Chemistry Dictionary a-z

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A abalyn ORG CHEM A liquid rosin that is a methyl ester of abietic acid; prepared by treating rosin with methyl alcohol; used as a plasticizer. abəlin Abegg’srule CHEM An empirical rule, holding for a large number of elements, that the sum of the maximum positive and negative valencies of an element equals eight. a¨begz ru¨l Abel tester PHYS CHEM A laboratory instrument used in testing the flash point of kerosine and other volatile oils having flash points below 120F (49C); the oil is contained in a closed cup which is heated by a fixed flame below and a movable flame above. a¨bəl testər abieticacid ORGCHEMC H O A tricyclic, crystalline acid obtained from rosin; used 20 30 2 in making esters for plasticizers. abe¯etik asəd abinitiocomputation PHYS CHEM Computation of the geometry of a molecule solely from a knowledge of its composition and molecular structure as derived from the solution of the Schro¨dinger equation for the given molecule. ab ə¦nishe¯o¯ ka¨m pyəta¯shən Abneymounting SPECT A modification of the Rowland mounting in which only the slit is moved to observe different parts of the spectrum. abne¯ mau˙ntiŋ ABS See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin. absolute alcohol ORG CHEM Ethyl alcohol that contains no more than 1% water. Also known as anhydrous alcohol. absəlu¨t alkəhol ˙ absoluteboilingpoint CHEM The boiling point of a substance expressed in the unit of an absolute temperature scale. absəlu¨t bo˙iliŋpo˙int absolute configuration ORG CHEM The three-dimensional arrangement of substitu- ents around a chiral center in a molecule. Also known as absolute stereochemistry. absəlu¨tkənfigyərashən ¯ absolutedensity See absolute gravity. absəlu¨t densəde¯ absolute detection limit ANALY CHEM The smallest amount of an element or com- pound that is detectable in or on a given sample; expressed in terms of mass units or numbers of atoms or molecules. absəlu¨tditekshən limət absolute gravity CHEM Density or specific gravity of a fluid reduced to standard conditions; for example, with gases, to 760 mmHg pressure and 0C temperature. Also known as absolute density. absəlu¨t gravəde¯ absolutemethod ANALYCHEM Amethodofchemicalanalysisthatbasescharacteriza- tion completely on standards defined in terms of physical properties. absəlu¨t methəd absolute reaction rate PHYS CHEM The rate of a chemical reaction as calculated by means of the (statistical-mechanics) theory of absolute reaction rates. absəlu¨t re¯akshən ra¯t absolutestereochemistry Seeabsoluteconfiguration. absəlu¨tstere¯o¯keməstre¯ absorb CHEM To take up a substance in bulk. əbsorb ˙ absorbance PHYSCHEM Thecommonlogarithmofthereciprocalofthetransmittance of a pure solvent. Also known as absorbancy; extinction. əbso˙rbəns absorbancy See absorbance. əbso˙rbənse ¯ absorbency CHEM Penetration of one substance into another. əbso˙rbənse¯ absorbencyindex See absorptivity. əbso˙rbənse¯ indeks Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.absorptiometer absorptiometer ANALY CHEM 1. An instrument equipped with a filter system or other simple dispersing system to measure the absorption of nearly monochromatic radia- tion in the visible range by a gas or a liquid, and so determine the concentration of the absorbing constituents in the gas or liquid. 2. A device for regulating the thickness of a liquid in spectrophotometry. əbso˙rpte¯a¨mədər absorptiometricanalysis ANALYCHEM Chemicalanalysis ofagasora liquidbymeas- urement of the peak electromagnetic absorption wavelengths that are unique to a specific material or element. əbso˙rpte¯əmetrik ənaləsis absorption CHEM The taking up of matter in bulk by other matter, as in dissolving of a gas by a liquid. əbso˙rpshən absorptionconstant See absorptivity. əbsorpshən ka¨nstənt ˙ absorptionedge SPECT Thewavelengthcorrespondingtoadiscontinuityinthevaria- tionof theabsorption coefficientofa substancewiththe wavelengthof theradiation. Also known as absorption limit. əbso˙rpshən ej absorptionlimit See absorption edge. əbso˙rpshən limət absorptionline SPECT A minute range of wavelength or frequency in the electromag- netic spectrum within which radiant energy is absorbed by the medium through which it is passing. əbso˙rpshən lı¯n absorption peak SPECT A wavelength of maximum electromagnetic absorption by a chemical sample; used to identify specific elements, radicals, or compounds. əbso˙rpshən pe¯k absorption spectrophotometer SPECT An instrument used to measure the relative intensity of absorption spectral lines and bands. Also known as difference spectro- photometer. əbsorpshən spektrəfəta¨mədər ˙ absorptionspectroscopy SPECT An instrumental technique for determining the con- centrationandstructureofasubstancebymeasuringtheintensityofelectromagnetic radiation it absorbs at various wavelengths. əbso˙rpshən spektra¨skəpe¯ absorptionspectrum SPECT A plot of how much radiation a sample absorbs over a range of wavelengths; the spectrum can be a plot of either absorbance or transmit- tance versus wavelength, frequency, or wavenumber. əbso˙rpshən spektrəm absorptiontube CHEM A tube filled with a solid absorbent and used to absorb gases and vapors. əbso˙rpshən tu¨b absorptivepower See absorptivity. əbsorptiv pauər ˙ ˙ absorptivity ANALY CHEM The constant a in the Beer’s law relation A abc, where A istheabsorbance, bthepathlength,and ctheconcentrationofsolution. Alsoknown as absorptive power. Formerly known as absorbency index; absorption constant; extinction coefficient. əbsorptivəde ˙ ¯ abstraction reaction CHEM A bimolecular chemical reaction in which an atom that is either neutral or charged is removed from a molecular entity. abstrakshən reakshən ¯ Ac See actinium. acaroidresin ORG CHEM A gum resin from aloelike trees of the genus Xanthorrhoea in Australia and Tasmania; used in varnishes and inks. Also known as gum accroides; yacca gum. akəro˙id rezən accelerator mass spectrometer SPECT A combination of a mass spectrometer and an accelerator that can be used to measure the natural abundances of very rare radioactive isotopes. ak¦seləra¯dər ¦mas spektra¨mədər accelofilter CHEM A filtration device that uses a vacuum or pressure to draw or force the liquid through the filter to increase the rate of filtration. akselofiltər ¯ acceptor CHEM 1. A chemical whose reaction rate with another chemical increases because the other substance undergoes another reaction. 2. A species that accepts electrons, protons, electron pairs, or molecules such as dyes. akseptər accessoryelement See trace element. aksesəre¯ eləmənt acenaphthene ORG CHEMC H An unsaturated hydrocarbon whose colorless crys- 12 10 tals melt at 92C; insoluble in water; used as a dye intermediate and as an agent for inducing polyploidy. asənafthe¯n acenaphthequinone ORG CHEMC H (CO) A three-ring hydrocarbon in the form of 10 6 2 2aceticester yellow needles melting at 261–263C; insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol; used in dye synthesis. asə¦nafthəkwa¦no¯n acene ORG CHEM Any condensed polycyclic compound with fused rings in a linear arrangement; for example, anthracene. əse¯n acenocoumarin See acenocoumarol. əse¯nəku¨mərən acenocoumarol ORGCHEMC H NO Atasteless,odorless,white,crystallinepowder 19 15 6 with a melting point of 197C; slightly soluble in water and organic solvents; used as an anticoagulant. Also known as acenocoumarin. əse¯nəku¨mərəl acephate ORG CHEMC H NO PS A white solid with a melting point of 72–80C; very 4 10 3 soluble in water; used as an insecticide for a wide range of aphids and foliage pests. asəfat ¯ acephatemet ORG CHEMCH OCH SPONH A white, crystalline solid with a melting 3 3 2 point of 39–41C; limited solubility in water; used as an insecticide to control cutworms and borers on vegetables. asəfa¯tmət acetal ORG CHEM 1. CH CH(OC H ) A colorless, flammable, volatile liquid used as 3 2 5 2 a solvent and in manufacture of perfumes. Also known as 1,1-diethoxyethane. 2. Any one of a class of compounds formed by the addition of alcohols to aldehydes. asətal acetaldehyde ORG CHEMC H O A colorless, flammable liquid used chiefly to manu- 2 4 facture acetic acid. asədaldəhıd ¯ acetaldehydecyanohydrin See lactonitrile. asədaldəhı¯d sı¯əno¯hı¯drən acetal resins ORG CHEM Linear, synthetic resins produced by the polymerization of formaldehyde(acetalhomopolymers)orofformaldehydewithtrioxane(acetalcopol- ymers);hard,toughplasticsusedassubstitutesformetals. Alsoknownaspolyacet- als. asətəl rezənz acetamide ORGCHEMCH CONH The crystalline, colorless amide of acetic acid, used 3 2 in organic synthesis and as a solvent. əsedəmı¯d acetamidine hydrochloride ORG CHEMC H NHCl Deliquescent crystals that are 2 6 2 long prisms with a melting point reported as either 174Cor164–166C; soluble in water and alcohol; used in the synthesis of imidazoles, pyrimidines, and triazines. əsedaməde¯nhı¯drəklo˙rı¯d acetaminophen ORG CHEMC H O N Large monoclinic prisms with a melting point 8 9 2 of 169–170C; soluble in organic solvents such as methanol and ethanol; used in the manufacture of azo dyes and photographic chemicals, and as an analgesic and antipyretic. əse¯dəme¯nəfən acetanilide ORGCHEM Anodorlesscompoundintheformofwhite,shining,crystalline leaflets or a white, crystalline powder with a melting point of 114–116C; soluble in hot water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, acetone, glycerol, and benzene; used as a rubber accelerator, in the manufacture of dyestuffs and intermediates, as a precursor in penicillin manufacture, and as a painkiller. asədanəlı¯d acetate ORG CHEM One of two species derived from acetic acid, CH COOH; one type 3  istheacetateion,CH COO ;thesecondtypeisacompoundwhosestructurecontains 3 the acetate ion, such as ethyl acetate. asətat ¯ acetate dye CHEM 1. Any of a group of water-insoluble azo or anthroquinone dyes used for dyeing acetate fibers. 2. Any of a group of water-insoluble amino azo dyes that aretreated with formaldehydeand bisulfate to makethem water-soluble. as əta¯t dı¯ acetateoflime ORG CHEM Calcium acetate made from pyroligneous acid and a water suspension of calcium hydroxide. asətat əv lı¯m ¯ acetenyl See ethinyl. əsedənil aceticacid ORG CHEMCH COOH 1. A clear, colorless liquid or crystalline mass with 3 a pungent odor, miscible with water or alcohol; crystallizes in deliquescent needles; a component of vinegar. Also known as ethanoic acid. 2. A mixture of the normal and acetic salts; used as a mordant in the dyeing of wool. əse¯dik asəd aceticanhydride ORG CHEM (CH CO) O A liquid with a pungent odor that combines 3 2 with water to form acetic acid; used as an acetylating agent. əse¯dik anhı¯drı¯d aceticester See ethyl acetate. əse¯dik estər 3aceticether aceticether See ethyl acetate. əse¯dik e¯thər acetidin See ethyl acetate. əsedədin acetin ORG CHEMC H (OH) OOCCH A thick, colorless, hygroscopic liquid with a 3 5 2 3 boiling point of 158C, made by heating glycerol and strong acetic acid; soluble in water and alcohol; used in tanning, as a dye solvent and food additive, and in explosives. Also spelled acetine. asətin acetine See acetin. asəten ¯ acetoacetate ORG CHEM A salt which contains the CH COCH COO radical; derived 3 2 from acetoacetic acid. ¦asəto¯asəta¯t acetoaceticacid ORG CHEMCH COCH COOH A colorless liquid miscible with water; 3 2 derived from -hydroxybutyric acid in the body. ¦asətoəsedik asəd ¯ ¯ acetoaceticester See ethyl acetoacetate. ¦asəto¯əse¯dik estər acetoamidoaceticacid See aceturic acid. ¦asəto¯ ¦amədo¯əse¯dik asəd acetoin ORG CHEMCH COCHOHCH A slightly yellow liquid, melting point 15C, 3 3 used as an aroma carrier in the preparation of flavors and essences; produced by fermentationorfromdiacetylbypartialreductionwithzincandacid. əsedəwən acetol ORGCHEMCH COCH OH A colorless liquid soluble in water; a reducing agent. 3 2 asəto¯l acetolysis ORG CHEM Decomposition of an organic molecule through the action of acetic acid or acetic anhydride. asəta¨ləsəs acetone ORGCHEMCH COCH A colorless, volatile, extremely flammable liquid, mis- 3 3 cible with water; used as a solvent and reagent. Also known as 2-propanone. asəto¯n acetonecyanohydrin ORGCHEM (CH ) COHCN A colorless liquid obtained from con- 3 2 densation of acetone with hydrocyanic acid; used as an insecticide or as an organic chemical intermediate. asəto¯nsı¯əno¯hı¯drən acetoneglucose See acetone sugar. asəto¯n glu¨ko¯s acetone number CHEM A ratio used to estimate the degree of polymerization of materials such as drying oils; it is the weight in grams of acetone added to 100 grams of a drying oil to cause an insoluble phase to form. asəto¯n nəmbər acetonepyrolysis ORG CHEM Thermal decomposition of acetone into ketene. as ətonpı¯ra¨ləsəs ¯ acetone-sodium bisulfite ORG CHEM (CH ) C(OH)SO Na Crystals that have a slight 3 2 3 sulfur dioxide odor and slightly fatty feel; freely soluble in water, decomposed by acids; used in photography and in textile dyeing and printing. asəto¯n so¯de¯ əm bı¯səlfa¯t acetone sugar ORG CHEM Any reducing sugar that contains acetone; examples are 1,2-monoacetone-D-glucofuranose and 1,2,6-diacetone-D-glucofuranose. Also known as acetone glucose. asəto¯n shu˙gər acetonitrile ORG CHEMCH CN A colorless liquid soluble in water; used in organic 3 synthesis. asəto¯nı¯tril acetonylacetone ORG CHEMCH COCH CH COCH A colorless liquid with a boiling 3 2 2 3 point of 192.2C; soluble in water; used as a solvent and as an intermediate for pharmaceuticals and photographic chemicals. asəta¨nəlasəto¯n acetophenone ORGCHEMC H COCH Colorlesscrystalswithameltingpointof19.6C 6 5 3 and a specific gravity of 1.028; used as a chemical intermediate. asəta¨fənon ¯ acetostearin ORG CHEM A general term for monoglycerides of stearic acid acetylated with acetic anhydride; used as a protective food coating and as plasticizers for waxes and synthetic resins to improve low-temperature characteristics. əsedosterən ¯ ¯ ¯ acetoxime ORG CHEM (CH ) CNOH Colorless crystals with a chlorallike odor and a 3 2 meltingpointof 61C;solubleinalcohol, ethers,andwater;usedin organicsynthesis and as a solvent for cellulose ethers. asəta¨ksem ¯ aceturic acid ORG CHEMCH CONHCHCH COOH Long, needlelike crystals with a 3 2 melting point of 206–208C; soluble in water and alcohol; forms stable salts with organic bases; used in medicine. ¦asə¦tu˙rik asəd acetyl ORG CHEMCH CO A two-carbon organic radical containing a methyl group 3 and a carbonyl group. əse¯dəl 4acetylsalicylicacid -acetylacetanilide See acetoacetic acid. alfəə¦sedəl¦asədanəlı¯d acetylacetone ORG CHEMCH COCH OCCH A colorless liquid with a pleasant odor 3 2 3 and a boiling point of 140.5C; soluble in water; used as a solvent, lubricant additive, paint drier, and pesticide. ə¦sedəlasəto¯n acetylatingagent ORG CHEM A reagent, such as acetic anhydride, capable of bonding an acetyl group onto an organic molecule. əsedəla¯tiŋa¯jənt acetylation ORG CHEM The process of bonding an acetyl group onto an organic mole- cule. əsedəlashən ¯ acetylbenzoylperoxide ORG CHEMC H COOOCCH White crystals with a melting 6 5 2 3 point of 36.6C; moderately soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and water; used as a germicide and disinfectant. əsedəl benzo˙il pəra¨ksı¯d acetyl bromide ORG CHEMCH COBr A colorless, fuming liquid with a boiling point 3 of 81C; soluble in ether, chloroform, and benzene; used in organic synthesis and dye manufacture. əsedəl bro¯mı¯d -acetylbutyrolactone ORG CHEMC H O A liquid with an esterlike odor; soluble in 6 8 3 water; used in the synthesis of 3,4-disubstituted pyridines. ¦alfəəsedəl¦byu¨d ərolakton ¯ ¯ acetyl chloride ORG CHEMCH COCl A colorless, fuming liquid with a boiling point 3 of 51–52C; soluble in ether, acetone, and acetic acid; used in organic synthesis, and in the manufacture of dyestuffs and pharmaceuticals. əsedəl klo˙rı¯d acetylene ORG CHEMC H A colorless, highly flammable gas that is explosive when 2 2 compressed;thesimplestcompoundcontainingatriplebond;usedinorganicsynthe- sis and as a welding fuel. Also known as ethyne. əsedəle¯n acetyleneblack ORG CHEM A form of carbon with high electrical conductivity; made by decomposing acetylene by heat. əsedəle¯n blak acetylene series ORG CHEM A series of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, each containing at leastone triple bond and having thegeneral formula C H . əsed n 2n2 əle¯n sire¯z acetylenetetrabromide ORGCHEM CHBr CHBr Ayellowishliquidwithaboilingpoint 2 2 of 239–242C; soluble in alcohol and ether; used for separating minerals and as a solvent. əsedəlen tetrəbromı¯d ¯ ¯ acetylenic ORG CHEM Pertaining to acetylene or being like acetylene, such as having a triple bond. əsedəlenik acetylenyl See ethinyl. əsedəlenəl N-acetylethanolamine ORG CHEMCH CONHC H OH A brown, viscous liquid with a 3 2 4 boiling range of 150–152C; soluble in alcohol, ether, and water; used as a plasticizer, humectant, high-boiling solvent, and textile conditioner. ¦en əsedəlethəna¨l əmen ¯ acetylide ORG CHEM A compound formed from acetylene with the H atoms replaced by metals, as in cuprous acetylide (Cu C ). əsedəlı¯d 2 2 acetyliodide ORGCHEMCH COIAcolorless,transparent, fumingliquidwithaboiling 3 pointof105–108C;solubleinetherandbenzene;usedinorganicsynthesis. əsed əl ıədıd ¯ ¯ acetylisoeugenol ORG CHEMC H (CHCHCH )(OCH )(OCOCH ) White crystals with a 6 3 3 3 3 clovelike odor and a congealing point of 77C; used in perfumery and flavoring. əsedəl¯ıso¯yu¨jəno˙l acetylnumber ANALY CHEM A measure of free hydroxyl groups in fats or oils deter- mined by the amount of potassium hydroxide used to neutralize the acetic acid formed by saponification of acetylated fat or oil. əsedəl nəmbər acetyl peroxide ORG CHEM (CH CO) O Colorless crystals with a melting point of 3 2 2 30C; soluble in alcohol and ether; used as an initiator and catalyst for resins. əsedəlpəra¨ksı¯d acetyl propionyl ORG CHEMCH COCOCH CH A yellow liquid with a boiling point 3 2 3 of 106–110C; used in butterscotch- and chocolate-type flavors. əsedəl pro peənil ¯ acetylsalicylicacid ORG CHEMCH COOC H COOH A white, crystalline, weakly acidic 3 6 4 5N-acetylsulfanilylchloride substance, with melting point 137C; slightly soluble in water; used medicinally as an antipyretic. Also known by trade name aspirin. ə¦sedəl¦salə¦silik asəd N-acetylsulfanilylchloride ORG CHEMC H ClNO S Thick, light tan prisms ranging to 8 8 3 brown powder or fine crystals with a melting point of 149C; soluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether; used as an intermediate in the preparation of sulfanilamide and its derivatives. Abbreviated ASC. ¦en ə¦sedəlsəlfanəlil klo˙rı¯d acetylurea ORG CHEMCH CONHCONH Crystals that are colorless and are slightly 3 2 soluble in water. əsedəlyureə ¯ ˙ ¯ acetylvaleryl ORG CHEMCH COCOC H A yellow liquid used for cheese, butter, and 3 4 9 other flavors. Also known as heptadione-2,3. əsedəl valəril ¯ achiral molecules ORG CHEM Molecules which are superposable to their mirror images. ¦a¯kı¯rəl ma¨ləkyu¨lz acid CHEM 1. Any of a class of chemical compounds whose aqueous solutions turn blue litmus paper red, react with and dissolve certain metals to form salts, and react with bases to form salts. 2. A compound capable of transferring a hydrogen ion in solution. 3. A substance that ionizes in solution to yield the positive ion of the solvent. 4.Amoleculeorionthatcombineswithanothermoleculeorionbyforming a covalent bond with two electrons from the other species. asəd -acid ORGCHEM Anacid thatreadily forms stablecomplexes witharomatic systems. pı¯ asəd acidacceptor ORG CHEM A stabilizer compound added to plastic and resin polymers to combine with trace amounts of acids formed by decomposition of the polymers. asəd əkseptər acid alcohol ORG CHEM A compound containing both a carboxyl group (COOH) and an alcohol group (CH OH,CHOH, or COH). asəd alkəho˙l 2 acidamide ORG CHEM A compound derived from an acid in which the hydroxyl group (OH)ofthecarboxylgroup(COOH)hasbeenreplacedbyanaminogroup(NH ) 2 or a substituted amino group (NHR orNHR ). asəd amı¯d 2 acid anhydride CHEM An acid with one or more molecules of water removed; for example, SO is the acid anhydride of H SO , sulfuric acid. asəd anhı¯drı¯d 3 2 4 acidazide ORG CHEM 1. A compound in which the hydroxy group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by the azido group (NH ). 2. An acyl or aroyl derivative of hydrazoic 3 acid. Also known as acyl azide. asəd a¯zı¯d acid-base catalysis CHEM The increase in speed of certain chemical reactions due to the presence of acids and bases. asəd ba¯skətaləsis acid-baseequilibrium CHEM The condition when acidic and basic ions in a solution exactly neutralize each other; that is, the pH is 7. asəd ba¯s ikwəlibre¯əm acid-base indicator ANALY CHEM A substance that reveals, through characteristic color changes, the degree of acidity or basicity of solutions. asəd ba¯s in dəka¯dər acid-basepair CHEM A concept in the Bro¨nsted theory of acids and bases; the pair consists of the source of the proton (acid) and the base generated by the transfer of the proton. asəd bas par ¯ ¯ acid-basetitration ANALY CHEM A titration in which an acid of known concentration is added to a solution of base of unknown concentration, or the converse. as əd ba¯stı¯tra¯shən acidcalciumphosphate See calcium phosphate. asəd kalse¯əm fa¨sfa¯t acidcell PHYS CHEM An electrolytic cell whose electrolyte is an acid. asəd sel acidchloride ORG CHEM A compound containing the radicalCOCl; an example is benzoyl chloride. asəd klorı¯d ˙ aciddisproportionation CHEM The self-oxidation of a sample of an oxidized element to the next higher oxidation state and then a corresponding reduction to lower oxidation states. asəd disprəpo˙rshəna¯shən aciddye ORG CHEM Any of a group of sodium salts of sulfonic and carboxylic acids used to dye natural and synthetic fibers, leather, and paper. asəd dı ¯ acidelectrolyte INORGCHEM A compound, such as sulfuric acid, that dissociates into 6acridineorange ions when dissolved, forming an acidic solution that conducts an electric current. asəd əlektrəlı¯t acid halide ORG CHEM A compound of the type RCOX, where R is an alkyl or aryl radical and X is a halogen. asəd ha¯lı¯d acid heat test ANALY CHEM The determination of degree of unsaturation of organic compounds by reacting with sulfuric acid and measuring the heat of reaction. as əd het test ¯ acidic CHEM 1. Pertaining to an acid or to its properties. 2. Forming an acid during a chemical process. əsidik acidic dye ORG CHEM An organic anion that binds to and stains positively charged macromolecules. ə¦sidik dı¯ ¨ acidicgroup ORGCHEM TheradicalCOOH,presentinorganicacids. əsidikgrup acidicoxide INORG CHEM An oxygen compound of a nonmetal, for example, SO or 2 P O , which yields an oxyacid with water. əsidik a¨ksı¯d 2 5 acidictitrant ANALYCHEM Anacidsolutionof knownconcentrationusedtodetermine the basicity of another solution by titration. əsidik tı¯trənt acidification CHEM Addition of an acid to a solution until the pH falls below 7. əsidəfəka¯shən acidimeter ANALY CHEM An apparatus or a standard solution used to determine the amount of acid in a sample. asədimətər acidimetry ANALY CHEM The titration of an acid with a standard solution of base. asədimətre¯ acidity CHEM The state of being acid. əsidəte¯ acidity function CHEM A quantitative scale for measuring the acidity of a solvent system; usually established over a range of compositions. əsidəde¯ fəŋkshən acidnumber See acid value. asəd ¦nəmbər acidolysis ORGCHEM Achemicalreactioninvolvingthedecompositionofamolecule, withtheadditionoftheelementsofanacidtothemolecule;thereactioniscompara- ble to hydrolysis or alcoholysis, in which water or alcohol, respectively, is used in place of the acid. Also known as acyl exchange. asəda¨ləsəs acidphosphate INORG CHEM A mono- or dihydric phosphate; for example, M HPO 2 4 or MH PO , where M represents a metal atom. asəd fa¨sfat ¯ 2 4 acidpotassiumphthalate See potassium biphthalate. asədpətaseəm thalat ¯ ¯ acidpotassiumsulfate See potassium bisulfate. asədpətase¯əm səlfa¯t acidreaction CHEM A chemical reaction produced by an acid. asədre¯akshən acidsalt CHEM A compound derived from an acid and base in which only a part of the hydrogen is replaced by a basic radical; for example, the acid sulfate NaHSO . 4 asəd so˙lt acidsodiumtartrate See sodium bitartrate. asədso¯de¯əm ta¨rtra¯t acid solution CHEM An aqueous solution containing more hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions. asədsəlu¨shən acidtartrate See bitartrate. asəd ta¨rtra¯t acidvalue Also known as acid number. CHEM The acidity of a solution expressed in terms of normality. ORG CHEM A number indicating the amount of nonesterified fatty acid present in a sample of fat or fatty oil as determined by alkaline titration. asəd valyu¨ aconiticacid ORG CHEMC H O A white, crystalline organic acid found in sugarcane 6 6 6 and sugarbeet; obtained during manufacture of sugar. akənidik asəd Acree’sreaction ANALY CHEM A test for protein in which a violet ring appears when concentratedsulfuricacidisintroducedbelowamixtureoftheunknownsolutionand a formaldehyde solution containing a trace of ferric chloride. akre¯zre¯akshən acridine ORG CHEM(C H ) NCH A typical member of a group of organic heterocyclic 6 4 2 compounds containing benzene rings fused to the 2,3 and 5,6 positions of pyridine; derivatives include dyes and medicines. akrəde¯n acridinedye ORG CHEM Any of a class of basic dyes containing the acridine nucleus that bind to deoxyribonucleic acid. akrəde¯n ¦dı¯ acridineorange ORG CHEM A dye with an affinity for nucleic acids; the complexes of 7acriflavine nucleic acid and dye fluoresce orange with RNA and green with DNA when observed in the fluorescence microscope. akrəde¯n a¨rinj acriflavine ORG CHEMC H N Cl A yellow acridine dye obtained from proflavine by 14 14 3 methylation in the form of red crystals; used as an antiseptic in solution. ak rəfla¯ve¯n acrolein ORG CHEMCHCHCHO A colorless to yellow liquid with a pungent odor 2 and a boiling point of 52.7C; soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals manufacture, and as an herbicide and tear gas. əkro¯l e¯ən acrolein cyanohydrin ORG CHEMCH :CHCH(OH)CN A liquid soluble in water and 2 boiling at 165C; copolymerizes with ethylene and acrylonitrile; used to modify synthetic resins. əkro¯le¯ən sı¯əno¯hı¯drən acroleindimer ORGCHEMC H O A flammable, water-soluble liquid used as an inter- 6 8 2 mediate for resins, dyestuffs, and pharmaceuticals. əkro¯le¯ən dı¯mər acrolein test ANALY CHEM A test for the presence of glycerin or fats; a sample is heated with potassium bisulfate, and acrolein is released if the test is positive. əkro¯le¯ən test acrylamide ORGCHEMCH CHCONH Colorless,odorlesscrystalswithameltingpoint 2 2 of 84.5C; soluble in water, alcohol, and acetone; used in organic synthesis, polymer- ization, sewage treatment, ore processing, and permanent press fabrics. əkril əmı¯d acrylamide copolymer ORG CHEM A thermosetting resin formed of acrylamide with other resins, such as the acrylic resins. əkriləmı¯dko¯pa¨ləmər acrylate ORG CHEM 1. A salt or ester of acrylic acid. 2. See acrylate resin. ak rəla¯t acrylate resin ORG CHEM Acrylic acid or ester polymer with a CHCH(COOR) 2 structure; used in paints, sizings and finishes for paper and textiles, adhesives, and plastics. Also known as acrylate. akrəlat rezən ¯ acrylicacid ORGCHEMCH CHCOOHAneasilypolymerized,colorless,corrosiveliquid 2 used as a monomer for acrylate resins. əkrilik asəd acrylicester ORG CHEM An ester of acrylic acid. əkrilik estər acrylicresin ORG CHEM A thermoplastic synthetic organic polymer made by the poly- merization of acrylic derivatives such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, ethyl acrylate, and methyl acrylate; used for adhesives, protective coatings, and finishes. əkril ik rezən acrylic rubber ORG CHEM Synthetic rubber containing acrylonitrile; for example, nitrile rubber. əkrilik rəbər acrylonitrile ORG CHEMCH CHCN A colorless liquid compound used in the manufac- 2 ture of acrylic rubber and fibers. Also known as vinylcyanide. akrəlo¯nı¯trəl acrylonitrilebutadienestyreneresin ORG CHEM A polymer made by blending acrylo- nitrile-styrene copolymer with a butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber or by interpolymeriz- ing polybutadiene with styrene and acrylonitrile; combines the advantages of hardness and strength of the vinyl resin component with the toughness and impact resistance of the rubbery component. Abbreviated ABS. akrəlo¯nı¯trəl byu¨d ədı¯e¯n stı¯re¯n rezən acrylonitrilecopolymer ORG CHEM Oil-resistant synthetic rubber made by polymer- ization of acrylonitrile with compounds such as butadiene or acrylic acid. ak rəlo¯nı¯trəlko¯pa¨ləmər actinideseries CHEM Thegroupofelementsofatomicnumber89through103. Also known as actinoid elements. aktənı¯d sire¯z actinism CHEM The production of chemical changes in a substance upon which elec- tromagnetic radiation is incident. ¦aktənizəm actinium CHEM A radioactive element, symbol Ac, atomic number 89; its longest- 227 lived isotope is Ac with a half-life of 21.7 years; the element is trivalent; chief use is, in equilibrium with its decay products, as a source of alpha rays. aktineəm ¯ actinochemistry CHEM A branch of chemistry concerned with chemical reactions produced by light or other radiation. aktəno¯keməstre¯ 8adamsite actinoidelements See actinide series. aktəno˙id eləməns activated complex PHYS CHEM An energetically excited state which is intermediate between reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Also known as transition state. aktəva¯dəd ka¨mpleks activation CHEM Treatment of a substance by heat, radiation, or activating reagent toproduceamorecompleteorrapidchemicalorphysicalchange. aktəva¯shən activationenergy PHYSCHEM The energy,inexcess overtheground state,whichmust be added to an atomic or molecular system to allow a particular process to take place. aktəva¯shən enərje¯ activator CHEM 1. A substance that increases the effectiveness of a rubber vulcaniza- tionaccelerator;forexample,zincoxideorlitharge. 2.Atracequantityofasubstance that imparts luminescence to crystals; for example, silver or copper in zinc sulfide or cadmium sulfide pigments. aktəva¯dər active center CHEM 1. Any one of the points on the surface of a catalyst at which thechemicalreactionisinitiatedortakesplace. 2. Seeactivesite. aktivsentər activesite CHEM The effective site at which a given heterogeneous catalytic reaction can take place. Also known as active center. aktiv sı¯t active solid CHEM A porous solid possessing adsorptive properties and used for chromatographic separations. aktiv sa¨ləd activity PHYSCHEM Athermodynamicfunctionthatcorrelateschangesinthechemical potential with changes in experimentally measurable quantities, such as concentra- tions or partial pressures, through relations formally equivalent to those for ideal systems. aktivəde¯ activitycoefficient PHYS CHEM A characteristic of a quantity expressing the deviation of a solution from ideal thermodynamic behavior; often used in connection with electrolytes. aktivəde¯ ko¯əfishənt activityseries CHEM A series of elements that have similar properties—for example, metals—arranged in descending order of chemical activity. aktivəde¯ sire¯z actol See silver lactate. aktol ˙ acycliccompound ORG CHEM A chemical compound with an open-chain molecular structure ratherthan aring-shaped structure;for example,the alkaneseries. asik ¯ lik ka¨mpau˙nd acyl ORG CHEM A radical formed from an organic acid by removal of a hydroxyl group; thegeneralformulaisRCO,whereRmaybealiphatic,alicyclic,oraromatic. asəl acylation ORG CHEM Any process whereby the acyl group is incorporated into a mole- cule by substitution. asəlashən ¯ acylazide See acid azide. asəl a¯zı¯d acylcarbene ORGCHEM Acarbeneradicalinwhichatleastoneofthegroupsattached tothedivalentcarbonisanacylgroup;forexample,acetylcarbene. asəlka¨rbe¯n acylexchange See acidolysis. asəl ikscha¯nj acyl halide ORG CHEM One of a large group of organic substances containing the halocarbonyl group; for example, acyl fluoride. asəl hal¯ıd acylnitrene ORG CHEM A nitrene in which the nitrogen is covalently bonded to an acyl group. asəlnı¯tre¯n acyloin ORG CHEM An organic compound that may be synthesized by condensation of aldehydes; an example is benzoin, C H COCHOHC H. əsiləwən 6 5 6 5 acyloin condensation ORG CHEM The reaction of an aliphatic ester with metallic sodium to form intermediates converted by hydrolysis into aliphatic -hydroxy- ketones called acyloins. əsiləwən ka¨ndensa¯shən adamantane ORG CHEMAC H alicyclic hydrocarbon whose structure has the same 10 16 arrangement of carbon atoms as does the basic unit of the diamond lattice. adəmanta¯n adamsite ORGCHEMC HNHC HAsClAyellowcrystallinearsenical;usedinleather 6 4 6 4 tanning and in warfare and riot control to produce skin and eye irritation, chest distress,andnausea; U.S.ArmycodeisDM. Also knownasdiphenylaminechloroar- sine; phenarsazine chloride. adəmzı¯t 9adatom adatom PHYS CHEM An atom adsorbed on a surface so that it will migrate over the surface. adadəm additionagent PHYSCHEM A substance added to a plating solution to change charac- teristics of the deposited substances. ədishən a¯jənt additionpolymer ORG CHEM A polymer formed by the chain addition of unsaturated monomer molecules, such as olefins, with one another without the formation of a by-product, as water; examples are polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene. Also known as addition resin. ədishən pa¨ləmər additionpolymerization ORGCHEM A reaction initiatedby an anion, cation,or radical in which a large number of monomer units are added rapidly (a chain reaction) until terminated by some mechanism, forming a high-molecular-weight polymer in a very short time; an example is the free-radical polymerization of propylene to polypro- pylene. ə¦dishənpəlimərəza¯shən addition reaction ORG CHEM A type of reaction of unsaturated hydrocarbons with hydrogen, halogens, halogen acids, and other reagents, so that no change in valency is observed and the organic compound forms a more complex one. ədishən re¯akshən additionresin See addition polymer. ədishən rezən adduct CHEM 1. A chemical compound that forms from chemical addition of two species; for example, reaction of butadiene with styrene forms an adduct, 4-phenyl- 1-cyclohexene. 2. The complex compound formed by association of an inclusion complex. adəkt adiabatic approximation See Born-Oppenheimer approximation. ¦ade¯ə¦badik əpra¨ksəmashən ¯ adiabatic calorimeter PHYS CHEM An instrument used to study chemical reactions which have a minimum loss of heat. ¦ade¯ə¦badik kalərimədər adiabatic flame temperature PHYS CHEM The highest possible temperature of com- bustionobtainedundertheconditionsthattheburningoccursinanadiabaticvessel, thatit iscomplete,andthat dissociationdoesnotoccur. ¦ade¯ə¦badik ¦fla¯m tem prəchər adipate ORG CHEM Salt produced by reaction of adipic acid with a basic compound. adəpat ¯ adipic acid ORG CHEM HOOC(CH ) COOH A colorless crystalline dicarboxylic acid, 2 4 sparingly soluble in water; used in nylon manufacture. ədipik asəd adiponitrile ORG CHEM NC(CH ) CN The high-boiling liquid dinitrile of adipic acid; 2 4 used to make nylon intermediates. adəpo¯nı¯trəl adjectivedye CHEM Any dye that needs a mordant. əjektiv dı ¯ adsorbate CHEM A solid, liquid, or gas which is adsorbed as molecules, atoms, or ionsbysuchsubstancesascharcoal,silica,metals,water,andmercury. adso˙rba¯t adsorbent CHEM A solid or liquid that adsorbs other substances; for example, char- coal, silica, metals, water, and mercury. adso˙rbənt adsorption CHEM The surface retention of solid, liquid, or gas molecules, atoms, or ions by a solid or liquid, as opposed to absorbtion, the penetration of substances into the bulk of the solid or liquid. adso˙rpshən adsorptioncatalysis PHYSCHEM A catalyticreactionin whichthecatalyst isanadsor- bent. adsorpshənkətaləsəs adsorption chromatography ANALY CHEM Separation of a chemical mixture (gas or liquid) by passing it over an adsorbent bed which adsorbs different compounds at different rates. adsorpshən kroməta¨grəfe ˙ ¯ ¯ adsorptioncomplex CHEM An entity consisting of an adsorbate and that portion of the adsorbent to which it is bound. adso˙rpshən ka¨mpleks adsorption indicator ANALY CHEM An indicator used in solutions to detect slight excess of a substance or ion; precipitate becomes colored when the indicator is adsorbed. An example is fluorescein. adso˙rpshən indəka¯dər adsorption isobar PHYS CHEM A graph showing how adsorption varies with some parameter, such as temperature, while holding pressure constant. adso˙rpshən ı¯so¯ba¨r 10alchemy adsorption isotherm PHYS CHEM The relationship between the gas pressure p and the amount w, in grams, of a gas or vapor taken up per gram of solid at a constant temperature. adsorpshən ısothərm ˙ ¯ ¯ adsorption potential PHYS CHEM A change in the chemical potential that occurs as anionmovesfromagasorsolutionphasetothesurfaceofanadsorbent. adso˙rp shənpətenchəl aeration cell PHYS CHEM An electrolytic cell whose electromotive force is due to electrodes of the same material located in different concentrations of dissolved air. Also known as oxygen cell. era¯shən sel aerogel CHEM A porous solid formed from a gel by replacing the liquid with a gas with little change in volume so that the solid is highly porous. erojel ¯ aerosol CHEM A suspension of small particles in a gas; the particles may be solid or liquid or a mixture of both; aerosols are formed by the conversion of gases to particles, the disintegration of liquids or solids, or the suspension of powdered material. erəso˙l AES See Auger electron spectroscopy. affinity CHEM The extent to which a substance or functional group can enter into a chemicalreactionwithagivenagent. Alsoknownaschemicalaffinity. əfinəde¯ affinitychromatography ANALY CHEM A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bend to certain ligands specifically and reversibly; used in protein biochemistry. əfinəde¯ kro¯məta¨grəfe¯ Ag See silver. agaricacid ORG CHEMC H (OH)(COOH) An acid with melting point 141C; soluble 19 36 3 in water, insoluble in benzene; usedas an irritant. Also known as agaricin. əgar ik asəd agaricin See agaric acid. əgarəsən agavose ORG CHEMC H O A sugar found in the juice of the agave tree; used in 12 22 11 medicine as a diuretic and laxative. agəvos ¯ aggregate CHEM A group of atoms or molecules that are held together in any way, for example, a micelle. agrəgət aggregation CHEM A process that results in the formation of aggregates. ag rəgashən ¯ aging CHEM All irreversible structural changes that occur in a precipitate after it has formed. a¯jiŋ agostic ORGCHEM A three-center, two-electron bonding interaction in which a hydro- gen atom is bonded to both a carbon atom and a metal atom, such as the interaction of a CH bond and an unsaturated transition-metal compound. əga¨stik air CHEM Apredominantlymechanicalmixtureofavarietyofindividualgasesforming the earth’s enveloping atmosphere. er airdeficiency CHEM Insufficient air in an air-fuel mixture causing either incomplete fuel oxidation or lack of ignition. er difishənse¯ air-fuelratio CHEM The ratio of air to fuel by weight or volume which is significant for proper oxidative combustion of the fuel. er fyu¨l rasho ¯ ¯ air line SPECT Lines in a spectrum due to the excitation of air molecules by spark discharges, and not ordinarily present in arc discharges. er lı¯n air-sensitive crystal CHEM A crystal that decomposes when exposed to air. er ¦sensədiv kristəl air-slaked CHEM Having the property of a substance, such as lime, that has been at least partially converted to a carbonate by exposure to air. er slakt ¯ ajmaline ORGCHEMC H N O Anamber,crystallinealkaloidobtained from Rauwolfia 20 26 2 2 plants, especially R.serpentina. ajməle¯n Al See aluminum. alanyl ORG CHEM The radical CH CHNH CO; occurs in, for example, alanyl alanine, 3 2 a dipeptide. alənil alchemy CHEM Aspeculativechemicalsystemhavingasitscentralaimsthetransmu- tation of base metals to gold and the discovery of the philosopher’s stone. al kəme¯ 11alcogel alcogel CHEM A gel formed by an alcosol. alkəjel alcohol ORGCHEM Any member of a class of organic compounds in which a hydrogen atom of a hydrocarbon has been replaced by a hydroxy (OH) group. alkəho˙l alcoholate ORG CHEM A compound formed by the reaction of an alcohol with an alkali metal. Also known as alkoxide. alkəho˙la¯t alcoholysis ORG CHEM The breaking of a carbon-to-carbon bond by addition of an alcohol. alkəho˙ləsəs alcosol CHEM Mixture of an alcohol and a colloid. alkəso˙l aldehyde ORGCHEM OneofaclassoforganiccompoundscontainingtheCHOradical. aldəhı¯d aldehydeammonia ORGCHEMCH CHOHNH Awhite,crystallinesolidwithamelting 3 2 point of 97C; soluble in water and alcohol; used in organic synthesis and as a vulcanization accelerator. aldəhı¯d əmo¯nyə aldehydepolymer ORGCHEM Any of theplastics based on aldehydes,such as formal- dehyde, acetaldehyde, butyraldehyde, or acrylic aldehyde (acrolein). aldəhı¯d pa¨ləmər aldicarb ORG CHEMC H N O S A colorless, crystalline compound with a melting 7 14 2 2 point of 100C; used as an insecticide, miticide, and nematicide to treat soil for cotton, sugarbeets, potatoes, peanuts, and ornamentals. aldəka¨rb aldohexose ORG CHEM A hexose, such as glucose or mannose, containing the alde- hyde group. aldoheksos ¯ ¯ aldol ORG CHEMCH CH(OH)CH CHO A colorless, thick liquid with a boiling point of 3 2 83C; used in manufacturing rubber age resistors, accelerators, and vulcanizers. aldo˙l aldolcondensation ORG CHEM Formation of a -hydroxycarbonyl compound by the condensation of an aldehyde or a ketone in the presence of an acid or base catalyst. Also known as aldol reaction. aldo˙l ka¨ndənsa¯shən aldolreaction See aldol condensation. aldo˙lreakshən ¯ aldose ORG CHEM A class of monosaccharide sugars; the molecule contains an alde- hyde group. aldos ¯ Aldrin ORG CHEMC H Cl Trade name for a water-insoluble, white, crystalline com- 12 8 6 pound, consisting mainlyof chlorinated dimethanonaphthalene; usedas a pesticide. aldrən alfincatalyst ORG CHEM A catalyst derived from reaction of an alkali alcoholate with an olefin halide; used to convert olefins (for example, ethylene, propylene, or butyl- enes) into polyolefin polymers. alfin kadəlist algin See sodium alginate. aljən alginic acid ORG CHEM(C H O ) An insoluble colloidal acid obtained from brown 6 8 6 n marine algae; it is hard when dry and absorbent when moist. Also known as algin. aljinik asəd alginicacidsodiumsalt See sodium alginate. aljinik asəd sodeəm solt ¯ ¯ ˙ alicyclic ORG CHEM 1. Having the properties of both aliphatic and cyclic substances. 2.Referringtoaclassofsaturatedhydrocarboncompoundswhosestructurescontain one ring. Also known as cycloaliphatic; cycloalkane.Any one of the compounds of the alicyclic class. Also known as cyclane. ¦alə¦sı¯klik aliphatic ORGCHEM Oforpertainingtoanyorganiccompoundofhydrogenandcarbon characterized by a straight chain of the carbon atoms; three subgroups of such compounds are alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. ¦alə¦fadik aliphaticacid ORGCHEM Anyorganicacidderivedfromaliphatichydrocarbons. ¦al ə¦fadik asəd aliphaticacidester ORG CHEM Any organic ester derived from aliphatic acids. ¦al ə¦fadik asəd estər aliphatic polycyclic hydrocarbon ORG CHEM A hydrocarbon compound in which at least two of the aliphatic structures are cyclic or closed. ¦alə¦fadik pa¨ləsı¯klik hı¯drəka¨rbən 12alkane aliphaticpolyenecompound ORG CHEM Any unsaturated aliphatic or alicyclic com- pound with more than four carbons in the chain and with at least two double bonds; for example, hexadiene. ¦alə¦fadik pa¨le¯e¯n ka¨mpau˙nd aliphatic series ORG CHEM A series of open-chained carbon-hydrogen compounds; the two major classes are the series with saturated bonds and with the unsaturated. ¦alə¦fadik sire¯z aliquant CHEM A part of a sample that has been divided into a set of equal parts plus a smaller remainder part. aləkwant ¨ aliquot CHEM A part of a sample that has been divided into exactly equal parts with no remainder. aləkwa¨t alizarin ORG CHEMC H O (OH) An orange crystalline compound, insoluble in cold 14 6 2 2 water; made synthetically from anthraquinone; used in the manufacture of dyes and red pigments. əlizərən alizarindye ORG CHEM Sodium salts of sulfonic acids derived from alizarin. əliz ərən dı ¯ alizarinred ORG CHEM Any of several red dyes derived from anthraquinone. əliz ərən red alkadiene See diene. alkədı¯e¯n alkalescence CHEM The property of a substance that is alkaline, that is, having a pH greater than 7. alkəlesəns alkali CHEM Any compound having highly basic qualities. alkəlı¯ alkali-aggregatereaction CHEM Thechemicalreactionofanaggregatewiththealkali in a cement, resulting in a weakening of the concrete. alkəlı¯ agrəgətre¯ak shən alkalialcoholate ORG CHEM A compound formed from an alcohol and an alkali metal base; the alkali metal replaces the hydrogen in the hydroxyl group. alkəlı¯ al kəho˙la¯t alkali blue ORG CHEM The sodium salt of triphenylrosanilinesulfonic acid; used as an indicator. alkəlı blu¨ ¯ alkalide INORG CHEM A member of a class of crystalline salts with an alkali metal atom. alkəlı¯d alkali metal CHEM Any of the elements of group I in the periodic table: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. alkəlı¯ medəl alkalimeter ANALY CHEM 1. An apparatus for measuring the quantity of alkali in a solidorliquid. 2.Anapparatusformeasuringthequantityofcarbondioxideformed in a reaction. alkəlimədər alkalimetry ANALY CHEM Quantitative measurement of the concentration of bases or the quantity of one free base in a solution; techniques include titration and other analytical methods. alkəlimətre¯ alkaline CHEM 1. Having properties of an alkali. 2. Having a pH greater than 7. alkəlı¯n alkalineearth INORG CHEM An oxide of an element of group 2 in the periodic table, such as barium, calcium, and strontium. Also known as alkaline-earth oxide. ¦al kəlı¯n ərth alkaline-earthmetals CHEM The heaviest members of group 2 in the periodic table; usually calcium, strontium, magnesium, and barium. ¦alkəlı¯n ərth medəlz alkaline-earthoxide See alkaline earth. ¦alkəlı¯n ərth a¨ksı¯d alkalinity CHEM The property of having excess hydroxide ions in solution. al kəlinəde¯ alkaloid ORG CHEM One of a group of nitrogenous bases of plant origin, such as nicotine, cocaine, and morphine. alkəlo˙id alkalometry ANALY CHEM The measurement of the quantity of alkaloids present in a substance. alkəla¨mətre¯ alkamine ORGCHEM Acompoundthathasboththealcoholandaminogroups. Also known as amino alcohol. alkəmen ¯ alkane ORG CHEM A member of a series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having 13alkannin the empirical formula C H . Also known as paraffin; paraffinic hydrocarbon. n 2n+2 alka¯n alkannin ORGCHEMC H O Aredpowder,thecoloringingredientofalkanet;soluble 16 16 5 in alcohol, benzene, ether, and oils; used as a coloring agent for fats and oils, wines, and wax. alkanən alkanolamine ORG CHEM One of a group of viscous, water-soluble amino alcohols of the aliphatic series. alkəna¨ləmen ¯ alkene ORG CHEM One of a class of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds. alke¯n alkoxide See alcoholate. alka¨ksı¯d alkoxy ORG CHEM An alkyl radical attached to a molecule by oxygen, such as the ethoxy radical. alka¨kse¯ alkydresin ORG CHEM A class of adhesive resins made from unsaturated acids and glycerol. alkəd rezən alkyl ORG CHEM An organic group that results from removal of a hydrogen atom from an acyclic, saturated hydrocarbon; may be represented in a chemical formula by R. alkil alkylamine ORG CHEM A compound consisting of an alkyl group attached to the nitrogen of an amine; an example is ethylamine, C H NH. ¦alkələ¦me¯n 2 5 2 alkylarylsulfonates ORG CHEM General name for alkylbenzene sulfonates. ¦alkəl ə¦rəl səlfəna¯ts alkylate ORG CHEM A product of the alkylation process in petroleum refining. alkəla¯t alkylation ORG CHEM A chemical process in which an alkyl radical is introduced into an organic compound by substitution or addition. alkəla¯shən alkylbenzenesulfonates ORGCHEM Widely used nonbiodegradabledetergents, com- monly dodecylbenzene or tridecylbenzene sulfonates. ¦alkəl¦benze¯n səlfəna¯ts alkylene ORGCHEM Anorganicradicalformedfromanunsaturatedaliphatichydrocar- bon; for example, the ethylene radical C H. alkəle¯n 2 3 alkylhalide ORG CHEM A compound consisting of an alkyl group and a halogen; an example is ethylbromide. alkəl ha¯lı¯d + alkyloxonium ion ORG CHEM (ROH ) An oxonium ion containing one alkyl group. 2 ¦alkilak¦soneəm ıan ¨ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¨ alkyne ORG CHEM One of a group of organic compounds containing a carbon-to- carbon triple bond. alkı¯n allelochemistry CHEM The science of compounds synthesized by one organism that stimulate or inhibit other organisms. ə¦lelo¦keməstre ¯ ¯ ¯ allene ORG CHEMC H An unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon with two double bonds. 3 4 Also known as propadiene. ale¯n allethrin ORG CHEM An insecticide, a synthetic pyrethroid, more effective than pyre- thrin. aləthrən allidochlor ORG CHEMC H NOCl An amber liquid having slight solubility in water; 8 12 used as a preemergence herbicide for vegetable crops, soybeans, sorghum, and ornamentals. əlidəklo˙r allo- CHEM Prefix applied to the stabler form of two isomers. alo¯ allotriomorphism See allotropy. ə¦la¨treə¦morfizəm ¯ allotrope CHEM A form of an element showing allotropy. alətro¯p allotropism See allotropy. alətra¨pizəm allotropy CHEM The assumption by an element of two or more different forms or structures which are most frequently stable in different temperature ranges, such as different crystalline forms of carbon as charcoal, graphite, or diamond. Also known as allotriomorphism; allotropism. əla¨trəpe ¯ allulose ORG CHEMCH OHCO(CHOH) CH OH A constituent of cane sugar molasses; 2 3 2 it is nonfermentable. alyəlo¯s allyl- ORG CHEM A prefix used in names of compounds whose structure contains an allyl cation. aləl allylacetone ORG CHEMCH CHCH CH COCH A colorless liquid, soluble in water 2 2 2 3 14alphaposition and organic solvents; used in pharmaceutical synthesis, perfumes, fungicides, and insecticides. aləlasəton ¯ allyl alcohol ORG CHEMCH CHCH OH Colorless, pungent liquid, boiling at 96C; 2 2 soluble in water; made from allyl chloride by hydrolysis. aləl alkəho˙l allylamine ORG CHEMCH CHCH NH A yellow oil that is miscible with water; boils 2 2 2 at 58C; prepared from mustard oil. ¦alələ¦me¯n allylbromide ORG CHEMC H Br A colorless to light yellow, irritating toxic liquid with 3 5 a boiling point of 71.3C; soluble in organic solvents; used in organic synthesis and for the manufacture of synthetic perfumes. aləl bro¯mı¯d allyl cation ORG CHEM A carbonium cation with a structure usually represented as + CHCHCH ; attachment site is the saturated carbon atom. aləl kat¯ıən 2 2 allylchloride ORGCHEMCH CHCH ClA volatile, pungent, toxic, flammable, colorless 2 2 liquid, boiling at 46C; insoluble in water; made by chlorination of propylene at high temperatures. aləl klo˙rı¯d allyl cyanide ORG CHEMC H N A liquid with an onionlike odor and a boiling point 4 5 of 119C; slightly soluble in water; used as a cross-linking agent in polymerization. aləl sı¯ənı¯d allylene ORG CHEMCH C:CH An acetylenic, three-carbon hydrocarbon; a colorless 3 gas boiling at24C; soluble in ether. Also known as propyne. aləle¯n allylichydrogen ORG CHEM In an organic molecule, a hydrogen attached to a carbon atom that is adjacent to a double bond. əlilik hı¯drəjən allylicsubstitution ORG CHEM A reaction occurring at position 1 of an allylic system (with the double bond between positions 2 and 3) in which the incoming group is attached to the same atom (position 1) as the leaving group, or the incoming group is attached at position 3, with the double bond moving from positions 2 and 3 to positions 1 and 2. ə¦lilik səbstətu¨shən allyl isothiocyanate ORG CHEMCH CH:CH NCS A pungent, colorless to pale-yellow 2 2 liquid; soluble in alcohol, slightly soluble in water; irritating odor; boiling point 152C; used as a fumigant and as a poison gas. Also known as mustard oil. al əl ¦¯ıso¯thı¯o¯sı¯əna¯t allyl mercaptan ORG CHEMCH CHCH SH A colorless liquid with a boiling point of 2 2 67–68C; soluble in ether and alcohol; used as intermediate in pharmaceutical manufacture. aləlmərkaptan allylplastic See allyl resin. aləl plastik allyl resin ORG CHEM Any of a class of thermosetting synthetic resins derived from esters of allyl alcohol or allyl chloride; used in making cast and laminated products. Also known as allyl plastic. aləl rezən allylsulfide ORG CHEM (CH CHCH ) S A colorless liquid with a garliclike odor and a 2 2 2 boiling point of 139C; used in synthetic oil of garlic. aləl səlfı¯d allylthiourea ORG CHEMC H NHCSNH A white, crystalline solid that melts at 78C; 3 5 2 soluble in water; used as a corrosion inhibitor. aləlthı¯o¯yu˙re¯ə allyltrichlorosilane ORGCHEMCH CHCH SiCl Apungent,colorlessliquidwithaboil- 2 2 3 ing point of 117.5C; used as an intermediate for silicones. aləltrıklora¨səlan ¯ ˙ ¯ allylurea ORG CHEMC H N O Crystals with a melting point of 85C; freely soluble in 4 8 2 water and alcohol; used to manufacture allylthiourea and other corrosion inhibitors. aləlyu˙re¯ə allyxycarb ORG CHEMC H N O A yellow, crystalline compound used as an insecti- 16 22 2 2 cide for fruit orchards, vegetable crops, rice, and citrus. əliksəkarb alpha cellulose ORG CHEM A highly refined, insoluble cellulose from which sugars, pectin, and other soluble materials have been removed. Also known as chemical cellulose. alfəselyəlo¯s alpha olefin ORG CHEM An olefin where the unsaturation (double bond) is at the alpha position, that is, between the two end carbons of the carbon chain. alfə o¯ləfən alpha position ORG CHEM In chemical nomenclature, the position of a substituting group of atoms in the main group of a molecule; for example, in a straight-chain 15alternanthydrocarbon compound such as-hydroxypropionic acid (CH CHOHCOOH), the hydroxyl radical 3 is in the alpha position. alfə pəzishən alternant hydrocarbon ORG CHEM A member of a class of conjugated molecules whose carbon atoms can be divided into two sets so that members of one set are formally bonded only to members of the other set. oltərnənt hı¯drəka¨rbən ˙ alternatingcopolymer ORG CHEM A polymer formed of two different monomer mole- culesthatalternateinsequenceinthepolymerchain. o˙ltərna¯diŋko¯pa¨ləmər alternation of multiplicities law CHEM The law that the periodic table arranges the elements in such a sequence that their number of orbital electrons, and hence their multiplicities, alternates between even andodd numbers. oltərnashən əv məl ˙ ¯ təplisəde¯z lo˙ alum INORG CHEM 1. Any of a group of double sulfates of trivalent metals such as aluminum, chromium, or iron and a univalent metal such as potassium or sodium. 2. Seealuminumsulfate;ammoniumaluminumsulfate;potassiumaluminumsulfate. aləm alumina INORGCHEMAl O Thenativeformofaluminumoxideoccurringascorundum 2 3 or in hydrated forms, as a powder or crystalline substance. əlu¨mənə  aluminate INORGCHEM AnegativeionusuallyassignedtheformulaAlO andderived 2 from aluminum hydroxide. əlu¨məna¯t aluminatrihydrate INORG CHEMAl O3H O, or Al(OH) A white powder; insoluble in 2 3 2 3 water, soluble in hydrochloric or sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide; used in the manufacture of ceramic glasses and in paper coating. Also known as aluminum hydrate; aluminum hydroxide; hydrated alumina; hydrated aluminum oxide. əlu¨mənətrı¯hı¯drat ¯ aluminium See aluminum. alyu¨mine¯əm aluminon ORGCHEMC H N O A yellowish-brown, glassy powder that is freely solu- 22 23 3 9 ble in water; used for the detection and colorimetric estimation of aluminum in foods, water, and tissues, and as a pharyngeal aerosol spray. əlu¨məna¨n aluminosilicate INORGCHEM 3Al O2SiO A colorless, crystalline combinationof sili- 2 3 2 cate and aluminate in the form of rhombic crystals. ə¦lu¨məno¯ ¦siləka¯t aluminum CHEM A chemical element, symbol Al, atomic number 13, and atomic weight 26.9815. Also spelled aluminium. əlu¨mənəm aluminumacetate ORG CHEM Al(CH COO) A white, amorphous powder that is solu- 3 3 ¨ ble in water; used in aqueous solution as an antiseptic. əlumənəm asəta¯t aluminumammoniumsulfate Seeammoniumaluminumsulfate. əlu¨mənəməmon eəm səlfat ¯ ¯ aluminum borohydride ORG CHEM Al(BH ) A volatile liquid with a boiling point of 4 3 44.5C; used in organic synthesis and as a jet fuel additive. əlu¨mənəmbo˙r o¯hı¯drı¯d aluminumchloride INORGCHEM AlCl or Al Cl A deliquescent compound in the form 3 2 6 of white to colorless hexagonal crystals; fumes in air and reacts explosively with water; used as a catalyst. əlu¨mənəm klo˙r¯ıd 1 aluminum fluoride INORG CHEM AlF3 / H O A white, crystalline powder, insoluble 3 2 2 in cold water. əlu¨mənəm flu˙r¯ıd aluminum fluosilicate INORG CHEMAl (SiF ) A white powder that is soluble in hot 2 6 3 water; used for artificial gems, enamels, and glass. Also known as aluminum sili- cofluoride. əlu¨mənəm flu¨əsilikət aluminum halide INORG CHEM A compound of aluminum with a halogen element, such as aluminum chloride. əlu¨mənəm halı¯d aluminumhydrate See alumina trihydrate. əlu¨mənəm hı¯drat ¯ aluminumhydroxide See alumina trihydrate. əlu¨mənəmhı¯dra¨ksı¯d aluminum monostearate ORG CHEM Al(OH) OOC(CH ) CH A white to yellowish- 2 2 16 3 white powder with a melting point of 155C; used in the manufacture of medicine, paint, and ink, in waterproofing, and as a plastics stabilizer. əlu¨mənəm manostirat ¨ ¯ ¯ aluminum nitrate INORG CHEM Al(NO )9H O White, deliquescent crystals with a 3 3 2 16amide melting point of 73C; soluble in alcohol and acetone; used as a mordant for textiles, in leather tanning, and as a catalyst in petroleum refining. əlu¨mənəm nı¯tra¯t aluminumoleate ORG CHEM A soaplike compound of aluminum and oleic acid, used in lubricating oils and greases to improve their viscosity. əlu¨mənəm o¯le¯a¯t aluminumorthophosphate INORG CHEM AlPO White crystals, melting above 1500C; 4 insoluble in water, soluble in acids and bases; useful in ceramics, paints, pulp, and paper. Also known as aluminum phosphate. əlu¨mənəm orthofa¨sfat ˙ ¯ ¯ aluminum oxide INORG CHEMAl O A compound in the form of a white powder or 2 3 colorless hexagonal crystals; melts at 2020C; insoluble in water; used in aluminum production, paper, spark plugs, absorbing gases, light bulbs, artificial gems, and manufacture of abrasives, refractories, ceramics, and electrical insulators. əlu¨m ənəm a¨ksı¯d aluminumpalmitate ORG CHEM Al(C H O )H O An aluminum soap used in water- 16 31 2 2 proofing fabrics, paper, and leather and as a drier in paints. əlu¨mənəm pa¨mətat ¯ ¨ aluminumphosphate See aluminum orthophosphate. əlumənəm fa¨sfa¯t aluminumpotassiumsulfate See potassium aluminum sulfate. əlu¨mənəmpətas e¯əm səlfa¯t aluminum silicate INORG CHEMAl (SiO ) A white solid that is insoluble in water; 2 3 3 used as a refractory in glassmaking. əlu¨mənəm siləkat ¯ aluminumsilicofluoride See aluminum fluosilicate. əlu¨mənəm ¦siləko¯ ¦flu˙r¯ıd aluminumsoap ORG CHEM Any of various salts of higher carboxylic acids and alumi- num that are insoluble in water and soluble in oils; used in lubricating greases, paints, varnishes, and waterproofing substances. əlu¨mənəm sop ¯ aluminumsodiumsulfate INORG CHEM AlNa(SO ) 12H O Colorless crystals with an 4 2 2 astringent taste and a melting point of 61C; soluble in water; used as a mordant andfor waterproofingtextiles, asa foodadditive,and formatches, tanning,ceramics, engraving, and water purification. Abbreviated SAS. Also known as porous alum; ¨ soda alum; sodium aluminum sulfate. əlumənəm so¯de¯əm səlfa¯t aluminum stearate ORG CHEM Al(C H COO) An aluminum soap in the form of a 17 35 3 white powder that is insoluble in water and soluble in oils; used for waterproofing fabrics and concrete and as a drier in paints and varnishes. əlu¨mənəm stirat ¯ aluminumsulfate INORG CHEMAl (SO )18H O A colorless salt in the form of mono- 2 4 3 2 clinic crystalsthat decomposein heat andare soluble inwater; usedin papermaking, water purification, and tanning, and as a mordant in dyeing. Also known as alum. əlu¨mənəm səlfa¯t aluminumtriacetate ORG CHEM Al(C H O ) A white solid that is very slightly soluble 2 3 2 3 in cold water. əlu¨mənəm trı¯asəta¯t Am See americium. ambident ORG CHEM A chemical species or molecule that possesses two alternative reactive sites, either of which can bond in a reaction; examples include cyanate ions, thiosulfate ions, oxime anions, and enolate ions. Also known as ambidentate. ambədənt ambidentate See ambident. ambədenta¯t americium CHEM A chemical element, symbol Am, atomic number 95; the mass number of the isotope with the longest half-life is 243. aməriseəm ¯ americyl ion INORG CHEM A dioxo monocation of americium, with the formula  (AmO ). əmerəsəl ¯ıa¨n 2 Amestest ANALYCHEM A bioassay that uses a set of histidine auxotrophic mutants of Salmonella typhimuriumfordetectingmutagenicandpossiblycarcinogeniccompounds. a¯mz test 7 amicron PHYS CHEM A particle having a size of 10 centimeter or less, which is a size in a system of classification of particle sizes in colloid chemistry. a¯mı¯kra¨n amidation ORGCHEM The process of forming an amide; for example, in the laboratory benzyl reacts with methyl amine to form N-methylbenzamide. amədashən ¯ amide ORG CHEM One of a class of organic compounds containing the CONH radi- 2 cal. am¯ıd 17amidehydrolysis amidehydrolysis ORG CHEM The cleavage of an amide into its constitutive acid and amine fragments by a net addition of water. amı¯dhı¯dra¨ləsəs amidine ORG CHEM A compound which contains the radical CNHNH. aməden ¯ 2 amido ORG CHEM Indicating the NH radical when it is present in a molecule with 2 the CO radical. əme¯do¯ amidol ORG CHEMC H (NH ) OHHCl A grayish-white crystalline salt; soluble in 6 3 2 2 water, slightly soluble in alcohol; used as a developer in photography and as an analytical reagent. amido˙l amidourea hydrochloride See semicarbazide hydrochloride. ¦amədo¯yu˙re¯əhı¯ drəklo˙r¯ıd amination ORG CHEM 1. The preparation of amines. 2. A process in which the amino group (NH ) is introduced into organic molecules. aməna¯shən 2 amine ORG CHEM One of a class of organic compounds which can be considered to be derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogens by functional groups. əmen ¯ amino-,amin- CHEM Having the property of a compound in which the group NH is 2 attached to a radical other than an acid radical. əme¯no¯ aminoalcohol See alkamine. əme¯no¯ alkəho˙l 1-aminoanthraquinone ORG CHEMC H NO Ruby-red crystals with a melting point 14 9 2 of 250C; freely soluble in alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether, glacial acetic acid, andhydrochloricacid;usedin themanufactureofdyesandpharmaceuticals. ¦wən ə¦me¯no¯anthrəkwe¯no¯n 2-amino-1-butanol ORG CHEMCH CH CH(NH)CH OH A liquid miscible with water, 3 2 2 2 solubleinalcohols;usedinthesynthesisofsurface-activeagents,vulcanizingacceler- ators,andpharmaceuticals,andasanemulsifyingagentforsuchproductsascosmetic creams and lotions. ¦tu¨ ə¦me¯no¯ ¦wən ¦byu¨təno˙l -aminobutyricacid ORG CHEMH NCH CH CH COOH Crystals which are either leaf- 2 2 2 2 lets or needles, with a melting point of202C; thought to be a central nervous system ¨ postsynaptic inhibitory transmitter. Abbreviated GABA. ¦gaməə¦me¯no¯byu¦tir ik asəd -aminocaproicacid ORGCHEMC H NO Crystalswithameltingpointof204–206C; 6 13 2 freely soluble in water; used as an antifibrinolytic agent and a spacer for affinity chromatography. ¦epsələn ə¦menokə¦proik asəd ¯ ¯ ¯ aminocarb ORG CHEMC H N O A tan, crystalline compound with a melting point 11 16 2 2 of 93–94C; slightly soluble in water; used as an insecticide for control of forest insects and pests of cotton, tomatoes, tobacco, and fruit crops. əme¯no¯ka¨rb aminocide See succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide. əmenosıd ¯ ¯ ¯ aminodiborane INORG CHEM Any compound derived from diborane (B H ) in which 2 6 one H of the bridge has been replaced by NH. ə¦me¯no¯dı¯¦bo˙ra¯n 2 3-amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoicacid ORG CHEMC H O NCl A white solid with a melt- 7 5 2 2 ing point of 200–201C; solubility in water is 700 parts per million at 20C; used as a preemergence herbicide for soybeans, corn, and sweet potatoes. ¦thre¯ ə¦me¯no¯ ¦tu¨ ¦fı¯vdı¯klorəben¦zoik asəd ˙ ¯ aminoethane See ethyl amine. əme¯no¯ethən aminogroup ORG CHEM A functional group (NH ) formed by the loss of a hydrogen 2 atom from ammonia. əmeno gru¨p ¯ ¯ 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol ORG CHEM HOCH C(CH )(NH )CH OH Crystals 2 3 2 2 withameltingpointof109–111C;solubleinwaterandalcohol;usedinthesynthesis of surface-active agents, pharmaceuticals, and vulcanizers, and as an emulsifying agent for cosmetics, leather dressings, polishes, and cleaning compounds. ¦tu¨ əme¯no¯ ¦tu¨ ¦methəl ¦wən ¦thre¯ ¦pro¯pa¯ndı¯o˙l 3-amino-2-naphthoic acid ORG CHEMH NC H COOH Yellow crystals in the shape 2 10 6 of scales with a melting point of 214C; soluble in alcohol and ether; used in the determination of copper, nickel, and cobalt. ¦thre¯ əme¯no¯ ¦tu¨ naftho¯ik asəd 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid ORG CHEMH NC H (OH)SO H White or gray, 2 10 5 3 needlelikecrystals;solubleinhotsodiumbisulfitesolutions;usedinthemanufacture of azo dyes. ¦wən əme¯no¯ ¦tu¨ naftho˙l ¦fo˙rsəlfa¨nik asəd 18ammoniawater 2-amino-5-naphthol-7-sulfonicacid ORG CHEMC H NH OHSO H Gray or white nee- 10 5 2 3 dles that are soluble in hot water; used as a dye intermediate. ¦tu¨ əme¯no¯ ¦fı¯v nafthol ¦sevənsəlfanik asəd ˙ ¨ aminonitrogen CHEM Nitrogen combined with hydrogen in the amino group. Also known as ammonia nitrogen. əme¯no¯ nı¯trəjən aminophenol ORG CHEM A type of compound containing the NH and OH groups 2 joinedtothebenzenering;examplesare para-aminophenoland ortho-hydroxylaniline. əmeno¯fe¯no˙l para-aminophenol ORG CHEM p-HOC H NO A phenol in which an amino (NH ) 6 4 2 2 group is located on the benzene ring of carbon atoms para (p) to the hydroxyl (OH) group; used as a photographic developer and as an intermediate in dye manufacture. ¦parəəme¯no¯fe¯no˙l 3-aminophthalichydrazide See luminol. ¦thre¯ ə¦me¯no¯ ¦thalik hı¯drəzı¯d 2-aminopropane See isopropylamine. ¦tu¨ əme¯no¯pro¯pa¯n 3-aminopyridine See -aminopyridine. ¦thre əmenopı¯rəden ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 4-aminopyridine ORG CHEMC H N White crystals with a melting point of 158.9C; 5 6 2 soluble in water; used as a repellent for birds. Abbreviated 4-AP. ¦fo˙r əme¯ no¯pı¯rəde¯n -aminopyridine ORG CHEMC H N Crystals with a melting point of 64C; soluble in 5 6 2 water, alcohol, and benzene; used in drug and dye manufacture. Also known as 3-aminopyridine. ¦ba¯dəəme¯no¯pı¯rəde¯n amino resin ORG CHEM A type of resin prepared by condensation polymerization, with an aldehyde, of a compound containing an amino group. əme¯no¯ rezən 2-aminothiazole ORG CHEMC H N S Pale-yellow crystals that melt at 92C; soluble 3 4 2 in cold water, slightly soluble in ethyl alcohol; used as an intermediate in the synthesis of sulfathiazole. ¦tu¨ əme¯no¯thı¯əzo˙l aminotriazole ORG CHEMC H N Crystals with a melting point of 159C; soluble in 2 4 4 water, methanol, chloroform, and ethanol; used as an herbicide, cotton plant defoli- ant, and growth regulator for annual grasses and broadleaf and aquatic weeds. Abbreviated ATA. ə¦me¯no¯trı¯əzo˙l ammine INORG CHEM One of a group of complex compounds formed by coordination of ammonia molecules with metal ions. amen ¯ ammonation INORG CHEM A reaction in which ammonia is added to other molecules or ions by covalent bond formation utilizing the unshared pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom, or through ion-dipole electrostatic interactions. aməna¯shən ammonia INORGCHEMNH Acolorlessgaseousalkalinecompoundthatisverysoluble 3 in water, has a characteristic pungent odor, is lighter than air, and is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic material; used as a fertilizer and as a chemical intermediate. əmo¯nyə ammoniaalum See ammonium aluminum sulfate. əmonyəaləm ¯ ammoniac See ammoniacal. əmo¯ne¯ak ammoniacal INORG CHEM Pertaining to ammonia or its properties. Also known as ammoniac. ¦amə¦nı¯əkəl ammoniadynamite CHEM Dynamitewithpart ofthenitroglycerinreplaced byammo- nium nitrate. əmo¯nyədı¯nəmı¯t ammoniated mercuric chloride See ammoniated mercury. ə¦moneadədmər¦kyu¨r ¯ ¯ ¯ ik ¦klo˙r¯ıd ammoniated mercury INORG CHEM HgNH Cl A white powder that darkens on light 2 exposure; insoluble in water and alcohol, soluble in ammonium carbonate solutions and in warm acids; used in pharmaceuticals and as a local anti-infective in medicine. əmo¯ne¯a¯dəd mərkyəre¯ ammoniatedsuperphosphate INORGCHEM Afertilizer containing 5 parts of ammonia to 100 parts of superphosphate. əmo¯ne¯a¯dəd su¨pərfa¨sfa¯t ammoniation CHEM Treating or combining with ammonia. əmo¯ne¯a¯shən ammoniawater CHEM A water solution of ammonia; a clear colorless liquid that is basicbecauseofdissociationofNH OHtoproducehydroxideions;usedasareagent, 4 solvent, and neutralizing agent. əmo¯nyəwo˙dər 19