Smart governance in smart city

smart governance examples and smart governance definition and smart governance meaning
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Nataliebarry,New Zealand,Researcher
Published Date:13-07-2017
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Smart governance and technology A key pillar of national governance Pradip Bhowmick Partner and Government Technology Leader PwC India has been the implementation partner of the Royal Government of Bhutan (RGoB) since the last two years, automating more than 100 government as well as citizen services across eight ministries of the RGoB. Phuntsho Tobgay, Director, Department of Information Technology and Telecom, RGoB shares his perspective on the pivotal role of technology in Bhutan’s overall governance, with Sayan Basu, senior consultant from PwC India’s technology consulting team Smart governance and technology 3Phuntsho Tobgay Director, Department of Information Technology and Telecom, Royal Government of Bhutan PwC: Since decades, Bhutan has been the prime advocate of monitoring the gross national happiness (GNH) index in the context of good governance. What has been the impact of technology in improving the GNH index of the country? Tobgay: Education and health are two overarching pillars which the GNH index of the RGoB lay significant emphasis. Consequently, the ICT policies of the government have also been aligned along these two verticals. Bhutan has drawn inspiration from ICT practices and governance models followed in the Scandinavian countries, which also manifest a high national happiness index. The first IT park of the country has been constructed with the target of creating 1,000 plus employment opportunities within Bhutan. This park has been erected with the holistic objective of creating an ecosystem of entrepreneurship within Bhutan. It is steadily becoming a site for garnering new ideas as well as encouraging innovation among the youth in the country. Recent statistics reveal that out of the entire population trained in IT and IT-enabled services, 60% are retained within the IT industry, while the remaining 40% seek employment opportunities in diverse industries such as hospitality, tourism, civil sector, etc. This demonstrates the contribution of IT in improving citizen employability and the alignment of IT with the GNH principle of increasing citizen satisfaction. Another important pillar of the GNH index is strengthening community vitality. Community centres that have primarily been set-up across the country with the objective of delivering government to citizen services to the citizens in an efficient manner, also have in place, learning facilities for imparting diverse skills among these citizens. These learning facilities provide an interactive platform for a huge population of citizens, and are therefore increasing community fraternity. PwC India: Kindly elaborate on the technological initiatives that have been undertaken in Bhutan in recent times. Tobgay: As elaborated in the 10th Five Year Plan of Bhutan, the primary focus of the government has been ICT infrastructure development in order to facilitate an effective dissemination of G2C services. Among the flagship technology initiatives undertaken by the government in the recent past, the establishment of the National Fibre Optic Network connecting the 20 Dzonkhags (districts) of the country deserves special mention. Community centres have been established in each of the 205 Gewogs (blocks) for increasing citizen access to such services. The National IT Park has been constructed in Thimphu in order to house a shared Technology Centre and Data Centre along with a Centre of Incubation for nurturing new ideas as well as promoting innovation. From a policy perspective, the government has recently completed the formulation of the National e-Governance Master Plan and design of the e-Government Interoperability standards, and the ICT Management Framework. Four centralised data hubs will be created for consolidating nationwide information on citizenship, land ownership, businesses and vehicles. The e-Governance council, comprising the committee of secretaries and e-Governance review committees, consisting of nominated representatives from the Gross National Happiness Commission, the Department of Finance, etc. have been set-up in order to monitor and review all ongoing ICT initiatives of the country. In the area of capacity development, the government has already undertaken its ambitious ‘Chipen Rigpel’ project which has a set-up of around 168 ICT labs across different schools in the country, and has already trained around 5,000 people on basic IT enablement curriculums. 4 PwCPwC India: What are the roadblocks that the government has encountered during the implementation of such initiatives? What are the corrective measures being adopted in order to counter such challenges? Tobgay: In the context of public service delivery within Bhutan, areas such as communication and transport have traditionally posed challenges. Bhutan is a country with a rugged mountainous terrain and hence, connectivity with remote locations has always been difficult. In order to ensure proliferation of G2C services across the nation, the government has been laying special emphasis on telecommunication network infrastructure. The recently undertaken National Broadband Master Plan project coupled with the Thimphu Wide Area Network implementation has significantly contributed towards mitigating the challenges pertaining to connectivity. In order to minimise over dependency on commercial telecom PwC India: Emerging technologies such as cloud operators, the government has made direct investments in computing, mobility, software as service, etc. are nationalising the Fibre Optic Network. redefining conventional technology channels. What Another roadblock in the context of successful G2C service is your take on the same, and how is Bhutan poised delivery was the lack of citizen awareness and confidence in to embrace such technologies in the coming future? accessing online G2C services. Towards this, the government has undertaken several citizen awareness as well as capacity Tobgay: With the completion of the National Data Centre in the development initiatives which have eventually ensured an Thimphu Tech Park, Bhutan will be in a perfect position to explore exponential increase in citizen awareness and acceptance. the potential of emerging technologies. Cloud computing is of The department of Information Technology and Telecom is foremost priority in the upcoming ICT plans of the government. currently planning to engage with the Bhutan ICT and Training Erection of a government cloud will undoubtedly help in the Association in an attempt to explore other avenues of increasing consolidation of IT assets as well as lowering the total costs of citizen engagement. ownership. We derived following themes as important agendas of the e-Governance mission for a smart government. Architecture in the right direction Getting it right at the FOSS vs COTS first time QA modelling Enhancing efficiency Digital secretariat: Strategising adoption in operations Inclusive growth Harvesting technology for the Indian farmer Smart governance and technology 5rapid growth and management of systems, Why is architecture important in What are the problems if add tangible value to processes by which e-Government transformation? e-Government is not architected the government will operate with lower in the right way? Governments, both state and central, total cost of ownership (TCO) and higher seek to support growth and improve In recent times, enterprise architecture return on investment (ROI). competitiveness, and strengthen their programmes have gained much attention Governments have adapted the performance within the global economy within the government in particular e-Government master plans with the through improved governance, sector and the public sector in general, as objective of leveraging the full potential modernisation, and enhanced regional the provider of collaborative and of information and communication integration. Lack of proper architectures, comprehensive ICT designing, planning technology (ICT) so as to improve the interoperability frameworks and as well as managing processes for efficiency as well as the capability of e-Government standards may be deterrents e-Government transformations so as to government processes and services, to achieving harmonised enterprise enable a sustainable connected whole-of- with a specific focus on e-Services that architectures, interoperability frameworks government model. will enable increased citizen participation and an e-Government standard framework Enterprise architecture enables the and attempt to create an open, transparent across systems as well as services provided translation of the e-Government vision environment, through the integration of by ministerial departments and agencies to as well as strategies into effective different government information systems other governmental departments and transformation change at the strategic and services. To realise this objective, the citizens. (government-wide) as well as the segment the government enterprise architecture The objective of various governments has level (such as ministries, department, is essential in order to deliver a common always been to promote the efficiency, agencies) by defining common, consistent integrated interoperability platform quality, and transparency of public and cohesive architectures for the whole- or service delivery gateway for services through the delivery of regionally of-government to deliver these e-Services. information exchange. integrated e-government applications that take advantage of economies of scale. Current pain areas How EA helps in delivering value Only a strong architectural blueprint on an industry standard foundation can pave the • Mostly manual processes with low level of • Facilitates the transformation of current service automation government processes and services to end- path for the implementation of harmonised to-end streamlined automated processes, with regional e-Government frameworks and • This leads to high process turnaround time standardised reusable citizen-centric services, for end-to-end processing of government applications that are interoperable and thereby reducing process turnaround time services deployable for users across regions. Such applications are expected to produce • Fragmented and redundant ICT systems and • Consolidates and rationalises a fragmented technologies with ministry, departments and redundant ICT systems, technologies as well time and cost savings for governments, agencies MDAs working in silos driving their as data structure for cost reduction, reduced businesses, private citizens as well as ensure own ICT initiatives complexity and better interoperability of ICT a greater quality of service provision, systems across MDAs • This leads to higher complexity, higher TCO, including increased transparency for users and a lack of interoperability and the public in general. • Lack of government-wide consistent • Recommends and maintains government-wide Being the provider for G2C, G2G and enterprise IT policies, principles, reference technical standards, architecture principles, G2B services, remote infrastructure models and standards with MDAs adopting reference models and templates in order to their own disparate standards facilitate the design, implementation as well as services as well as business process the delivery of ICT capability in a consistent, outsourcing services, governments have standardised, cost-effective and timely been investing on multiple core business manner applications for various services over • Limited interconnection and collaboration • Improves the agility and interoperability with the last couple of years. This leads to across MDAs so as to share government data real-time information exchange across MDAs, complex conglomerates of tightly coupled in real-time mode with enhanced transparency, better co- ordination and communication disparate applications (interfacing through point-to-point communication) • Ad-hoc reactive mode of decision making • Provides a basis for planned decision making in heterogeneous platforms which made it in ICT investments with limited investments in ICT investments in ICT difficult to manage, integrate, scale-up, and interoperate, thereby reducing operational • Lack of centralised governance to achieve • Centralised architecture governance model in efficiency. the following: order to ensure better architecture planning, Thus, there is a strong need for a business- decision making and compliance of projects with - Plan and deliver EA initiatives that leads to enterprise standards IT alignment through simplified and delay in ICT projects standardised enterprise architecture as well • Improved efficiency and turnaround time for ICT - Maintain and sustain EA standards project roll-out as a governance model that will support EA is thus one of the critical success factors for effective e-Government transformation. Smart governance and technology 7It reported savings to the tune of What initiatives are other 15.7 million USD from moving its governments undertaking ? e-mail service to a cloud-based Across the world there has been a wide solution (recommended by the EA scale adoption of the Government programme). Enterprise Architecture (GEA) and - The US Department of Health and appreciations thereof of the values Human Service has been able to delivered. The objective of these initiatives reuse 16% of its total governmental has been to design, develop, deploy services. and use the GEA and e-Government Interoperability Framework (e-GIF) - The US Department of Education for better strategies, processes, plans, • In recent times, countries in the Asia- reports that development, structures, technologies and systems Pacific region are also on the move to modernisation, and enhancement across the government. The GEA and adopt enterprise architecture in order funding within the IT portfolio e-GIF will be used to better tailor to demonstrate better control as well as increased from 10% of the total IT information systems for government management of ICT capabilities. spending in fiscal year 2011, to 13% agencies in order to achieve key objectives of the total IT spending in fiscal - The Korea Government Enterprise as well as outcomes, and thereby achieve year 2012, through the use of the Architecture, winner of the UN increased interoperability, better asset department’s architecture segment Public Service Award in 2013 has management, reduced risk and lower modernisation planning process. helped the government in the operational cost. projected budget reduction of 400 - The US Department of Treasury that • Governments in North America and billion KRW since the adoption of EA focussed on reducing duplication Europe had already taken the right over the last five years. through its data centre consolidation steps in establishing the EA programme initiative has reported a reduction of - The government of Singapore for eGovernment transformation, 1,283 in the number of servers, an has established the whole-of- though they are at various stages of EA increase from 25 to 36% of operating government EA with the objective to maturity. systems that were virtualised, and a enable the government optimise its reduction in the data centre square • In the US, the US Information ICT assets by rigorously analysing footage of 15,896 between 2010 and Technology Management Reform Act of as well as identifying strategic 2011. 1996, often referred to as the Clinger- opportunities from its various lines Cohen Act, made it mandatory for all of businesses, business information, • The Australian government has 116 US federal departments as well software applications and established the Australian Government as agencies to develop and use EA for technology investments. Programme with the objective to assist IT investment planning and decision in the delivery of a consistent and - The government of Nepal has making. Some of the benefits realised cohesive service to its citizens, and adopted the GEA framework includes the following: support a cost-effective delivery of ICT with the objective the realise its services by the government. - The United States Agency for e-Government mission of providing a International Development has ‘value networking Nepal’ by building • New Zealand (NZ) is diligently working reported cost savings to the tune efficient, transparent as well as a towards a connected government of 12.3 million USD and cost citizen-centric government service through the definition of New Zealand avoidance of 9.5 million USD as through the use of ICT. Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) a result of transitioning disparate derived from the US Federal Enterprise • The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean human resource systems to a human Architecture Framework (US FEAF). States (with member countries namely resource shared services centre, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, using enterprise architecture. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda and St Kitts and Nevis) have established the enterprise architecture framework at the regional and the national level with the key objective of promoting the efficiency, quality, and transparency of public services through the delivery of regionally-integrated e-Government applications that take advantage of economies of scale. (Source: Ministry of Security and Public Administra- tion) 8 PwCThe Open Group Architecture Framework What is the right way to (TOGAF), an open group standard, is the approach the e-Government widely accepted architecture framework architecture? adopted by government as well as TOGAF as the foundation for EA private sector organisations, in both the developed and developing countries Adopting a well-planned collaborative across the world in recent times, for the and comprehensive national enterprise development of a government national architecture framework is one of the key (strategic level) and regional (state, success factor for the transformation municipality, departments, agencies) level initiative. enterprise architecture framework. Government strategic architecture at national level (architecture vision) Ministries, department and agencies specific architecture (programme / portfolio level) Ministries, department and agencies specific project architecture (incremental and iterative) The rising popularity of TOGAF as the architecture framework can be attributed Preliminary to its core architecture development methodology (ADM), a step-by-step process oriented approach that will allow Creating the government architectures to be developed architecture vision A. at various levels (at the strategic as well Managing the Architecture as segment levels) and across various vision transformation H. B. Architecture Business architecture domains (business, data and change architecture technology) that are consistent, iterative, management adopt industry best practices and provides a common language. Designing the C. G. Information architecture Requirements Implementation It has the flexibility to accommodate likely systems management governance architecture future needs of the government in an iterative manner. F. D. Migration Technology planning architecture E. Opportunities and solutions Transforming the government Smart governance and technology 9as the means of demonstrating and Architecture principles Architecting e-Government articulating this vision. transformation The architecture principles reflect the An essential precursor to the architectural vision to support the business Creating the architecture vision conceptualisation of this vision is needs of the government and improved IT The architecture vision articulates the to assess the capability maturity enablement. It provides a foundation for translation of the whole-of-government of the government architecture a consistent industry best practice-based transformation vision and objectives in programme that will enable the architecture, and will guide ICT decisions order to serve the ICT strategic needs as process of goal setting for the future. and investments. well as the directions of the government. EA capability maturity will provide a Reference architecture model It demonstrates a value proposition yardstick to periodically assess and responding to the ICT strategic In most cases, the government ICT measure improvement as well as transformation requirements and landscape is largely fragmented in nature, allow governmental organisations envisaging the future state government distributed with disparate multi-vendor to benchmark the status of current service delivery architecture. solutions across MDAs, each maintaining architecture programmes and their own architecture standards in silos. The industry best practice driven commence the process of improving Adoption of a whole-of-government guiding architecture principles and their effectiveness, or roll-out a new reference architecture model will provide reference architecture models will serve programme. a common, standardised and consistent taxonomy and framework solution in order Architecture principles Reference architecture models to enable reuse and interoperability across • Business principles• Enterprise level reference architecture government MDAs. It provides a context for • Data principles• Data reference model decision making and helps MDAs to develop • Application principles• Application reference model • Technology principles• Technical reference model ICT capabilities in a way so as to operate • Architecture governance principles across traditional boundaries in order to improve service delivery and deliver responsive ICT solutions. Reference architecture models Architecture principles The reference architecture model will act as the template and reference point for concrete realisation of the target architecture development and implementation either within a particular Creating the domain (e.g. application, data) or sets architecture vision of domains (e.g. across all architecture segments). The technical reference architecture provides the foundation that will guide the selection of standards as well as enabling technologies. 10 PwCReference architecture models Smart governance and technology 11Designing the architecture Application architecture • Access and delivery channels • Presentation and user experience • Business process alignment and suitability • Architecture and design • Business process management • Application quality of service Information architecture • Data classification and taxonomy Application • Data modeling & standards Technology architecture architecture • Data life cycle management • Service delivery gateway architecture • Master data and data quality • Application, Data & Infrastructure management Security Information Technology • BI and reporting • Network infrastructure architecture architecture • Document, content and • Data Center Infrastructure knowledgemanagement • ICT BCP / DR planning and Implementation Interoperability framework Business architecture • Interoperability principles • Service automation Business Interoperability and policies Designing the • Service delivery architecture framework architecture • Technical standards • Service integration specifications information, application and technology Collaborative domain architecture. The overarching architecture architecture formulation vision will provide directions and Designing the enterprise architecture guidelines for subsequent designing of the for the whole-of-government involves domain architecture . collaborative development of the domain architecture across businesses, 12 PwCEnd-to-end collaborative domain architecture building blocks Organization or Ministry of finance, inland revenue lines of business department Actors PAN VAT IRD staff applicant applicant Business services PAN Registration VAT Registration (G2C) (G2B) Business process Tax administration process Integration Submit PAN Submit VAT details details (web service) web service Data PAN certificate Tax payer name PAN registration Tax payer address status Application IRD ePAN , eVAT National portal or applications ministry portal Infrastructure Government WAN or LAN Routers, Switch, Firewalls, IPS Email, Directory Web server Database server servers Application and Mobility server Content server portal server Smart governance and technology 13 Security (application, data, integration and infrastructure) Interoperability framework (technical)Business or services architecture Technology architecture Interoperability framework Business or service architecture will Technology architecture defines the In order to achieve the goal to primarily capture the integrated whole-of- blueprint for underlying ICT technical setup an interoperable connected government service delivery operating infrastructure capabilities required to government, it is of utmost importance to model at the strategic level for support ICT application capabilities create an open, transparent, interoperable accomplishing the e-Government vision, identified in the application architecture. It environment in order to help government and individual functions, processes and mostly focuses on the blueprint definition information systems work successfully government services at the segment level in the following domains: together and in an integrated and required to support the service delivery seamless manner, regardless of underlying • Integration architecture required to model. technology or application. integrate ICT applications in order to enable real-time seamless information A government interoperability framework Information architecture exchange across MDAs government- (GIF) is thus essential in order to define The information architecture will define wide leveraging SOA-based approach technical standards that a government the integrated whole-of-government can use so as to ensure that ministries, • Security architecture required to data standards, the structure of the departments, agencies, citizens and securely and economically protect its governments’ common logical and physical partners interact with each other in a business functions, including public data assets required to support business standardised manner. access to appropriate information as services and address data management well as resources, while maintaining considerations. It reflects common domain compliance with the legal requirements entities, their relationships, schemas established by existing statutes and establishes accountability for data pertaining to confidentiality, privacy, integrity. Definition of data architecture accessibility, availability, and integrity needs to be incremental in nature in order • Infrastructure architecture required to meet specific segment requirements. to lay down the network, data centre Application architecture and infrastructure (hardware as well as software) foundation services for the The application architecture defines the deployment of ICT application solutions blueprint for ICT application or service and provide operational support capabilities, their interactions, as well services as their relationships to core business services of the MDAs. It consolidates and rationalises the application portfolio of the government organisation as a whole required to Architecture roadmap support business processes of MDAs. • Architecture implementation strategy Opportunities and The definition of application architecture solutions • Short and long-term roadmap needs to be incremental in order to meet • Strategic opportunities • Portfolio & project charter specific MDA functional requirements for and solutions new ICT initiatives. • Emerging solutions Transition architecture • Initiative identification Architecture and prioritisation• Capability increments implementation through series of • Cost benefit analysis strategy and transition architecture roadmap Opportunities and Transition solutions architecture Transforming the government 14 PwCTransforming the government Critical to the transformation of the government is the adoption of an iterative and incremental strategy for the implementation of the government enterprise architecture. A best practice approach is the formulation of the architecture implementation roadmap that shows incremental progress from the baseline to the target through a series of transition architectures that delivers continuous business value (for e.g., capability increments) with the exploitation of opportunities. There is a need to explore rationalisation initiatives, recommending improvement opportunities as well as solution options leveraging best practices, and the use of emerging technologies (such as SOA, cloud, mobile government and social media, unified communications, open government and big data) wherever applicable in order to improve business value and agility. Also, it is crucial to • Lack of a well-defined scope, with developments in technology and also prioritise opportunities and identify quick limited involvement of the right changes within the business environment, wins so as to gain momentum. stakeholders possessing the right skill and for determining whether to formally One needs to complete the portfolio sets and at the right time initiate a new architecture evolution cycle. and major project charters, with The architecture review broad initiates the Thus, considerations of the following their deliverables being grouped into architecture change management process. critical factors are essential for the success increments and scheduled for release of the GEA programme : Defining a government-wide training within the transition architecture strategy is essential at various levels in increments. • Ensure that the business scope, business the government in order to handhold and requirements and the performance create awareness of the recommended Managing the transformation measures are clearly defined. Defining architecture standards and guidelines the architecture scope is essential Enterprise architecture is not a one-time across MDAs, ensure successful so as to decide the appropriate type activity, but a living and breathing practice implementation of all ICT initiatives and of architectural styles to be adopted that needs to be governed and sustained. to endow them with a proper mindset for (e.g. the top down approach, right Without proper governance government adapting to new ICT initiatives. from strategico segment to capability MDAs can be following its own strategy, architecture) and hence, ensure the guidelines as well as standards without Critical success factors probability of success. The scope must any alignment to the overall e-Government Till date, adoption of a sustainable be sufficiently significant so that the EA transformation vision. enterprise architecture for the whole-of- delivers value and should not be broad An architecture governance structural government has been quite challenging in nature model, comprsing of an architecture with limited success stories attributed • Involvement of key stakeholders at review board and architecture mostly due to the following reasons: various stages are essential in order management processes, needs to be to derive the right architecture • Fragmented decentralised ICT institutionalised in order to review, requirements for the transformation, landscape across MDAs with an ad- monitor and ensure compliance of the critical issues and the challenges hoc architecture development, with government MDA ICT projects (existing faced, the degree of alignment of the limited adoption of a well-defined, as well as new) with the proposed GEA business processes with the ICT systems proven, comprehensive, consistent and standards and specifications. iterative methodology for architecture The architecture change management development across all MDAs process is essential to manage changes to • Limited senior management awareness the proposed architecture in a cohesive as well as commitment, with limited and architected way, and also ensure that involvement of EA in decision making it meets the target value as expected. and ICT investment This process will typically provide for the continual monitoring of new Smart governance and technology 15• Business architecture drives the • Cost-benefits to be considered in the EA such as project managers, development of subsequent application identifying projects infrastructure SMEs, and application and data architecture. Re-engineering developers • Ensure project compliance with of any ICT systems should not done enterprise standards through proactive • Communicating to the stakeholders the without determining the business auditing and compliance review process EA programme needs and its potential requirements and the business value it benefit to be derived, is paramount to • Encouraging continual refinement of will provide. its success. In order to be successful, architectural standards through an • Ensure that the proposed centralised communication planning must be effective change management process architecture governance model has done in order to ensure that the right • Define the right architecture reference appropriate senior-management, communication is taking place at the model aligned with industry trends MDA as well as ICT department right time representation in setting directions, • Leverage the right skill sets in order • Conduct architecture awareness and influencing plans, and approving to expedite the process and quickly training programmes on a regular basis project decisions, and thus expediting get on the right track. This includes ICT decision making capabilities not only those directly involved in the EA process, such as the chief architect • Ensure that major planned ICT and domain architects, but also those acquisitions are to be guided and involved in governing and applying governed by the EA with RFP content to be influenced by architecture standards 16 PwCe-Government transformation: The unified whole-of-government model • Long-term e-Government vision, aims at building a transparent, integrated policies and a strategic framework in Move towards an integrated government with interconnected order to deliver sustainable citizen- whole-of-government model ministries, departments and agencies centric and citizen-driven services Recent trends worldwide in e-Government (MDAs), leveraging the usage of ICT with • Better and holistic collaboration, transformation (as per the UN a single government access point service streamlined processes, standardised e-Government survey 2012) reflects a delivery, where citizens can access most services as well as ICT systems across shift from a decentralised siloed-based government services online, regardless government MDAs organisation model towards a cohesive, of which government authority provides co-ordinated and integrated whole-of- • Leveraging the advances in technology such services. Besides all possible service government model, with greater online in order to strengthen the underlying delivery channels (e.g. web, mobile, social presence contributing to increased technical infrastructure for ICT systems, media, kiosks) are being explored for efficiency and agility, effectiveness and with a focus on integrated service government service provisioning in order transparency in government service delivery gateways so as to facilitate to develop a sustainable government. delivery. online delivery of government services, However, e-Government transformation promote interoperability and seamlessly from the siloed-based model to the share government data across MDAs connected whole-of-government model necessitates the following: Government Single access point for government Service delivery Users (service service providers service delivery channels seekers) G2C services Ministry of finance Web browser Citizens Internet or cellular Government G2B network WAN or LAN services Ministry of health Mobile devices Business entities Govern- G2E ment services WAN or Ministry of education LAN Other public Social media G2G sector entities Single window for services Government Other MDAs eService Government Kiosks Interconnected employees government ministries, departments and agencies Service Integrated whole-of-government model helpdesk Vendors or suppliers Smart governance and technology 17 National eService delivery gateway One-stop national portal frameworkFOSS versus COTS The rising dilemma The advent and evolution of free and open source software (FOSS) has etched an indelible mark on the overall technological landscape and in the minds of key stakeholders. FOSS has brought about a change which is welcome, but at the same time disruptive in nature. 18 PwCFoss development timeline 1995- 1976- 1984-X 1999- PHP, Emacs window OpenOffice 2005-Git MySQL 1983- 1991- 1996- 2003 - 2008 - GNU Firefox Android Linux Apache Project Kernel FOSS has brought us to an era where government sector where in many cases, individuals as well as small, medium factors such as revenue generation or and large enterprises have to allocate a profit-making are not the driving factors certain amount of budget primarily for for IT implementation. hardware and support. However, the rate The e-Governance initiatives should of FOSS adoption, though increasing, is ultimately converge to the single goal of still laden with doubts in the minds of IT enhanced and inclusive public services decision makers across the globe. delivery. In order to understand the This brings us to the disruptive part of dilemma in technology adoption for the the change. The advent of FOSS has government, we can browse through the stood out as a viable alternative for the distribution of technology across various pre-existing proprietary and commercial delivery models of e-Government, where off-the-shelf (COTS) software. This has the target of the all the initiatives is put decision makers in a situation where enhanced service delivery. suddenly they have myriad viable options to choose from. This apprehension is especially prominent within the Applications in e-Government • Citizen portal: Web application G2C • Citizen services: Web services • e-Procurement portal: Web application • e-Inverstor portal: Web application G2B • Customer verification services: Web services • Internal-digital secretariat: Web application • External-financial compliance services: G2G Web services • Digital secretariat :Desktop or web application • HRMS -ESS and administration : Web application G2E • ERP: Finance, asset Smart governance and technology 19OSS technology category distribution over regions Global factors for FOSS adoption 4 3.5 4.1 5.3 1.8 5.4 3 12.8 2.5 2 43.9 1.5 26.7 1 0.5 Performance 0 Security North America Latin America Europe Africa Asia Oceania Lower cost Infrastructure software Increased flexibility Application development software Reduced vendor lock-In Business management software development Reliability Desktop and OS software development Other Source: CENATIC foundation, 2010,report on the Source : Coetzee N. 2002, Free and Open Source International Status of Open Source Software 2010 Software in Africa, Finish Government report • A bottom-up development of these The least penetration for FOSS is found In order to understand the adoption of solutions will require a large amount in the avenues of business management COTS within the government sector, we of involvement of business users, and and desktop OS software development must understand the major technology will also demand a certain amount of reporting a 2.17 and 2.33 average categories that comprise a government technical expertise on their part that is adoption score respectively. This leads us enterprise. These include the following: hard to attain. to believe that the penetration of COTS • Infrastructure software is prominent in these two areas. The • Defined technical and functional reasons can be envisioned as follows: • Application development software teams have been put in place for such products. • Business management software • Business management softwares such development as enterprise resource planning(ERP) • In the area of desktop operating and human resource management system(OS) software, worldwide • Desktop and OS software development system(HRMS) are packaged products penetration of Microsoft Windows, provided by companies such as as the leading OS for desktops as well Oracle, IBM, SAP et al. These products as laptops, mandates the use of have a baseline implementation COTS products. that come out-of-the-box. They are • Across the globe, computer education then customised according to the at the basic educational level, is largely enterprise. At a basic level, these Windows-based in nature. products are ready to be deployed and production- ready. • The aforesaid factors have impacted the growth of Linux as a desktop OS in • These products cater to critical comparison to Linux as a server. modules that directly impact the operations of an enterprise, including financial accounting, asset management, purchase, etc. 20 PwC• A rigorous change management • e-Government context : G2C(includes Important considerations for initiative needs to be taken within a G2B), G2G and G2E FOSS adoption government organisation in order to • Approved budget(AB) : Austere, Legal clarity over FOSS licences: FOSS ensure adoption through user training. sufficient and visionary licences can be broadly categorised • Processes within a government into ‘copyleft’ and ‘copyright’ licences. • Current organisational maturity(COM) organisation are usually well-defined The copyleft licence is provided by the : Low, medium and high and tested over time. COTS software GNU general public licence(GPL) and • Current IT maturity(CIM): Low, implementation will at sometime the copyright licence is provided by the medium and high demand a realignment of such academia as well as foundations such as processes, which might be resisted by the following: • Adaptability to process change(APC): the concerned stakeholders. This is Adaptive, resistive and rigid • MIT public licence especially true for a packaged solution. We have seen that the above parameters • BSD licence • A proper gap analysis need to be are largely independent of each other • Mozilla public licence version executed between the as-is process with the subtle exception of the fact that and the process defined in the COTS the ‘current organisational maturity’ • Apache licence solution. This will generate a fitment can sometimes affect the ‘adaptability • The academic free licence report, and the cost of the gap that to process change’. For example, an needs to be filled in by customisation The distribution of derived work using a organisation in its formative stage will be needs to be justified. GPL license needs to be properly validated more adaptive to change. by scrutinising the licence text. • In order to ensure portability as well We have devised a matrix that will bring as integration, adherence to open Authenticity or stability of the product: out various stages that a government standards needs to be ensured for the Proper checks as well as balances need organisation can be categorised into. proposed COTS solution. to be established within the government The matrix will in turn, transform the organisation or a governing body needs to organisation to a higher IT maturity level, FOSS and COTS adoption be setup in order to review all open source and thereby provide clarity on FOSS and strategy : PwC’s point-of-view initiatives within the organization so as COTS adoption strategy. to avoid the use of malicious softwares We believe that at the conceptual level, the and the unstable version of an authentic solution to this issue can be addressed by product. mandating the use of open standards as the baseline. A balanced solution can be Important considerations for achieved by the proper mix of both FOSS COTS software adoption as well as COTS solutions. Having said so, we will also like to enumerate the critical • Initial and recurring cost involved in a parameters that should drive the decision COTS software implementation needs for the same. This includes the following: to be justified with the adoption and usability of the solution in the short and long- term. Smart governance and technology 21e-Government context : G2C G2C application transformation Parameter AP COM CIM APC Stage Stage 1 Austere Low Low Adaptive Stage 2 Sufficient Medium Medium Resistive Stage 3 Visionary High High Rigid FOSS and COTS adoption roadmap for a G2C initiative Reconsider product stack Consider the Monitor for viablity scalability of a bespoke Identify development components to using COTS scale up Design and develop a custom solution using FOSS stack Our experience The aforesaid scenario has been implemented in the G2C portal and services of one of our clients. The FOSS solution that was implemented initially Initial FOSS stack Alfresco performance issue Evaluation of COTS ECM had an enterprise content management • JBoss AS • Large volume • Oracle UCM • MySQL(DB) • Client had a community (ECM) component. This component was • IBM Filenet • Alfresco licence and no enterprise • Documentum gradually loaded with a considerable • Community(ECM) support number of documents and started facing • JasperReport performance issues. A COTS ECM product was envisaged and reviewed at this point of time, since the application was mature by then, and usability and citizen engagement issues were decimated. ECM evolution stages 22 PwC Transformation

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