How to make students successful

building rapport with students and changes happening in the curriculum
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Published Date:02-07-2017
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Building student success A guide to the Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting FrameworkContents Minister’s message v 4 Assessing for learning 23 Standards 25 Foreword vii Assessable elements 25 Building teachers’ assessment The QCAR Framework: An overview 1 ca ab p ilities 26 Catering for students’ needs 29 1 Setting the scene 3 Consistency of teachers’ judgments 30 Aims of the Framework 3 Key messages 31 The Framework and teachers’ professional capacity 4 5 How to report 33 QSA’s equity principles for students 5 Student achievement and progress 35 An overview of this guide 5 Student achievement within Key messages 7 sc hool-based curriculum 36 Student achievement on the QCATs 37 2 The QCAR Framework 9 Improving student learning 38 Alignment of curriculum, assessment Key messages 39 and reporting 9 Components 10 6 How to plan 41 Benefits 12 Planning considerations 41 Teachers 12 Five processes that guide planning 43 Parents/carers 12 Planning: One teacher’s practice 44 Key messages 13 Auditing current curriculum 46 Planning for the needs of all learners: 3 What to teach 15 Caerin t g for diversity 47 Essential Learnings: An overview 15 Indigenous perspectives in planning 48 Organisation 17 Key messages 49 Learning and assessment focus 18 Assessable elements 18 7 Developing quality school-based Ways of working 18 assessment 51 Knowledge and understanding 19 Features of a good assessment program 51 Information & communication Developing school-based assessment 52 te hno c logies (ICTs) 19 Task-specific assessable elements and Indigenous perspectives 19 descrip53 to rs Languag s e19 Developing a Guide to making judgmen 54 ts The Essential Learnings in operation 19 Using and providing feedback 56 General teaching principles 20 Key messages 57 Key messages 21 Appendixes 59 Glossary 87 References 89 Acknowledgments 90 iii Setting the scene 1 CHAPTER 1 Setting the scene Children are the living messages we send to a time we will not see. (Postman 1982, p. xi) A key responsibility of society is to support young people in acquiring the knowledge, skills and capabilities that will give them the best possible opportunities to lead happy, healthy and productive lives. As we approach the end of the first decade of the 21st century, significant educational reform is occurring throughout Australia. In Queensland, this change is being led by the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA), a statutory body of the Queensland Government. The development of the Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting (QCAR) Framework and the introduction of the Preparatory (Prep) Year in 2007 are both part of this reform. The focus is to ensure that students completing 12 years of schooling are broadly educated, prepared for life and ready to move towards their career pathways and life goals. The wellbeing of individuals and groups, as well as society itself, relies upon high- quality education that supports children and young Schooling in Queensland needs to serve a number people to achieve. of broad aims. Current literature about the nature The Framework is designed to align what is taught, of life and work in the 21st century, and the aims of how it is taught and how learning is assessed and schooling, highlight the need for young people to reported in Years 1–9. The Framework supports develop a range of capabilities. schools and teachers to deliver high-quality The capabilities that students require for work schooling. and life relate to personal and social identities, citizenship and responsibility, as well as the knowledge needed for successful and productive Aims of the Framework work and personal futures (QSA 2007). Specifically, The Framework aligns curriculum, assessment and the Framework is designed to support students to reporting to improve student learning outcomes and develop the knowledge, skills and predispositions enhance teachers’ assessment capabilities. to become: The Framework supports Queensland s • kno choo wledg ls t e w o orkers who can work with knowledge focus on: in creative, critical and innovative ways • improving student learning • confident individuals who can interact with others, act autonomously and manage themselves • supporting consistency of teacher judgments • responsible citizens who can work with • providing comparability of student achievement. communities and manage the rights, The Framework is to be the basis of curriculum, responsibilities and duties of citizenship. assessment and reporting for Years 1–9 for Queensland schools. 3 The Framework and teachers’ professional capacity The Framework supports teachers as experienc profession e ric als h and r by ewarding learning programs providing flexibility for schools th to de at hs av ign c e relurric evanc ulum e and application in the real world. that suits their specific contexts. B To meet y pr the div ovidin er g u se l sef earnin ul g needs of all students, and practical resources, the Framew sc ork hoo also sets ls and te out achers have the flexibility to make to build teachers’ professional dec cap iac sion ity s. about how they use and combine the Essential Learnings within and across the key learning The Framework supports teacher professionalism areas (KLAs), as well as across the year levels. The by providing: Standards provide a shared language and a common • flexibility to make decisions about student frame of reference to describe student achievement. le arning in their contexts Teachers’ capacity to develop school-based • scope for school authorities and school priorities assessment is enhanced through access to the to inform practice. Assessment Bank, an extensive online collection of Teachers’ professional capacity is built by providing assessment packages and resources that are linked cl arity for teachers about the focus of teaching and to the Essential Learand nings Standards. Further, learning, and developing increasingly innovative the Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks and relevant forms of assessment to determine (QCATs) support teachers to build professional the quality of student learning. It also requires capacity, provide opportunities for students to partnerships between teachers and school demonstrate their learning in nominated Essential authorities. High levels of professional capacity Learnings at key year-level junctures, and are integral to the provision of a socially just promote consistency of teachers’ judgments — a education for all students, and are underpinned by key attribute of teachers’ professional capacity. a commitment to educational practice in which all Consistency of school and teacher reporting of students can succeed. student achievement is further enhanced through the Guidelines for Reporting. The Essential Learnings provide the basis for teachers to plan, giving opportunities for all learners to 4 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Setting the scene 1 QSA’s equity principles for students The Framework is underpinned b Equity po y the Q licy s SA’s tatement (2006b), which challenges inequities by: • recognising that teaching and learning should be socially and culturally responsive and inclusive • developing an understanding of diversity within and among groups • identifying and minimising structural barriers to access and participation • acknowledging the diversity of students and each individual’s life ci cr umstances, and the need for particular strategies which can enhance engagement and equitable outcomes among all students • recognising and acknowledging the diverse bodies of knowledge and ba kgr counds of all students, including marginalised groups • acknowledging the relationship between valued knowledge and the pa tic r ipation of students in society. These principles need to be enacted in our schools to ensure that all students can succeed. These principles have implications for all students across the schooling sectors. 5 QCAR components building student success Below is a “big picture” view of the Framework, showing how the following components build student success: • Essent Lear ial nings • Standards • Assessment Bank • Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs) • GuidelinesforReporting. Figure 1.1: QCAR Framework: Building student success The Framework supports young people to develop the knowledge, skills and capabilities to become: 1 What are our aims? Knowledge workers Confident individuals Active and responsible citizens who can work with who can interact with others, knowledge in creative, act autonomously and who can work with critical and innovative ways. manage themselves. communities and manage the rights, responsibilities and duties of citizenship. Using the Framework, each Queensland school designs and implements its own curriculum 2 around engaging and real-life challenges that are meaningful for students and for society by aligning: How does the • whatistaught Framework build • howitistaught student success? • howstudentlearningisassessed. Essential Learnings for each key learning area Standards describe the expected qualities of (KLA) include: student work. • aLearningandassessmentfocus • Waysofworking • Knowledgeandunderstanding. Assessable elements provide the connection between Essential Learnings and Standards. Student learning is demonstrated through purposeful assessment that is an integral part of 3 teaching and learning. Quality assessment: How is student Focuses on Essential Includes a balance of Is modelled through the learning Learnings assessable elements Assessment Bank demonstrated? Provides feedback to improve Incorporates a range of student learning evidence collected over time The Assessment Bank and the Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks (QCATs) model assessment and support consistency of teacher judgment. Reporting of student learning provides evidence and feedback for: 4 • studentstoimprovetheirlearning • parents/carerstosupportstudentlearning How is student • schoolsandschoolingsectorstosupport Standards continuousimprovement,ensuringthat learning reported? are being met. 6 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting Setting the scene 1 photoShop numBer oFF lapt op key messages The QCAR Framework: • is a comprehensive framew ork that aligns what is taught, how it is taught, ho w learning is assessed and how learnin g is reported for all students in Years 1–9 • supports schools and teachers to deliver high- quality schooling that helps students become knowledge workers, confident individuals and active, responsible citizens equipped for the future • provides flexibility for s chools and teachers to design and implement curriculum, based around the Essential Le and arnings Standards, that suits their local contexts • builds teachers’ professional capacity in a range of ways (including enh anced assessment approaches through acces s to the Assessment Bank, and greater consistency of teacher judgment through the QCATs) • is underpinned by po the Q licy SA Equity statement, which encaps ulates Queensland’s commitment to a socially just education for all students. 7 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting The QCAR Framework 2 CHAPTER 2 The QCAR Framework Alignment is a commonly identified strategy for improving student performance ... Alignment means that the standards, content, assessment and instruction strategies make a complementary fit. Alignment is sometimes called seamless curriculum. Curriculum planning needs to be thoughtful, with a systematic process for continually checking to ensure that all parts are connected. (Drake 2007, p. 4) This chapter introduces the elements of the QCAR Framework. It shows how the Framework has been designed to help teachers align curriculum, assessment and reporting. Alignment of curriculum, assessment and reporting The Framework supports teaching that is tailored to meet the unique needs of students by giving teachers informed direction and valuable resources. Rather than seeking “sameness”, the Framework presents a way of achieving more cis ommonality in what taught, while supportin it g div is er ts aught ity in . how A key feature of the Framework is alignment. This inv olves powerful connections between curriculum, assessment and reporting. To frame it in a different way: in order to produce the best learning outcomes for students, what is taught must inform how it is taught, how students are assessed and how the learning is reported. What is assessed must relate directly to what students have had the opportunity to learn. What is reported to students, parents/carers and other teachers must align with what has been learnt. Such feedback is essential for students in order for them to improve. In turn, reporting learning provides a basis for decisions about continuous improvement of the curriculum. Alignment is integral to the development and maintenance of a high-quality education system that caters for the diverse range of students and schools within the Queensland schooling community. The Framework is based on the assumption that every child and young person can learn. 9 What is ... ? Curriculum is the sum of the learning and development experiences that are offered by a school, formally and informally, in class and out of class. It is heavily influenced by the philosophy of learning that the school adopts. Curriculum is a school responsibility with the QSA supplying materials that assist schools to plan and deliver their curriculum. Assessment is the purposeful and systematic collection of evidence about students’ achievements. It involves judging which standard on a five-point scale best represents the characteristics of a student’s achievement. Reporting involves the provision of a summary statement (in electronic form or paper copy) that records an individual student’s achievements or groups of students’ achievements. Components The Framework has five components that are interrelated and designed to work together. These support, and are embedded in, all elements of the teaching and learning process. They are: • Essential Learnings, which identify what should be taught and what is important for students to have opportunities to know, understand and be able to do • Standards, which provide a common frame of reference and a shared language to describe student achievement • Assessment Bank, an online collection of The QCAR Framework: Real-life learning assessment packages and resources that support and learning for real life teaching, learning and school-based assessment Teachers and schools use the Framework to design • Queensland Comparable Assessment Tasks curriculum around engaging, real-life and relevant issues (QCATs) in Years 4, 6 and 9, which provide and challenges that are meaningful for students and for information to teachers about student society. The Framework supports teachers and schools demonstrations of learning in a selection of to build a culture of high expectations, engaged learning Essential Learnings and promote consistency of and focused teaching. It helps teachers to plan and teacher judgment provide opportunities for students to experience rich and rewarding learning programs that have relevance and • Guidelines for Reporting, which support application in the real world. It also supports students to co s n istency of reporting across Queensland by be active participants in their learning. using a five-point scale to describe the quality of student achievement. 10 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting The QCAR Framework 2 Figure 2.1: QCAR Framework: Answering key questions in relation to what is taught, how it is taught, how it is assessed and how it is reported What is taught? Teachers identify curriculum intent using the Essential Learnings. How is student learning reported? Student needs, Teachers report twice yearly using a five-point scale in relation to the KLAs and annually at Years interests, 4, 6 & 9 in relation to the QCATs. achievements How is students’ learning assessed? How do teachers teach? How do teachers Teachers decide what student learning Teachers sequence teaching strategies and students use they are gathering evidence about and and learning experiences to support feedback to build how that evidence will be collected and achievement of the Essential student success? judged. Teachers can use the Standards, Learnings and Standards. the Assessment Bank and the QCATs. 11 • valuing teacher professionalism and supporting Benefits professional learning The Framework is focused on improving learning for • maintaining Queensland’s commitment all students through: to supporting school-based curriculum • consistency of what is taught, assessed and development. reported across Queensland • consistent judgments about student work against Parents/carers common standards • use of information about student learning to In the past, some parents/carers have found it develop future teaching and learning programs difficult to understand reports, and to know how they can help their child or when to seek extra • feedback to students about their learning support. The Framework gives parents/carers • comparability of student reports to parents/carers assurance that: • continuity across year levels. • the learning their child undertakes is consistent with that of other schools Teachers • the judgments that teachers make about their ch ld’s i performance are made using the same The Framework provides teachers with clarity about Standards as those applied in other Queensland what to teach by: schools. • guiding planning The Framework promotes greater consistency across • helping teachers develop a shared understanding cl assrooms. It also encourages greater continuity about expectations of student performance across year levels in what is taught and how it is • offering access to quality assessment instruments assessed and reported. • providing a common frame of reference and a shared language to describe student achievement 12 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting What to teach 3 CHAPTER 3 What to teach The key task of curriculum development is to identify and articulate the most valuable knowledge (skills and capabilities) available for teaching and assessment. This means drawing on the best of traditional forms, but ensuring that the curriculum responds to the development of new knowledge, skills and understandings. Decisions on what knowledge is most valuable, and should be included, will be determined by the needs of students and the community in light of the demands of a changing social context. (QSA 2007, p. 3) This chapter focuses on the Essential Learnings. in the Essential Lear h nin av gs e been guided by the It shows how they can help teachers to plan teaching knowledge, skills and capabilities that students need and learning that aligns curriculum and assessment. for ongoing learning, social and personal competence, The structure of the Essential Learnings and their and participation in a democratic society. individual components are explored. The nation Statemen al ts of Learning in English, Teachers use the Essentia t l L o align earnings Mathematics, Science, Civics and Citizenship, and curriculum and assessment with their t Information and C eaching and ommunication Technologies (ICTs), learning programs. This alignment depend agreed t s o b on a y all states and territories, have been clear understanding of: embedded in the Essential Learnings. • curriculum intent, including clarity about what Also embedded in the Essential Learnings are st udents need for success in the 21st century ca ab p ilities (see Appendix 1) that support • how assessment can support thi st s udents learnin tg. o become knowledge workers, confident individuals and active and responsible citizens. These are the capabilities for: Essential Learnings: • w orking with knowledge An overview • dev eloping identity and managing self • actin g in the social and political world. The Essential Learnings comprise a rich set of knowledge, skills and capabilities — an agreed core A range of research and literature and curriculum that students are able to access, and which schools maeri t als was used to identify these more generic, can use to generate an engaging, comprehensive cross-curricular capabilities. school curriculum. They identify what should be The Essential Learnings were developed using four taught and what is important for students to have co s n tructs: opportunities to know, understand and be able to do. • Kno wledge and understanding Essential Learnings are specified for each of the eight • Inquirin g KLAs. Languages are specified at stages of learning • R esponding (see p. 19). The Arts, English, Health & Physical Education, Mathematics, Science, Studies of Society • R eflecting. & Environment, and Technology are specified at These constructs have shaped the design and junctures that fall at the end of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. specifications of the a Es n sen d tia resul l Leart nings Queensland’s eight KLA syllabuses were the primary in connections across the KLAs that help teachers information source for the Essential Learnings. plan integrated and connected curriculum programs. Teachers in schools across the three schooling They also help students move between and across sectors worked with the QSA to identify the areas of learning and courses. For example, although essential knowledge, skills and capabilities of the learning how to investigate in Science requires a KLA syllabuses and to trial and refine the Essential specific set of skills, these are transferable and can Learnings. Discussions about what has been included help students in Mathematics investigations. 15 Essential Learnings support the development The Es of: sential Learnings pro vide schools with the flexibility to organise their curriculum in ways that • processes that students use to demonstrate their are responsive to the needs, interests, previous understandings achievements and backgrounds of students, and • deep understandings of key disciplinary balanced by systemic and community values, and concepts, facts and procedures school priorities. • capabilities needed now and in the future. Figure 3.1: QCAR Framework: Focusing on what is to be taught The Essential Learnings form the basis of the Teachers identify curriculum curriculum in Years 1–9. intent using the Essential Learnings. They provide: • clarityforteachersabout what to teach • assuranceforteachers that the essential elements of each KLA are being covered, and that their students are learning what the wider community values • assuranceforparents/ carers that a core Student needs, curriculum will be offered in all Queensland schools. interests, achievements Teachers sequence teaching Teachers decide what evidence strategies and learning demonstrates student learning experiences to support and how that evidence will be achievement of the Essential collected and judged. Learnings and Standards. A key focus at our school is to constantly explore ways in which we can challenge our students intellectually. We are firmly committed to embedding the QCAR Framework into our context, and giving all of our students the opportunity to succeed in terms of intellectually rigorous tasks. The first step in the process is for us to engage with and fully understand what the Essential Learnings offer. The second part is to ensure that our pedagogy acts as the conduit between the Essential Learnings and the individual needs of the learner. (Principal at a special education school) 16 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting What to teach 3 Organisation Essential Learnings incorporate: • a Learning and assessment focus • Ways of working • Knowledge and understanding. Each of these builds in complexity across Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Figure 3.2: Year 5 Science: Essential Learnings Ways of working Describe the essential processes that students use to engage in learning, and to develop and demonstrate their knowledge and understanding. Learning and assessment focus They include higher-order thinking skills, and the capabilities Describes the focus of learning and assessment that students need for ongoing learning, social and personal for the KLA within the year-level juncture. competence, and participation in a democratic society. Assessable elements are used to make judgments Knowledge and Examples clarify about the quality of student achievement. understanding the intent of the statements and the Describes the essential intended depth and concepts, facts and level of complexity. procedures of the KLA. The organiser and conceptual statement describe the focus and essential concepts, or big ideas, of the KLA. 17 This information is then used to make judgments Learning and assessment focus about the quality of student achievement. They The Learning and assessment focus increases in provide the link between the Essential Learnings complexity across each year-level juncture within and the Stan in dards assessment. Chapters 4 and 7 each of the KLAs, and emphasises the importance of: explore the assessable elements in more detail. • using the Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding together Ways of working • actively engaging students in learning and assessing — providing opportunities for students Ways of working describe the processes that to learn and be assessed through doing, in students use to develop and demonstrate their contexts that are relevant and meaningful knowledge and understanding. They reflect the skills and capabilities that are important to work • integrating information and communication with knowledge effectively in each KLA, e.g. working te hno c logies (ICTs) as tools for learning mathematically, working scientifically or working • recognising the value of Indigenous knowledge technologically. They include higher-order thinking and embedding Indigenous perspectives in skills that support the development of deep students’ learning and assessment. understanding and the capabilities that students need to acquire. These processes also increase in complexity across year-level junctures. Assessable elements The Ways of working are organised around three broad Assessable elements of each KLA are specified in co s n tructs: inquiring, responding and reflecting. the Learning and assessment focus, and identify An example from Year 7 Mathematics is in Table 3.1. the valued features of the KLA about which evidence The Ways of working across the KLAs for all junctures of student learning is collected and assessed. are presented in Appendixes 2–5 and 10. Table 3.1: Examples of constructs for the Ways of working Ways of working constructs Mathematics BytheendofYear7:Waysofworking Inquiring Pose questions that draw on familiar examples to clarify thinking and support predictions Analysing, reasoning, arguing and evaluating to develop depth and coherence of understanding Plan activities and investigations to explore concepts through selected pathways, and plan strategies to solve mathematical questions, problems and issues Responding Communicate thinking and justify reasoning and generalisations, using mathematical language, representations Communicating ideas and information across a range of new and technologies products and performances Planning, designing and producing Making personal meanings from socially shared perceptions Reflecting Reflect on and identify the contribution of mathematics to their life Critically examining own and others’ ideas, experiences, Reflect on learning, apply new understandings and identify future applications products and performances 18 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reportingWhat to teach 3 purposes of planning and assessment, the Essential Knowledge and understanding Learnings relate to stages of learning in the language Knowledge and understanding describes essential rather than to specific year levels. These three stages concepts, facts and procedures of the KLA. These are of language learning are: Beginner, Elementary and presented under “organisers” that relate to the broad Lower intermediate. It is recognised that students conceptual categories that are the focus of the KLA. will follow various pathways in their languages depending on the school’s structure and each The conceptual statements across the KLAs for all student’s entry level when introducing the language. junctures are presented in Appendixes 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11. To succeed in an area of learning, students must The Essential Learnings develop a foundation of information and ideas, in operation and also a conceptual framework that relates them. Concepts take on meaning through multiple The Essential Learnings specify what students will representations that are rich in detail when applied know, understand and be able to do as a result of in purposeful contexts. Building conceptual learning. They promote the development of key knowledge helps students relate information and concepts, facts and procedures that will allow ideas in meaningful ways, and organise knowledge students to apply their knowledge in increasingly in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. diverse, fluid and changing contexts. While the Essential Lear do not nings prescribe specific teaching and learning approaches and Information & communication strategies, they provide opportunities for students technologies (ICTs) to actively engage in their own learning. The two dimensions — Ways of working and Knowledge and Students live in a technological world where understanding — go beyond an exclusive emphasis information and communication technologies (ICTs) on cognition to include capabilities that students are an integral part of everyday living. ICTs are a need for lifelong learning. cross-curricular priority within the Framework. ICTs include the hardware, software, peripheral For students to develop deep understandings, devices and digital systems that enable data and knowledge should be presented in problem- information to be managed, stored, processed and solving contexts and students need to be given the communicated. opportunity to evaluate claims and assumptions through critical reflection. True learning leads to Applying ICTs as a tool for learning helps students the ability to adapt and apply knowledge in the become competent, discriminating, creative and face of new tasks, problems and situations. This productive users. ICTs can be integrated in a variety view is relevant both to the disciplinary traditions of of ways within and across all KLAs to support learning and to newer, more generic formulations of thinking, learning, collaboration and communication. competences and capabilities. Schools and teachers can access the ICTs cross- curriculum priorities on the QSA website. These statements describe what students are expected to be able to do by the end of Years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Indigenous perspectives Indigenous perspectives have been embedded in the Essential Learnings. Indigenous perspectives refer to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ways of knowing, viewing and relating to the world. These perspectives acknowledge the viewpoints of Indigenous people on time, place and people within local, regional, national and global contexts. Individual and community experiences, learning, cultural beliefs and values underpin these viewpoints. Languages Essential Learnings for Languages are structured according to stages of language learning. For the 19 General teaching principles to access, participate in and experience success Develop teaching and learning programs in learning Ways of working and Knowledge and that are inclusive and socially and culturally understanding. Adjustments can include “breaking responsive. up” or “chunking” the Essen int tial Le o arnings Students bring to the classroom preconceptions meaningful conceptual knowledge and ways of about the world. If new understandings are not working in familiar contexts. In this way, there linked to these preconceptions, students can fail will be explicit connections to additional learning to grasp the new concepts and information, or they opportunities, and teachers can provide further may learn them in a superficial or recitative fashion prompts and time to access and complete the (aimed, for instance, at completing a test), but revert learning experiences. to their preconceptions outside the classroom. Consequently, teaching and learning are best linked Provide practical and different ways for all to prior learning, and should take account of the students to demonstrate what they know and personal and cultural experiences of different groups can do, and to experience success in learning. of learners and provide opportunities for students If students are to learn effectively, learning to explore ideas and knowledge that challenge their experiences and teaching strategies need to own and others’ thinking in depth. be selected and sequenced to support active engagement in learning and intellectual challenge. Make adjustments to how learners can It is important to actively engage students in access Ways of working and Knowledge and learning that is relevant and of interest to them. understanding. The focus or context for learning should connect with Students’ needs and abilities should be considered issues of personal or social relevance to students, when planning to ensure optimum engagement e.g. healthy lifestyles, sustainability and community and success in learning. Teachers therefore plan to pa tic r ipation. Where appropriate, contexts for make adjustments for individual and/or small group learning may be negotiated with students to ensure learning. Such adjustments ensure that students that the contexts are relevant and authentic. with disabilities or learning difficulties are able 20 BUILDING STUDENT SUCCESS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting What to teach 3 key messages • Essential Learnings: — identify what should be taught and what is important for students to have op portunities to learn — describe the focus of teaching and learning in the eight KLAs — incorporate a Learning and assessment focus, and the two dimensions: Ways of working and Knowledge and understanding. • Ways of working describe the pr ocesses important in the KLA, while Knowledge and under standing describes essential concepts, facts and procedures of the KLA. • The assessable elements in the KLAs provide the pivotal link between the Essential Learnings and assessment. • Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a key cross-curricular priority w ithin the Framework. • Teachers make decisions about the particular teaching approaches and strategie s that will best support individual students and groups of students to achieve the Essential Learnings and Standards. • Essential Learnings are to be the core of curriculum for Queensland schools. Teachers m ay include additional learnings as part of their school-based curriculum. 21 BuIldIng Student SucceSS — Guide to aligning curriculum, assessment and reporting

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