Entrepreneurship development and management

entrepreneurship development definition and entrepreneurship development review
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Dr.JesperHunt,United States,Researcher
Published Date:16-07-2017
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ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT TRAINING MANUAL EUROPEAN UNIONEntrepreneurship Development Training Manual ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT TRAINING MANUAL 1Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual Foreword and acknowledgement DSW (Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevoelkerung) is an international development and advocacy organisation founded in 1991 as a non-profit foundation in Hannover, Germany. Its work centres on development programmes, advocacy, and awareness-raising with a focus on achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which is fundamental to improving health and fighting poverty. With headquarters in Hannover, Germany, DSW maintains four country offices in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, as well as liaison offices in Berlin, Germany, and Brussels, Belgium. DSW empowers young people and communities in low and middle-income countries by addressing the issues of population dynamics and health as a way to achieve sustainable development. Our focus is on achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health services and information, which is fundamental to improving health and effectively fighting poverty. DSW has been providing quality, needs-based entrepreneurship training to young people, women, trainers and middle-level professionals in its operation areas mainly in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda). This has necessitated the development of this Entrepreneurship Training Manual which has been harmonised for use by different target groups in the region, courtesy of the “Working Together for Decent Work” Project funded by the European Union (EU). This manual has been adopted from DSW’s entrepreneurship training manuals and other key manuals including the International Labour Organisation (ILO) business development training manuals and handbooks, DSW’s Income Generating Activity (IGA) management training manuals and other relevant sources. The overall goal of this manual is to equip trainers, civil society organisations, community-based organisations, youth leaders, as well as other partners with the basic concepts of entrepreneurship and knowledge of business planning essential for the success of an entrepreneur involved in small business. The modules of this manual can be delivered as a complete package or appropriately selected based on the specific training needs of the intended participants. The manual has been written in simple language to ease understanding, and adapted to trainees of different levels and needs. It can thus be used to train diverse groups particularly as the facilitator is at liberty to decide which activities are most relevant to the different groups and has the flexibility to adapt various activities to ensure relevance in the local context. The development of this manual is a major success for DSW’s work in empowering women and youth in the informal sector and we hope that you will find it useful. Ulrike Neubert DSW Director Programmes and Projects 2Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual Table of Contents Foreword and acknowledgement............................................................................2 Table of contents..................................................................................................3 1. Introduction to the manual.............................................................................................5 1.1 Objectives of the manual...............................................................................................5 1.2 For whom is this manual designed?..............................................................................5 1.3 Approach......................................................................................................................6 1.4 Structure......................................................................................................................7 1.5 How to use this manual.................................................................................................7 Module 1: Effective Facilitation................................................................................8 Introduction ......................................................................................................................9 Section 1: How to plan a participatory learning process.................................................9 1.1 Basics..........................................................................................................................9 1.2 Preparatory activities and planning..............................................................................10 Section 2: Getting started......................................................................................12 2. 1 Opening of the training workshop..............................................................................13 2.2 Opening ceremony of the training workshop...............................................................13 2.3 Introduction of participants........................................................................................14 2.4 Clarifying participants’ expectations and concerns.........................................................15 2.5 Understanding the overall objectives of the training....................................................16 2.6 Agreeing on a time table..............................................................................................17 2.7 Ensuring a conducive environment and active participation........................................17 2.8 Reaching a consensus on training norms....................................................................21 Section 3: How to conclude a participatory learning process.................................. 22 3.1 Daily evaluation of the participatory learning process..................................................22 3.2 Final evaluation at the end of the training and follow-up.............................................24 3.3 Closing ceremony and participant certificates...............................................................25 Section 4: Participatory learning and effective communication skills...........................26 4.1 Facilitating a participatory learning process................................................................26 3Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual 4.2 Participatory methods, techniques and tools...............................................................28 Module 2: Understanding Basic Concepts of Entrepreneurship................................31 Section 1: Definition of concepts............................................................................32 Section 2: Qualities of an entrepreneur ...............................................................34 2.1 Opportunity-seeking ..................................................................................................34 2.2 Persevering................................................................................................................ 34 2.3 Risk Taking.................................................................................................................35 2.4 Demanding for efficiency and quality...........................................................................36 2.5 Information-seeking....................................................................................................39 2.6 Goal setting.................................................................................................................40 2.7 Planning.....................................................................................................................41 2.8 Persuasion and networking.........................................................................................41 2.9 Building self-confidence...............................................................................................42 2.10 Listening to others....................................................................................................43 2.11 Demonstrating leadership........................................................................................43 Module 3: Generating a Business Idea..................................................................48 Module 4: Developing a Business Plan.................................................................59 Section 1: Market analysis....................................................................................62 Section 2: Financial analysis.................................................................................65 Section 3: Realistic planning.................................................................................70 Module 5: Marketing............................................................................................77 Module 6: Costing and Pricing................................................................................84 Module 7: Operational Management......................................................................90 Module 8: Record-Keeping.................................................................................102 Module 9: Saving...............................................................................................110 References.......................................................................................................117 4Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL 1.1 Objectives of the manual The overall objective of this manual is to equip trainers, civil society organisations, community-based organisations, youth leaders as well as other partners with the basic concepts of entrepreneurship and knowledge of business planning essential to the success of the entrepreneur of a small business. Specifically, this manual is designed to help participants: • Learn how to generate, identify and select business ideas • Practice the preparation of a specific, comprehensive business plan tailored to each individual’s entrepreneurial needs. • Explore the linkages between an entrepreneur and all the resources and services needed to successfully launch and sustain a small enterprise. • Understand saving as a life skill for individual livelihood and business improvement. 1.2 For whom is this manual designed? Acknowledging the strength and effectiveness of peer learning, this DSW Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual is designed to ultimately strengthen, improve and effectively facilitate entrepreneurial knowledge and skills gain of young people, women and professionals who manage their own businesses. The manual is therefore designed to be used at four different levels: • Training of trainers (TOTs) or Peer Educator Trainers (PETs) trainings The manual serves as a training tool which DSW staff will use to train trainers often referred to as Trainers of Trainers (TOTs) or Peer Educator Trainers (PETs). Each of these training workshops can be structured and conducted in accordance with the sequence, content and structure of this manual enabling TOTs/PETs to acquire all the necessary knowledge, information and skills that will enable them to conduct trainings for peer educators in turn. • Peer educator trainings In the context of DSW’s work, peer educators are selected members of the active youth club network. They are trained by TOTs who facilitate each or selected modules of this manual (including Module 1) and ensure that knowledge, information as well as skills of effective facilitation are adequately passed on to peer educators. • Peer learning group facilitation The role of peer educators is to apply the facilitation skills they have acquired during their trainings in order to organise and conduct peer learning groups at the grass root level with their peers and group members. Their role is not necessarily to pass on these facilitation skills but to use them to create a conducive learning environment and to effectively transfer 5Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual knowledge and skills to the participants by means of interactive exercises. In this context, the manual serves both as a resource for entrepreneurial information and a reference guide for topics and exercises during peer learning groups. • Training women and professionals who manage their own businesses The content of the manual shall be tailor made to suit the needs of additional target groups including women’s groups and professionals. The facilitator shall ensure that a needs assessment is always conducted prior to structuring the training so as to know the knowledge levels of the participants and their specific needs. 1.3 Approach This Entrepreneurship Development Manual includes content on entrepreneurship as well as training methodologies that enable effective facilitation, participatory and experiential learning and thus lead to sustainable knowledge and skills gain of and for the intended participants. Conventional learning with a teacher or trainer lecturing in front of a group has proven to be less effective than learning approaches that actively engage participants in the learning process. This manual is therefore based on a participatory learning approach. Accordingly, the learning content is not passed on from the trainer to the participants in a one-way communication with trainees only listening. Instead, training participants are encouraged to discover learning contents themselves in an active process. Regardless of the level of formal education, each participant has a valuable contribution to make, if encouraged to be an active partner in the learning process. Based on this approach, in this manual, the trainer acts as and is referred to as a “facilitator”. He/she “facilitates” participatory and experiential learning, i.e., creates the conditions and the environment in which trainees themselves will discover and practice knowledge and skills. By means of exercises, trainees will explore and share their own experience and knowledge, critically conceptualize and reflect upon solutions from which they will derive learning contents and ways for practical “I never teach my pupils; implementation of an enterprise. I only attempt to provide the conditions Appropriate activities and images in which they can learn”. included in the manual will support Albert Einstein the acquisition of knowledge and (German-US American physicist, 1879 – 1955). understanding of entrepreneurship in a student-friendly way. Participatory methods and creative tools are employed throughout the modules, to facilitate learning on entrepreneurial topics and other relevant contents. Moreover, as this manual addresses TOTs or facilitators, it provides the participants with practical skills on how to effectively transfer knowledge and skills to others. Consequently, the manual not only elaborates on the theoretical and conceptual basics of participatory learning and behavioural change, but also on effective communication skills. It provides practical guidance on how to conduct a training workshop and includes methods and techniques that are needed to organise and conduct training sessions based on the principle of participatory learning. 6Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual 1.4 Structure This manual is divided into nine modules. Module one constitutes the theoretical and conceptual backbone to understand the approach, process and aim of participatory learning and effective facilitation. Moreover, it serves as a practical guide for facilitators and elaborates on how to prepare and facilitate entrepreneurship training and respective sessions based on the participatory learning approach. As such, it outlines steps that need to be taken ahead or at the beginning of the training. Module one provides the groundwork based upon which all other Modules can be facilitated. Modules two to nine deal with different entrepreneurial-related topics focused on the practical skills that entrepreneurs need to have to set up a successful enterprise. The modules are designed to follow the participatory learning approach. Some are divided into sections consisting of various sub-sections (sessions) that focus on the educational contents and topics related to the overall learning objectives of the module, as well as many practical examples. 1.5 How to use this manual This manual can be used in various ways. For the facilitation of TOTs it is recommended that trainers use this manual as a compact and holistic training outline and toolkit. It is designed to enable coherent five-day training if each module is worked through as outlined in the manual. However, the modular structure also provides for alternative ways to use this manual: following a needs-based analysis of entrepreneurial knowledge, facilitators can select particular modules and facilitate a tailor-made training for particular learning needs, e.g. developing a business plan only. Moreover, against the background of facilitation of peer learning groups, the modular structure allows to spread out learning over several weeks or months, so that participants can learn at their convenience and relate the contents to their reality. Eventually, it is up to the user and facilitator to decide how best to use the approach and information presented in this manual. 7Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual MODULE 1 Effective Facilitation 8Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual Introduction This module introduces the concept and structure of participatory learning. It outlines the principles of effective facilitation and provides practical guidance for organisers and facilitators of participatory learning sessions. The information presented in this module constitutes the backbone of a participatory learning process. Each of the following modules of the Entrepreneurship Development Manual is based on the concepts and procedures introduced in this module. It is up to the facilitator to decide whether to share the information included in Module 1 in form of participatory learning and exercises as suggested in the relevant sections below, or to inform the training participants about the contents and the general concepts of facilitation and participatory learning in form of a general introduction to the training. • Section 1 of Module 1 focuses on the practical basics of how to effectively prepare, initiate and close a participatory training and essential steps for creating a conducive environment while ensuring active participation of all trainees. • Section 2 is dedicated to the roles and responsibilities that participants can take on in a participatory learning process, e.g. as facilitators for particular sessions or as evaluation supervisors for daily activities. • Section 3 explains the process and importance of evaluation. Every session, every day and the training as a whole will be concluded with an evaluation. Frequent evaluation fosters mutual learning and helps to adapt to changes swiftly. It will also enable, intensify and support the ongoing improvement of the participatory learning process. • Section 4 focuses on basic theory and concepts of participatory learning and effective facilitation skills. It provides a comprehensive overview of special skills, methods and techniques for successful learning as a toolkit for facilitators to organise and conduct training sessions based on the principles of participatory learning. SECTION 1: HOW TO PLAN A PARTICIPATORY LEARNING PROCESS 1.1 Basics Participatory learning requires a conducive learning environment. Before starting a participatory learning process on entrepreneurship, you need to consider a number of important aspects and engage in various planning and preparatory activities. The participants Since interests and capabilities differ, the facilitator should take a keen interest in understanding the needs and aspirations of the participants before actually conducting the training. The participants are volunteers. If they are not offered a conducive learning environment, they may walk away. In order to create a favourable environment, you should prepare 9Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual 1 lessons and exercises well ahead of time. Work with a limited number of participants (20-30 ) only to allow for activity, interaction and personal relationship building within the group. You will see that increased participation and group coherence can boost the quality of the participatory learning process. Seek to form gender-balanced groups to ensure that both female and male participants have an equal chance to share and exchange their views. Encouraging active participation In a participatory learning process, the facilitator will act as a moderator rather than a lecturer. Participatory learning is based on interaction and exchange between the facilitator and the participants, as well as among the participants themselves. 1.2 Preparatory activities and planning Depending on the level of training (Training of Trainers, training for women group, and training for professionals), there are several planning steps to be considered ahead of the training. The facilitator should initiate the planning process well in advance to ensure a successful participatory learning experience. How to plan a training workshop - check list: Who is By when will it be What needs to be done? responsible? done? Choose participants Prepare the training schedule Prepare training tools Test exercises Book and check convenience of the training venue Organise refreshments (if necessary) Organise transport and accommodation (if necessary) Inform local authorities (as appropriate) Organise guest speakers and involve local authorities (as appropriate) Budget items Estimated cost Budget Training tools Transport Food and drinks Accommodation Other Total 1 The number of participants may differ in different contexts and based on the type of training (e.g. Training of Group members), but also depend on available resources. 10Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual Training venue: It is important to ensure that the location for the training is convenient and appropriate since the environment may have an impact on the learning process. Therefore, the training venue ideally will: • Be serene and free from unnecessary distractions • Be well-aired • Be well-lit • Have adequate and flexible seating • Avail learning tools (flip charts, cards, markers, boards) if possible (otherwise you need to bring what you need). Stakeholder involvement For trainings at higher levels (usually not at the youth club level), there might be an official opening ceremony to which representatives of the local authorities should be invited in good time and one or two guest speakers asked to kindly make the opening remarks (10-15 minutes). The opening ceremony is an important occasion to network, advocate and underline the importance of job creation and other funding options. It is important to consider inviting other stakeholders to the ceremony. In case the participatory learning process does not begin with an opening ceremony, it is important to at least inform local authorities/government representatives at the district level about the training and to share the training schedule with them to get their approval, gain their support and further integrate your activities into local structures, thereby ensuring sustainability. This is particularly important when training certificates are to be signed in the name of the organising institution/organisation and certified by the government. Learning Tools In order to make the learning experience effective and enjoyable, it is crucial to make sure in good time that the necessary materials and supplies for the training are available. The materials indicated in this manual may not be readily available at the location of the training and there may be need to explore alternatives using locally-available materials. Make enough copies of the training materials before travelling to areas where the supply of electricity, for instance, may be erratic. The following tools will be helpful when conducting participatory learning sessions: • The DSW Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual • Flip chart, flip chart paper or large sheets of paper • Markers in different colours • Chalk to write on the floor or a black board • Note paper 11Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual • Glue stick, pins, cello tape • Scissors • Cartons to be cut into facilitation cards • Cards or slips of paper, scrap paper to write notes • Optional: a hat (to identify one taking the role of a facilitator) • A pointer • Optional: a big coloured scarf (to identify a procedure supervisor) • A yellow and a red card (to be used by the procedure supervisor) • A flip chart stand (alternatively, you can put up large sheets on doors and walls) • Any other demonstration or supporting tool that may be useful in the context of a specific Module or Chapter. • Handouts as needed Point to note: Since a flip chart is a paper-based training aid, it is important to note the following points. • Write in visible handwriting so that participants seated far from the chart can easily read its contents. • Avoid putting too much information on one page. • Use different colours as possible and necessary. • Written flip chart sheets will be collated on the wall and should not be taken down before the training is concluded. This will allow the facilitator or participants to refer to them again as necessary. • It is important to number the sheets accordingly, handle and store them properly for later use for instance, to prepare a report on the training workshop. SECTION 2: GETTING STARTED A good start will greatly contribute to the success of the training. Training starts with the session “Getting Started” that consists of eight steps. If the facilitator is well-prepared and has managed all preparatory activities in good time, “Getting Started” should not take longer than two hours. Step 1. Opening of the training Step 2. Opening ceremony Step 3. Introduction of participants 12Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual Step 4. Clarifying participants’ expectations and concerns Step 5. Understanding the objectives of the training Step 6. Agreeing a time table Step 7. Ensuring a conducive environment and active participation Step 8. Reaching a consensus on training norms Note: Step 2 is only relevant for trainings at a higher level or dependent on the context. 2.1 Opening of the training workshop A representative of the training organiser (or the facilitator) welcomes all participants and guests to the training. 2.2 Opening ceremony of the training workshop Activity: Formal opening ceremony for a training workshop Objective: To demonstrate procedures on how to formally open a training session Method: Inviting guest(s) of honour to address participants Tool: Prepare a podium Time: 20 minutes Facilitator’s tasks: 1. Ask the organiser or a representative of a relevant institution to welcome the participants to the training and convey a message of encouragement. Invite the guest of honour (if any) to give the official opening speech. 2. After the opening ceremony, ensure that the guest(s) are excused to leave and begin the first training session. Point to Note: At higher-level training workshops and as appropriate, training will always start with an opening ceremony that needs to be organised beforehand. After everyone has been welcomed, the representative of the organiser introduces and invites the guest speaker(s) to the front/podium. The opening remarks of the guest speaker(s) ideally take between 10-15 minutes each. Following the speeches, the facilitator takes over, starts the participatory learning process and ensures to abide by the time table. 13Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual Activity: Introduction of participants Objective: To get to know each other Method: Participants form pairs and introduce themselves to each other. After 2-3 minutes they return to the group and introduce their co-participants to the other participants. Tools: Large pieces of paper or flip charts, markers Time: 20 minutes 2.3 Introduction of participants Facilitator’s tasks: 1. Welcome all participants and introduce yourself. 2. Write down on the flipchart the topics for introduction. (See example below) 3. Arrange participants in pairs and ask them to gather in the corners of the room. 4. Allow for 2-3 minutes to work in pairs and interview one another. Suggest that some additional information, such as the meaning of the name and/or something special about the person, a drawing or a particular related story, be added to the introduction. 5. When the time is over, ask participants to introduce the person they have just interviewed to the whole group. 6. Explain to the participants that starting with a self-introduction will create a good atmosphere among the participants, which will help them to relax and be more spontaneous, thereby building participatory involvement and team spirit. Example of introduction topics for participants • Name, meaning of name • Educational background • Contributions as a youth club/association member • Previous engagement in entrepreneurship • Something special about themselves Basic information In any participatory training it is important to have participants introduce themselves to each other. The facilitator starts by welcoming all participants and by introducing him or herself briefly to the participants. Self-introduction will facilitate participation and exchange in many ways. As participants come from different places and backgrounds, this exercise also works as an icebreaker: participants will be engaged in activities that are marked by movement, standing up and sharing, they become acquainted with one another, and are therefore more comfortable working together. 14Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual The duration of this self-presentation phase will vary depending on the number of participants and the level of previous familiarity with each other. If the participants already know each other well, there might however be no need for extensive introductions. 2.4 Clarifying participants’ expectations and concerns Activity: Clarifying expectations of participants Objective: To identify what participants expect to gain from the training Method: Allowing participants to express their expectations and concerns Tools: Flip chart and markers Time: 15 minutes Facilitator’s tasks: 1. Inform participants about the subject of Module 1, “Effective Facilitation”. 2. Ask participants to brainstorm on what they expect from the entire training experience and to identify one expectation and one concern. Give participants an example. (See below) 3. Note down ideas from the brainstorming on the flip chart. 4. Group repetitive and similar ideas. 5. Compare the expectations against the training objectives. (See Section 2.5 of this Chapter) 6. Keep the paper/flip chart displayed throughout the whole training and refer to it as appropriate. On the last day of training, participants will have a chance to compare and discuss whether or not their preliminary expectations have been met during the training. Examples of expectations and concerns Expectations: • Gain knowledge in establishing and running a business • Gain experience and skills in applying participatory learning methods and tools • Develop skills on how to facilitate entrepreneurship trainings • Learn how to develop a business plan Concerns: • Time allocated for the training is not sufficient • Participation is limited 15Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual Point to note: Participants have different needs and interests. The training becomes successful if it meets their needs and interests. During this exercise, participants are asked to express their expectations and concerns in relation to the training. It is time for each participant to become clear about what exactly s/he would be realistically expecting from this training. If their expectation is beyond the scope of the set objectives, it is important for the facilitator to clarify what they can actually expect. Otherwise, a misunderstanding may arise between the facilitator and the participants if they are not of the same understanding from the outset. 2.5 Understanding the overall objectives of the training Activity: Understanding the overall objectives of the training Objective: Enable participants to understand the objectives of the training Method: Participants discuss and compare their expectations against the set objectives of the training Tools: Listed training objectives on a flip chart Time: 10 minutes Facilitator’s tasks: 1. List the objectives of the training (see Basic Information below) on the flip chart, put the list up on the wall and read the objectives aloud to the participants. 2. Invite participants to express their own ideas by comparing their expectations against these objectives 3. Explain that reaching a common understanding of objectives and expectations prior to the training will create a favourable working atmosphere and facilitate collaboration and learning. Objectives of the training 1. Understand how to generate, identify and select business ideas 2. Acquire relevant knowledge and skills to start and successfully manage an enterprise/ business venture. 3. Understand the preparation of a specific, comprehensive business plan tailored to each individual’s entrepreneurial needs. 4. Understand the linkages between the entrepreneur and all the resources and services needed to successfully launch and sustain an enterprise. 5. Understand saving as a life skill for individual livelihood and business improvement. 16Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual Point to Note: If the objective of the training is well communicated ahead of the training, there will be few negative comments from the participants’ end. A clear understanding of the objectives will foster participation and ensure that the participatory learning process flows smoothly. This activity enables facilitators and participants to clarify their expectations (see Exercise 3 of this Chapter). If participants’ expectations go beyond the objectives of the training, the facilitator should clarify this right away, since a lack of clear understanding of objectives can lead to misunderstandings and frustration among facilitators and participants. 2.6 Agreeing on a time table Activity: Agreeing a timetable Objective: To reach a consensus with participants on a time table and time management Method: Open discussion Tools: Detailed time table for the training, day’s time table Time: 10 minutes Facilitator’s tasks: 1. Introduce the training content and present the detailed time table (3-5 minutes) that should be well prepared in advance. Then ask participants to agree upon the day’s time table. 2. Inform participants that the detailed time table is flexible, will be reviewed on a daily basis. 3. Mention that the detailed time table will be left visible on the wall until the end of the training. Example of a day’s time table Proposed by the facilitator Agreed with participants 8:30-10:30 Learning time ? Learning time 10:30-11:00 Break ? Break 11:00-12:30 Learning time ? Learning time 12:30-13:30 Lunch break ? Lunch break 13:30-15:30 Learning time ? Break 15:30-16:00 Tea break ? Learning time 16:00-17:30 Learning time, Evaluation & Conclusion ? Evaluation & Conclusion 2.7 Ensuring a conducive environment and active participation If the participatory learning process takes place in a conducive setting that allows for active participation, it will bring about very positive results. Active involvement of participants will be ensured by: 1. Choosing a flexible seating arrangement that allows for interactivity. (See session on “Getting Started”) 17Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual 2. Involving participants as trainee facilitators or supervisors. 3. Allowing participants to actively participate in the daily activities. Activity: Involving participants and assigning roles for active participation Objective: To ensure participants actively take part in the participatory learning process Method: Share information on active participation and assign roles to participants Tools: Participants’ daily task table Time: 45 minutes Facilitator’s tasks: Each participant is supposed to assume the role of a facilitator at least once in order to gain firsthand experience in facilitating the participatory learning processes. He/she will be assigned a session or exercise and asked to prepare himself/herself by reading the relevant chapter carefully (exercise instructions, “Facilitator’s tasks” and “Points to Note”) and preparing the materials needed for the session. In order to assign participants, the main facilitator will do the following: a) Assign participants to facilitate exercises of the participatory learning process 1. Select and arrange suitable exercises/activities for different sessions. 2. Note down the exercise number and the number of the page where the respective exercise can be found on a piece of paper and roll it up. 3. Put the paper rolls in the middle of the circle of participants. 4. Ask participants to pick a roll. 5. Ask participants to study and prepare the exercise indicated on their respective notes and offer help and support in case of any questions. 6. Then ask participants to facilitate the learning process attached to the respective exercise. Specify the day and time when they will be expected to facilitate the exercise. 7. Explain that following each facilitated exercise, participants will evaluate and discuss the performance of the facilitator. b) Assign volunteers for daily activities Every day, there will be various other roles to be assumed by participants to help structuring and supporting a smooth participatory learning process. In order to assign such other roles to participants, the main facilitator will do the following: 1. Draft a “Daily Tasks Table” (see example below) on a flip chart/board/paper that displays daily activities or functions required ensuring a smooth participatory learning process, e.g. “evaluation supervisor” or “energiser”. 18Entrepreneurship Development Training Manual 2. Note down the activities of the day on small pieces of paper corresponding to the number of training days (e.g. for 4 days, write 4 little notes with the role “energiser”), roll them up and put them in the middle of the circle of participants. 3. Ask every participant to pick one or two rolls. The content of the roll and the name of the participant will be noted under the respective activity in the “daily task table” and posted on the wall. Example of Participants’ Daily Task Table Task Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Check-in person Peter Samuel George Reviewer Charity Amina Emmanuel Energiser David Charles Joyce Procedure supervisor Hope Ibrahim Daniel Evaluation supervisor Miriam Paul Samuel Definition of active roles for participants Facilitator Participants will be selected within the group to assume the role of a facilitator and facilitate particular sessions; every participant should have the opportunity to undertake the role at least once during the training. The facilitator will prepare to lead the class in at least one activity; with assistance from the main facilitator, they will assemble the necessary materials, lead the physical aspects of the activity and lead the reflection. The facilitator will ensure that participants participate fully in the activity by encouraging contributions and clarifying instructions for the exercise. They will work with the reviewer (see below) to seek feedback from students on the exercise. The facilitator will have an opportunity to debrief with the main facilitator at the end of the session for feedback. Check-in Every morning, before the first learning session, the person assigned with this task will ask participants how they are doing and how they feel. It is a method that enables the facilitator to know about the conditions of the participants - or about their wellbeing - just before the start of the participatory learning session of the day. The objective of this method is to develop a sense of closure and a relaxed atmosphere, engaging into cooperation between the facilitator and the participants or among peers. The Check-in person invites the participants to talk about problems or enjoyments they have experienced just before entering the room. Some participants may even present a joke or describe a funny situation, whereas others may wish to talk about their health or not feeling so well. In the latter case, the facilitator tries to respond quickly and find a solution for the problem. Reviewer Before starting a new session, the person in charge of this task will ask all participants to stand up and recap on the previous day. Every participant is asked to briefly highlight what they learnt. The facilitator then creates a bridge and a link between what was learnt the previous day, and what will be learnt today. During the evaluation of the previous lesson, 19

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