher and developer of his/her own practice. Of course these processes cannot take place on their own, without a strong cooperative role of university researchers and the support of the institutions of the educational system. Only a consistent and genuine synergy of all the stakeholders can lead to profound positive change in the perceptions and actions of teachers, and thus in the learners' learning processes and outcomes. The main conclusion of all the contributors is that thorough change of educational practices requires committed, long-term cooperation between researchers and teachers in implementing theoretically supported change. Real change is not possible through short-lived, even though perhaps seemingly spectacular projects or 'high' computer technology. It is not so important whether teachers themselves initiate the innovation (in most cases they do not), but whether they were presented the innovation thoroughly and clearly enough, with enough theoretical justification, and whether the necessary conditions have been provided (sufficient training and broader environmental support). Barica Marentič Požarnik University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Innovation of instructional and learning strategies is one of the basic issues of learning in teaching at all levels and systems of education; therefore it is no coincidence that in Slovenia the need has been recognized to undertake researches dealing with support to more efficient learning of students through research and innovative work of teachers. 17 The contributions reflect theoretical pluralism and anarchistic epistemology, carry a personal tone, stem from open, emancipatory, learner-centered pedagogy and are practically innovative. In the studies, the essence of contemporary, postmodern pedagogy and didactics is directed into “co-determined” learning, self-responsible and co- responsible action. At the same time, emancipatory pedagogy has omens for the tendency to relativise contents, it is inclined to open curriculum permeated by clear tones of anarchistic epistemology and avoidance of dogmatism of a method and theory, dogmatism of education of rational term, as well as unchangeable thinking principles. Having in mind that the theoretical ground of the researches is a constructivist perspective, a teacher has been viewed from the angle of new roles. The main aspect of the teacher’s role refers to the preparation of a context, i.e. creation of an encouraging environment including preparation of learning materials through various paths and canals and creation of social situations for learning and ways for an individual to attain insights and understanding of problems occurring during learning. The main features of a teacher have been pointed out: self- reflexivity, being able to encourage and care for the student and not to be too authoritative. All this implies constant innovations of procedures in pedagogic-didactic competence of a teacher, which is a guiding principle of all the researches in the present monographic study and its great value, having in mind that it is one of the few similar surveys in broader European space, dealing with innovation of didactic procedures of teachers from the angle of their new role, based on participatory epistemology. Numerous outcomes of empirical researches on the application of new procedures heading in this direction are precious, not only as facts on effects and possibilities of application, but as new ideas for designing new relevant research frameworks and ideas for new actions. Truly convinced of the value of the present study, we admire the authors and congratulate the publisher. Grozdanka Gojkov University of Novi Sad, Serbia PREPARING TEACHERS FOR A RESEARCH-BASED PROFESSION Keith S Taber Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, UK ABSTRACT The UK government has an aspiration to make teaching a ‘master’s level profession’. That is, in the future it will be expected that teachers should be qualified to at least Master’s degree level. Initial teacher education courses in major UK universities now tend to be offered at post-graduate level, being seen as the first part of a master’s degree (as well as providing the training and experience necessary to meet the national standards for qualified teacher status). This means that those entering teacher education are expected to engage with research into teaching and learning during their initial training. This is seen as important so that, from the start of their careers, new teachers see themselves as evidence-based practitioners and part of a research-informed profession. However, the one-year initial teacher training course for graduates has traditionally been an intensive and highly demanding experience, and the additional requirement to learn about research methodology and develop classroom enquiry skills places extra demands on the trainee teachers, school- based mentors and university tutors. This chapter offers a case study from within the UK experience, as an example of how effective research training can be included in teacher education courses, in ways that are integrated with the development of other professional skills. KEY WORDS: Teaching and learning; Professionalism; Research-based practice; Classroom-based research; Teacher education and development; Research training for teachers 1 Introduction: Teaching as a research-based profession The starting point for this chapter is an assumption that teaching should be an evidence-led and research-based profession: that is that teachers should be expected to both be aware of relevant research about teaching and learning, and to also be capable of undertaking small-scale classroom research to address professional issues and problems that arise in their work. This assumption is based upon the nature of teaching itself. It will be argued below that given current understandings of the nature of learning, teaching must be seen as a profession (with the accompanying expectations and responsibilities of a profession) rather than a skilled job for which a person can simply be trained. The professional responsibilities of a teacher, consequently, cannot be understood simply in terms of acquiring ‘mechanical’ teaching skills, but rather need to be seen in terms of developing professional expertise through the interplay of practice, scholarship and enquiry. The present paper develops this argument, and offers as an example of what is possible, a case study describing how one University has responded provides elements of research training within the particular context of acquiring ‘Qualified Teacher Status’ through post-graduate study in the UK. 2 The nature of teaching The key role of a teacher is to teach, which can be understood as meaning to facilitate learning of some target curriculum. Teaching is therefore intimately tied to notions of learning, and there is a sense that if students do not learn, then whatever the teacher is doing does not deserve the label of ‘teaching’. Students can learn skills (such as swimming the back stroke, or safely using a lathe), or attitudes (such as valuing learning, or desiring to make a productive and positive contribution to society), but much formal learning in schools and colleges is linked to conceptual development. So, for example, students will be asked to learn about the periodic

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