Engineering terminology dictionary

definition of software testing in software engineering
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Martin Glinz A Glossary of Requirements Engineering Terminology Version 1.4 September 2012 With Dictionaries of Terminology in Dutch, French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Spanish and Swedish Standard Glossary for the Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering (CPRE) Studies and Exam Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Part One: Definitions and Abbreviations Definitions of Terms Acceptance Acceptance The process of assessing whether a system satisfies all its requirements Acceptance test A test that assesses whether a system satisfies all its requirements. Activity diagram A diagram type in UML which models the flow of actions in a ↑system or in a ↑component including data flows and areas of responsibility where necessary. Actor 1. Generally in RE: A person, a system or a technical device in the ↑context of a system that interacts with the system. 2. Especially in goal-oriented RE: a person, a system or a technical device that may act and process information in order to achieve some goals. Adequacy (of a The degree to which a requirement expresses the stakeholders’ true requirement) desires and needs (i.e., those they had actually in mind when stating the requirement). Application Those parts of the real world that are relevant for determining the domain context of a system. Artifact An intermediate or final result of ↑system development; for example, a requirements specification. Attribute A characteristic property of an entity. Baseline A stable, change-controlled configuration of artifacts. Baselines serve for release planning and release definition as well as for project management purposes such as effort estimation. Behavior model A model describing the behavior of a system or ↑component, e.g., by a state machine. Bug  Defect Page 8 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Cardinality Cardinality 1. In modeling: The minimum and maximum number of objects in a relationship. In UML, the term multiplicity is used for cardinality. 2. In mathematics: The number of elements in a set. Change control A committee of client and supplier representatives that decides on board change requests. Abbreviation: CCB Change request In RE: A well-argued request for changing one or more baselined requirements. Changeability (of The degree to which an artifact enables a required modification of the an artifact) artifact. Checking Comprises requirements validation and checking requirements for (requirements) qualities such as unambiguity or comprehensibility. Note that some sources define validation broader and consider the terms checking and validation to be synonyms. Class Represents a set of objects of the same kind by describing the structure of the objects, the ways they can be manipulated and how they behave. Class diagram A diagrammatic representation of a class model. Class model A model consisting of a set of classes and relationships between them. Completeness 1. For a single requirement: The degree to which a requirement (of requirements) contains all necessary information 2. For a requirements specification: The degree to which the specification contains all information which is necessary for developing a system that satisfies the stakeholders’ desires and needs. Compliance The capability of an artifact to adhere to standards, regulations, laws, or other formally imposed documents. Systems frequently need to comply with standards, regulations, and laws constraining the domain where the system is deployed. Such compliance can only be ensured systematically if compliance checking already starts with the requirements. Page 9 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Component Component 1. In general: A delimitable part of a system. 2. In software architecture: An encapsulated set of coherent objects or classes that jointly provide a service. Note: When viewed in isolation, a component is a system by itself. Configuration A consistent set of logically coherent units. The units are individually identifiable artifacts or parts of artifacts (e.g., requirements) in at most one version per unit. Conformity (of The degree to which a requirements specification conforms to requirements) regulations given in some standard. Consistency (of The degree to which a set of requirements is free of contradicting requirements) statements. Constraint A requirement that limits the solution space beyond what is necessary for meeting the given functional requirements and quality requirements. Context 1. In general: The network of thoughts and meanings needed for understanding phenomena or utterances. 2. Especially in RE: The part of a system’s environment being relevant for understanding the system and its requirements. Context in the second meaning is also called the system context. Context Boundary between the context of a system and those parts of the boundary application domain that are irrelevant for the system and its requirements. The context boundary separates the relevant part of the environment of a system to be developed from the irrelevant part, i.e., the part that does not influence the system to be developed and, thus, does not have to be considered during requirements engineering. Context diagram 1. A diagrammatic representation of a context model. 2. In Structured Analysis, the context diagram is the root of the dataflow diagram hierarchy. Context model A model describing a system in its context. Page 10 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Correctness Correctness The degree to which the information contained in an artifact is provably true. In RE, correctness is frequently used as a synonym for adequacy. Customer A person or organization who receives a product or service. Also see stakeholder. Customer A coarse description of the required capabilities of a system from the requirements customer’s perspective. specification Usually supplied by the customer. Dataflow A diagram modeling the functionality of a system or component by diagram processes (also called activities), data stores and data flows. Incoming data flows trigger processes which then consume the received data, transform them, read/write persistent data held in data stores and then produce new data flows which may be intermediate results that trigger other processes or final results that leave the system. Decision table A tabular, systematic representation of a complex decision that depends on multiple criteria. Defect A spot in an artifact that is incorrectly described or crafted. Synonym: fault, bug Domain A range of relevant things (for some given matter); for example, an application domain. Effectiveness The degree to which something actually happens in the way it ought to happen. In RE, typically the degree to which a system actually enables its users to achieve their goals as stated in the system’s requirements. Efficiency The degree to which a result is achieved with minimum consumption of resources. Elicitation (of  Requirements elicitation requirements) End user  User Page 11 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Entity Entity 1. In general: an element or set of elements that may stand for any conceivable item, e.g., a system, a part of reality, a thing, an organization, a process, etc. 2. In entity-relationship-modeling: an individual object which has an identity and does not depend on another object. Entity- A graphic representation of an entity-relationship model. relationship Abbreviation: ERD diagram Entity- A model of data that are relevant for a system, or of the data of an relationship application domain. An ERM consists of a set of entity types that are model each characterized by attributes and linked by relationships. Abbreviation: ERM, ER Model Error A discrepancy between an observed behavior or result and the specified behavior or result. An error typically is a symptom for the existence of a fault or defect in some artifact. In colloquial English, there is sometimes no distinction between the notions of error and fault. Fault  Defect Fault Tolerance The capability of a system to continue normal operation despite the presence of (hardware or software) faults. Fault tolerance may be stated as a quality requirement. Feature A delimitable characteristic of a system that provides value for stakeholders. Normally comprises several requirements and is used for communi- cating with stakeholders on a higher level of abstraction and for expressing variable or optional characteristics. Functional A requirement concerning a result of behavior that shall be provided requirement by a function of a system (or of a component or service). Functionality The capabilities of a system as stated by its functional requirements. Page 12 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Glossary Glossary A collection of definitions of terms that are relevant in some domain. Frequently, a glossary also contains cross-references, synonyms, homonyms, acronyms, and abbreviations. Goal A desired state of affairs (that a stakeholder wants to achieve). Goals describe intentions of stakeholders. They may conflict with one another. Goal model A model that represents the goals of something as an ordered structure of sub-goals. Homonym A term looking identical to another term, but having a different meaning. For example, bill as a bank note and bill as a list (of materials) are homonyms. Inspection A kind of review where the artifact under review is inspected by a group of experts according to given criteria. The experts’ findings are then collected and consolidated. Kind of There are several kinds of requirements. Requirements Engineering requirement is primarily concerned with system requirements. Beyond that, there are project requirements and process requirements. Requirements are typically sub-classified into functional requirements, quality requirements and constraints. The latter two are also called non-functional requirements. Language A structured set of signs for expressing and communicating information. Signs are elements that are used for communication: expressions in a language, symbols, gestures, etc. Maintainability The ease with which a software system can be modified to correct faults or adapt the system to changing needs. Maintainability may be stated as a quality requirement. Page 13 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Model Model An abstract representation of an existing reality or a reality to be created. This definition covers the most frequent case in requirements engineering, but is a bit narrow. More generally speaking, a model is an abstract representation of an existing entity or an entity to be created, where entity denotes any part of reality or any other conceivable set of elements or phenomena, including other models. With respect to a model, the entity is called the original. In Requirements Engineering, requirements can be specified by models. Note that entity in this definition is used in its general meaning which is different from the one used in Entity-relationship models. Modeling A language for expressing models of a certain kind. May be textual, language graphic, symbolic or some combination thereof. Multiplicity  Cardinality Non-functional A quality requirement or a constraint. requirement Performance requirements may be regarded as another category of non-functional requirements. In this glossary, performance requirements are considered to be a sub-category of quality requirements. Synonym: Extra-functional requirement Performance A requirement describing a performance characteristic (timing, requirement speed, volume, capacity, throughput...). Is regarded in this glossary as a sub-category of quality requirements, but can also be considered as a non-functional requirements category of its own. Phrase template A template for the syntactic structure of a phrase that expresses an individual requirement in natural language. Portability The ease with which a system can be transferred to another platform (while preserving its functionality). Portability may be stated as a quality requirement. Page 14 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Priority Priority (of a Documents the importance of a requirement in comparison to other requirement) requirements according to given criteria. Process verb A verb characterizing the required action in a requirement written in natural language. Prototype 1. In manufacturing: a piece which is built prior to the start of mass production. 2. In software engineering: An executable piece of software that implements critical parts of a system in advance. In Requirements Engineering, prototypes are used as a means for requirements elicitation and validation. Quality The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics of an entity fulfills requirements. The entity may be a system, service, product, artifact, process, person, organization, etc. An inherent characteristic is a distinguishing feature of or property of an entity which is inherent to the entity and has not been assigned explicitly. This is the notion of quality that is generally used in industry. Note that quality in this definition just means fitness for intended use, as stated in the requirements. This is in contrast to the colloquial notion of quality which is typically connoted with goodness or excellence. Quality A requirement that pertains to a quality concern that is not covered requirement by functional requirements. Redundancy Multiple occurrence of the same information or resource. Release A configuration that has been released for installation and use by customers. Reliability The capability of a system to maintain a specified level of functionality and performance when used under specified conditions. Reliability may be stated as a quality requirement. Page 15 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Requirement Requirement 1. A condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective. 2. A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system or system component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed documents. 3. A documented representation of a condition or capability as in (1) or (2). Note: The definition above is the classic one from IEEE Std 610.12 of 1990. Alternatively, we also give a more modern definition: 1. A need perceived by a stakeholder. 2. A capability or property that a system shall have. 3. A documented representation of a need, capability or property. Requirements 1. Analysis of elicited requirements in order to understand and analysis document them. 2. Synonym for requirements engineering. Requirements A baseline for a set of requirements. baseline Requirements  Requirements elicitation discovery Requirements A document consisting of a requirements specification. document Frequently used as a synonym for requirements specification. Requirements The process of seeking, capturing and consolidating requirements elicitation from available requirements sources. May include the re-construction or creation of requirements. Synonym: Requirements discovery Requirements A person who – in collaboration with stakeholders – elicits, engineer documents, validates, and manages requirements. Page 16 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Requirements Engineering Requirements A systematic and disciplined approach to the specification and Engineering management of requirements with the following goals: (1) Knowing the relevant requirements, achieving a consensus among the stakeholders about these requirements, documenting them according to given standards, and managing them systematically, (2) Understanding and documenting the stakeholders’ desires and needs, (3) Specifying and managing requirements to minimize the risk of delivering a system that does not meet the stakeholders’ desires and needs. Abbreviation: RE Note: All three goals address important facets of RE: (1) process- orientation, (2) stakeholder focus, and (3) importance of risk and value considerations. Requirements The process of managing existing requirements and requirements management related artifacts. Includes particularly storing, changing and tracing of requirements (traceability). Requirements A model that has been created with the purpose of specifying model requirements. Requirements The source from which a requirement has been derived. Typical source sources are stakeholders, documents, existing systems and observations. Requirements A systematically represented collection of requirements, typically for specification a system or component, that satisfies given criteria. In some situations we distinguish between a customer requirements specification (typically written by the customer) and a system requirements specification or software requirements specification (written by the supplier). Requirements specification may also denote the activity of specifying requirements. Page 17 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Requirements template Requirements A blueprint for the syntactic structure of individual requirements. template A phrase template is a specific requirements template for requirements written in natural language. Review A formally organized endeavor for checking an artifact by a group of experts. Checking may be performed with respect to both contents and conformance. Risk An event that threatens the success of an endeavor, e.g., of developing or operating a system. A risk is typically assessed in terms of its probability and potential damage. Safety The capability of a system to achieve an acceptable level of probability that operating the system will not result in harming people, property or the environment. Safety requirements may be stated as quality requirements or in terms of functional requirements. Scenario 1. A description of a potential sequence of events that lead to a desired (or unwanted) result. 2. An ordered sequence of interactions between partners, in particular between a system and external actors. May be a concrete sequence (instance scenario) or a set of potential sequences (type scenario, use case). 3. In UML: An execution trace of a use case. Scope (of a The range of things that can be shaped and designed when developing system) a system. Security The capability of a system to protect (a) its data and resources against unauthorized use and (b) its legitimate users against denial of service. Semantics The meaning of a sign or a set of signs in a language. Page 18 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Semi-formal Semi-formal Something which is formal to some extent, but not completely. An artifact is called semi-formal if it contains formal parts, but isn’t formalized totally. Typically, a semi-formal artifact has a defined syntax, while the semantics is partially defined only. Sequence A diagram type in UML which models the interactions between a diagram selected set of objects and/or actors in the sequential order that those interactions occur. Software A requirements specification pertaining to a software system. requirements Abbreviation: SRS specification Source (of a  Requirements source requirement) Specification A systematically represented description of the properties of an entity (a system, a device, etc.) that satisfies given criteria. It may be about required properties (requirements specification) or implemented properties (e.g., a technical product specification). Specification An artificial language that has been created for expressing language specifications. Stakeholder A person or organization that has a (direct or indirect) influence on a system’s requirements. Indirect influence also includes situations where a person or organization is impacted by the system. Standard A uniform regulation for perceiving, manufacturing or executing something. State machine A model describing the behavior of a system or ↑component by a finite set of states and state transitions. State transitions are triggered by events and can in turn trigger actions and new events. Related terms: A state machine with atomic states is called a finite state automaton. State machines having states that are hierarchically and/or orthogonally decomposed are called statecharts. Page 19 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary State-transition diagram State-transition A diagrammatic representation of a state machine. diagram Statechart A state machine having states that are hierarchically and/or orthogonally decomposed. Steering A committee that supervises a project. committee Structured An approach for specifying the functionality of a system based on a Analysis hierarchy of dataflow diagrams. Data flows as well as persistent data are defined in a data dictionary. A context diagram models the sources of incoming and the destinations of outgoing data flows. Supplier A person or organization who delivers a product or service to a customer. Synonym A word having the same meaning as another word. Syntax The rules for constructing structured signs in a language. System 1. In general: A principle for ordering and structuring. 2. In Informatics: A coherent, delimitable set of ↑components that – by coordinated action – provides services. Requirements Engineering is concerned with the specification of requirements for systems consisting of software components, technical elements (computing hardware, devices, sensors,...) and organizational elements (persons, positions, business processes,...). Note that a system may comprise other systems. Therefore, components or services of a system are also considered to be systems. System The boundary between a system and its surrounding context. boundary The system boundary separates the system to be developed from its environment; i.e., it separates the part of the reality that can be modified or altered by the development process from aspects of the environment that cannot be changed or modified by the development process. Page 20 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary System context System context The part of a system’s environment that is relevant for the definition as well as the understanding of the requirements of a system to be developed. System A requirement pertaining to a system or to a component of a requirement system. System require- A requirements specification pertaining to a system. ments Frequently considered to be a synonym for requirements specification specification. Tool (in software A (software) system that helps develop, operate and maintain engineering) systems. In RE, tools support requirements management as well as modeling, documenting, and validating requirements. Traceability (of The ability to trace a requirement (1) back to its origins, (2) forward requirements) to its implementation in design and code, (3) to requirements it depends on (and vice-versa). Origins may be stakeholders, documents, rationale, etc. Traceability of a requirement back to its origin is also called pre-RS traceability. Conversely, traceability of a requirement forward to its implementation in design and code is also called post-RS traceability. RS stands for requirements specification. Sometimes, traceability to the rationale of a requirement is considered to be a traceability category of its own. UML Abbreviation for Unified Modeling Language, a standardized language for modeling problems or solutions. Unambiguity (of The degree to which a requirement is expressed such that it cannot requirements) be understood differently by different people. Usability The capability of a system to be understood, learned, used, and liked by its users. Usability (or parts thereof) may be stated as quality requirements. Page 21 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Use case Use case A description of the interactions possible between actors and a system that, when executed, provide added value. Use cases specify a system from a user’s (or other external actor’s) perspective: every use case describes some functionality that the system must provide for the actors involved in the use case. Use case A diagram type in UML that models the actors and the use cases of a diagram system. The boundary between the actors and the use cases constitutes the system boundary. User A person who uses the functionality provided by a system. Also called end user. Validation (of The process of checking whether documented requirements match requirements) the stakeholders’ needs. Note that some sources define requirements validation broader by also including checking requirements for qualities such as unambiguity or comprehensibility, thus considering the terms validation and checking to be synonyms. Verifiability (of The degree to which the fulfillment of a requirement by an requirements) implemented system can be checked, e.g., by defining acceptance test cases, measurements or inspection procedures. Version (of an If an entity exists in multiple, time-ordered occurrences, where each entity) occurrence has been created by modifying one of its predecessors, every occurrence is a version of that entity. View An excerpt from an artifact, containing only those parts one is currently interested in. A view can abstract or aggregate parts of the artifact. Page 22 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Viewpoint Viewpoint A certain perspective on the requirements of a system. Typical viewpoints are perspectives that a stakeholder or stakeholder group has (for example, an end user’s perspective or an operator’s perspective). However, there can also be topical viewpoints such as a security viewpoint. Note that this definition is somewhat different from the definition of an architectural viewpoint in the international standard ISO/IEC42010: 2007 (IEEE Std 1471-2000). Walkthrough A kind of review where the author of an artifact under review walks a group of experts systematically through the artifact. The experts’ findings are then collected and consolidated. List of Abbreviations CCB Change Control Board CPRE Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering ER Entity-Relationship ERD Entity-Relationship Diagram ERM Entity-Relationship Model IREB International Requirements Engineering Board RE Requirements Engineering SRS Software Requirements Specification UML Unified Modeling Language Page 23 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Part Two: Dictionaries English–Dutch Dictionary Acceptance Acceptatie Acceptance test Acceptatietest Activity diagram Activiteitendiagram Actor Actor Adequacy (of a requirement) Toereikendheid (van een requirement) Application domain Toepassingsdomein Artifact (Tussen-)product, Artefact Attribute Attribuut Baseline Baseline Behavior model Gedragsmodel Bug Fout Cardinality Kardinaliteit Change control board Wijzigingscommissie Change request Wijzigingsverzoek Changeability (of an artifact) Wijzigbaarheid (van een (tussen-)product ) Checking (requirements) Beoordelen (van requirements) Class Klasse Class diagram Klassediagram Class model Klassemodel Completeness (of requirements) Compleetheid (van requirements) Compliance Compliance, Naleving Component Component Configuration Configuratie Conformity (of requirements) Conformiteit (van requirements) Consistency (of requirements) Consistentie (van requirements) Constraint Beperking, Randvoorwaarde Context Context Context boundary Contextgrens Page 24 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Context diagram Contextdiagram Context model Contextmodel Correctness Correctheid Customer Klant Customer requirements specification Klantrequirementsspecificatie Dataflow diagram Dataflow diagram, Gegevensstroomdiagram Decision table Beslissingstabel Defect Fout Domain Domein Effectiveness Effectiviteit Efficiency Efficiëntie Elicitation (of requirements) Elicitatie (van requirements) End user Eindgebruiker, gebruiker Entity Entiteit Entity-relationship diagram Entiteit-relatiediagram Entity-relationship model Entiteit-relatiemodel Error Fout Fault Fout Fault Tolerance Fouttolerantie Feature Eigenschap Functional requirement Functioneel requirement Functionality Functionaliteit Glossary Verklarende woordenlijst, Terminologie Goal Doelstelling Goal model Doelstellingsmodel Homonym Homoniem Inspection Inspectie Kind of requirement Soort requirement Language Taal Maintainability Onderhoudbaarheid Model Model Modeling language Modelleertaal Page 25 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering Glossary Multiplicity Multipliciteit Non-functional requirement Niet-functioneel requirement Performance requirement Performance requirement, Prestatie-eis Phrase template Zin-sjabloon, standaard zinsamenstelling Portability Portabiliteit Priority (of a requirement) Prioriteit (van een requirement) Process verb Proceswerkwoord Prototype Prototype Quality Kwaliteit Quality requirement Kwaliteitsrequirement Redundancy Redundantie Release Release Reliability Betrouwbaarheid Requirement Requirement, eis Requirements analysis Requirementsanalyse Requirements baseline Requirementsbaseline Requirements discovery Requirementsverkenning Requirements document Requirementsdocument Requirements elicitation Requirementselicitatie Requirements engineer Requirementsanalist Requirements Engineering Requirementsengineering Requirements management Requirementsmanagement Requirements model Requirementsmodel Requirements source Requirmentsbron Requirements specification Requirementsspecificatie Requirements template Requirementssjabloon Review Review Risk Risico Safety Veiligheid Scenario Scenario Scope (of a system) Scope (van een systeem) Security Beveiliging Page 26 / 106 © 2011-2012 International Requirements Engineering Board IREB e.V. and Martin Glinz